Abstract

Unlike capillary resonance by Rayleigh (Proc. R. Soc. London 29, 71 (1879) [CrossRef]  ) and optical resonance by Ashkin (Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977) [CrossRef]  ), acoustic resonance in fluid droplets has rarely been studied. Here we use droplets and optically excite and interrogate their acoustic resonances at a rate 1000 times faster than their capillary oscillation. We observe acoustical vibrations at 40 MHz that start at an optical threshold of 68 μW. Their high optical quality factor suggests that droplets might also exhibit continuous-time optical nonlinearities and opto-capillary interactions. We believe that our work will enable photonic MEMS and droplet optomechanics in devices made strictly of liquid.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2013 (2)

G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, Phys. Rev. A 81, 043828 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

C. Dong, C. Zou, J. Cui, Y. Yang, Z. Han, and G. Guo, Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 299 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Tomes, K. J. Vahala, and T. Carmon, Opt. Express 17, 19160 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Jayich, J. Sankey, B. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. Thompson, S. Girvin, A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. Harris, New J. Phys. 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (6)

M. Hossein-Zadeh and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 14, 10800 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Rokhsari, T. Kippenberg, T. Carmon, and K. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 96 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, Nature 444, 71 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. LaHaye, A. Armour, A. Clerk, M. Blencowe, and K. Schwab, Nature 443, 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Kleckner and D. Bouwmeester, Nature 444, 75 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, T. Kippenberg, L. Yang, H. Rokhsari, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, Opt. Express 13, 3558 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Rokhsari, T. Kippenberg, T. Carmon, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 13, 5293 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[Crossref]

1881 (1)

H. Lamb, Proc. London Math. Soc. s1-13, 189 (1881).
[Crossref]

1879 (1)

Rayleigh, Proc. R. Soc. London 29, 71 (1879).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, Nature 444, 71 (2006).
[Crossref]

Armour, A.

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. LaHaye, A. Armour, A. Clerk, M. Blencowe, and K. Schwab, Nature 443, 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bahl, G.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bäuerle, D.

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Birks, T.

Blaser, F.

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blencowe, M.

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. LaHaye, A. Armour, A. Clerk, M. Blencowe, and K. Schwab, Nature 443, 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Böhm, H.

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Kleckner and D. Bouwmeester, Nature 444, 75 (2006).
[Crossref]

Briant, T.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, Nature 444, 71 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brochard-Wyart, F.

P.-G. De Gennes, F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quéré, Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves (Springer, 2004).

Buu, O.

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. LaHaye, A. Armour, A. Clerk, M. Blencowe, and K. Schwab, Nature 443, 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carmon, T.

S. Kaminski, L. L. Martin, and T. Carmon, Opt. Express 23, 28914 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Tomes, K. J. Vahala, and T. Carmon, Opt. Express 17, 19160 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123901 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Rokhsari, T. Kippenberg, T. Carmon, and K. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 96 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Rokhsari, T. Kippenberg, T. Carmon, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 13, 5293 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, T. Kippenberg, L. Yang, H. Rokhsari, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, Opt. Express 13, 3558 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, Opt. Express 12, 4742 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Maayani, L. L. Martin, and T. Carmon, arXiv:1508.03973 (2015).

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, R.

Cheung, G.

Clerk, A.

A. Jayich, J. Sankey, B. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. Thompson, S. Girvin, A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. Harris, New J. Phys. 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. LaHaye, A. Armour, A. Clerk, M. Blencowe, and K. Schwab, Nature 443, 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cohadon, P.-F.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, Nature 444, 71 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

De Gennes, P.-G.

P.-G. De Gennes, F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quéré, Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves (Springer, 2004).

Dong, C.

Dumeige, Y.

S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, Phys. Rev. A 81, 043828 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J.

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[Crossref]

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Y. Fainman, L. P. Lee, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Optofluidics: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

Fan, X.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[Crossref]

Féron, P.

S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, Phys. Rev. A 81, 043828 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Girvin, S.

A. Jayich, J. Sankey, B. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. Thompson, S. Girvin, A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. Harris, New J. Phys. 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Guo, G.

Han, Z.

Harris, J.

A. Jayich, J. Sankey, B. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. Thompson, S. Girvin, A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. Harris, New J. Phys. 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heidmann, A.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, Nature 444, 71 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hertzberg, J.

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jacques, F.

Jayich, A.

A. Jayich, J. Sankey, B. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. Thompson, S. Girvin, A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. Harris, New J. Phys. 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jonáš, A.

Kaminski, S.

Karadag, Y.

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).

Kippenberg, T.

H. Rokhsari, T. Kippenberg, T. Carmon, and K. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 96 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Rokhsari, T. Kippenberg, T. Carmon, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 13, 5293 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, T. Kippenberg, L. Yang, H. Rokhsari, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, Opt. Express 13, 3558 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kiraz, A.

Kleckner, D.

D. Kleckner and D. Bouwmeester, Nature 444, 75 (2006).
[Crossref]

Knight, J.

LaHaye, M.

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. LaHaye, A. Armour, A. Clerk, M. Blencowe, and K. Schwab, Nature 443, 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lamb, H.

H. Lamb, Proc. London Math. Soc. s1-13, 189 (1881).
[Crossref]

Landau, L.

L. Landau and E. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, Course of Theoretical Physics, (Pergamon, 1987), Vol. 6, pp. 227–229.

Langer, G.

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, L. P.

Y. Fainman, L. P. Lee, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Optofluidics: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

Lee, W.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).

Lifshitz, E.

L. Landau and E. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, Course of Theoretical Physics, (Pergamon, 1987), Vol. 6, pp. 227–229.

Liu, J.

G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Long, M.

Maayani, S.

S. Maayani, L. L. Martin, and T. Carmon, arXiv:1508.03973 (2015).

Maleki, L.

Marquardt, F.

A. Jayich, J. Sankey, B. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. Thompson, S. Girvin, A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. Harris, New J. Phys. 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martin, L. L.

S. Kaminski, L. L. Martin, and T. Carmon, Opt. Express 23, 28914 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Maayani, L. L. Martin, and T. Carmon, arXiv:1508.03973 (2015).

Matsko, A. B.

Mestre, M.

Mitsui, T.

T. Mitsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8345 (2004).
[Crossref]

Naik, A.

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. LaHaye, A. Armour, A. Clerk, M. Blencowe, and K. Schwab, Nature 443, 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paternostro, M.

S. Gigan, H. Böhm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. Hertzberg, K. Schwab, D. Bäuerle, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 444, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pinard, M.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, Nature 444, 71 (2006).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Y. Fainman, L. P. Lee, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Optofluidics: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

Quéré, D.

P.-G. De Gennes, F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quéré, Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves (Springer, 2004).

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Proc. R. Soc. London 29, 71 (1879).
[Crossref]

Rokhsari, H.

H. Rokhsari, T. Kippenberg, T. Carmon, and K. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 96 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Rokhsari, T. Kippenberg, T. Carmon, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 13, 5293 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, T. Kippenberg, L. Yang, H. Rokhsari, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, Opt. Express 13, 3558 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sankey, J.

A. Jayich, J. Sankey, B. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. Thompson, S. Girvin, A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. Harris, New J. Phys. 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Scherer, A.

T. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schwab, K.

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. LaHaye, A. Armour, A. Clerk, M. Blencowe, and K. Schwab, Nature 443, 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

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Nanophotonics (1)

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, Nanophotonics 1, 267 (2012).
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G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).

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F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
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X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
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Y. Fainman, L. P. Lee, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Optofluidics: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Theory of droplet’s modes: comparison between (a) a capillary mode and (b) its acoustical correspondent of a liquid sphere in air. The outer circle represents the boundary of the sphere at equilibrium state and the color represents pressure. The liquid is silicone oil as in the experiments here. The capillary mode was analytically calculated [1] and the acoustical mode was numerically calculated using a finite-element method [Comsol].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental setup: a tunable laser is evanescently coupled, via a tapered fiber, to an optical whispering gallery mode (red ring) of a droplet resonator. The blue cylinder represents a silica stem that holds the transparent oil. Change in colors and deformation represents the exaggerated shape of the droplet acoustic mode. (b) Experimental results: ring down signal from a 60 μm oil droplet (red points) together with a fit predicted by the rate equation (solid blue line). We plotted the peaks of the signal as a function of time on a semilogarithmic scale, and used linear regression (inset) for extracting the life time of the photon. Its coefficient of determination, R2, equals 0.98.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results: showing transmission changes by scanning the laser through resonance. A cavity ring down is observed in the sharp peak, and is followed by mechanical oscillations (enlarged in the inset). The frequency of the ring down is different from the frequency in the oscillations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results: (a) droplet’s micrograph next to one of its calculated acoustical modes. More than 99% of the acoustical energy is found in the liquid, (b) oscillations signal for each droplet in the time domain, (c) oscillations signal for each droplet in the frequency domain where up to five harmonics are seen. The diameters of our droplets were 40±2μm, 50±2μm, and 75±2μm, where the error is set by the resolution of our microscope. The calculated frequencies are 37.54, 20.57, and 12.45 MHz, which are within 5% difference from the experimentally measured rates.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimentally measured mechanical quality factor and threshold. (a) Lorentzian fits to the mechanical power spectrum at 3 input powers; green, red, and black correspond to 28±1μW, 31±1μW, and 34±1μW with linewidths of 253±15kHz, 126±9kHz, and 72±5kHz, respectively. The droplet diameter was 60 μm. (b) A graph of the mechanical power out versus the optical power, and linear fits for under and over threshold regimes, indicating a 68 μW threshold. The droplet diameter was 40 μm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f=2γπ2ρr3,
f=1.3Bπ2ρr2,
Qm=π/(αλ),
α=ω22ρc3(43η+ζ),

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