Abstract

Characterization of large-area thin films with atomic-scale resolution is challenging but in great demand for diverse applications (e.g., nanotechnology and sensing). Here, we use the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) method to characterize both the thickness and refractive index of chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD)-grown graphene films. The measured refractive index and extinction coefficient values of the CVD-grown graphene monolayer at 670 nm wavelength are 3.135 and 0.897, respectively. Our results demonstrate that SPR shifts generated by graphene films are large (i.e., 1°/nm), almost tenfold larger than that observed in SPR measurements of organic monolayers. We find that this significantly large SPR shift easily enables the thickness of a large area sample (i.e., mm2) to be determined with subnanometer-scale resolution. We show that the SPR method can identify thickness of different graphene layers and give an estimate of 0.37  nm for the thickness of the CVD-grown graphene layer, which agrees extremely well with the 0.335 nm reported for layer-to-layer carbon atom distance of graphite crystals. Our results open the avenue to fast and cost-effective simultaneous characterization of various parameters (including thickness and optical constants) of thin films at the atomic-scale resolution. The presented characterization method can be applied both to physical characterizations of various two-dimensional layered materials as well as to the use of these layered materials for biosensing applications as shown earlier, due to the favorable properties of graphene plasmons.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. L. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. T. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7, 4598–4810 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349, 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Granqvist, M. Yliperttula, S. Valimäki, P. Pulkkinen, H. Tenhu, and T. Viitala, “Control of the morphology of lipid layers by substrate surface chemistry,” Langmuir 30, 2799–2809 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Cheon, K. D. Kihm, H. Kim, G. Lim, J. S. Park, and J. S. Lee, “How to reliably determine the complex refractive index (RI) of graphene by using two independent measurement constraints,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6364 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

S. Szunerits, N. Maalouli, E. Wijaya, J. P. Vilcot, and R. Boukherroub, “Recent advances in the development of graphene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) interfaces,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405, 1435–1443 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Subramanian, A. Lesniewski, I. Kaminska, A. Vlandas, A. Vasilescu, J. Niedziolka-Jonsson, E. Pichonat, H. Happy, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Lysozyme detection on aptamer functionalized graphene-coated SPR interfaces,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 239–243 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Granqvist, H. Liang, T. Laurila, J. Sadowski, M. Yliperttula, and T. Viitala, “Characterizing ultrathin and thick organic layers by surface plasmon resonance three-wavelength and waveguide mode analysis,” Langmuir 29, 8561–8571 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kontturi, E. Kontturi, and J. Laine, “Specific water uptake of thin films from nanofibrillar cellulose,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 13655–13663 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Malmström, M. K. Nieuwoudt, L. T. Strover, A. Hackett, O. Laita, M. A. Brimble, D. E. Williams, and J. Travas-Sejdic, “Grafting from poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): a simple route to versatile electrically addressable surfaces,” Macromolecules 46, 4955–4965 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mertens, A. L. Eiden, D. O. Sigle, F. Huang, A. Lombardo, Z. Sun, R. S. Sundaram, A. Colli, C. Tserkezis, J. Aizpurua, S. Milana, A. C. Ferrari, and J. J. Baumberg, “Controlling subnanometer gaps in plasmonic dimers using graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 5033–5038 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

T. L. Burnett, R. Yakimova, and O. Kazakova, “Identification of epitaxial graphene domains and adsorbed species in ambient conditions using quantified topography measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054308 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Salihoglu, S. Balci, and C. Kocabas, “Plasmon-polaritons on graphene–metal surface and their use in biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 213110 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lomabardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. Hight Walker, Z. Liu, L. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5, 9144–9153 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

J. W. Weber, V. E. Calado, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Optical constants of graphene measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 091904 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. J. Nelson, V. K. Kamineni, T. Zhang, E. S. Comfort, J. U. Lee, and A. C. Diebold, “Optical properties of large-area polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253110 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, H. S. Chu, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Highly sensitive graphene biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express 18, 14395–14400 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031901 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (7)

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321, 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun. 146, 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Wang, Z. Ni, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, H. Wang, Y. Wu, W. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Raman studies of monolayer graphene: the substrate effect,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10637–10640 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, W. Ren, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “Total color difference for rapid and accurate identification of graphene,” ACS Nano 2, 1625–1633 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. A. Obraztsova, A. V. Osadchy, E. D. Obraztsova, S. Lefrant, and I. V. Yaminsky, “Statistical analysis of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy data for estimation of graphene layer numbers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 245, 2055–2059 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Y. P. Chen, and D. D. Nolte, “Strong anomalous optical dispersion of graphene: complex refractive index measured by Picometrology,” Opt. Express 16, 22105–22112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7, 2758–2763 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
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2005 (2)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10451–10453 (2005).
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2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
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1999 (1)

A. B. Djurišić and E. H. Li, “Optical properties of graphite,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7404–7410 (1999).
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1995 (1)

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A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. L. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. T. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7, 4598–4810 (2015).
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A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 902–907 (2008).
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Barbone, M.

A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. L. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. T. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7, 4598–4810 (2015).
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Basko, D. M.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 235–246 (2013).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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J. Mertens, A. L. Eiden, D. O. Sigle, F. Huang, A. Lombardo, Z. Sun, R. S. Sundaram, A. Colli, C. Tserkezis, J. Aizpurua, S. Milana, A. C. Ferrari, and J. J. Baumberg, “Controlling subnanometer gaps in plasmonic dimers using graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 5033–5038 (2013).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
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V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
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A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. L. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. T. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7, 4598–4810 (2015).
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Blake, P.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
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P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
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A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. L. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. T. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7, 4598–4810 (2015).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
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P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Optical image of one of the studied Al 2 O 3 sensors. Dashed gray box outlines the 1L thick graphene film. Inset: schematically drawn illustration showing the cross-section of the Al 2 O 3 sensor along the blue line. Note that in the Au-coated sensors the Al 2 O 3 layer was missing. (b) and (c) Schematic illustration of the Kretschmann configuration used in the SPR measurements. During the measurements, the sensor is attached to the prism with the graphene layer on the opposite side of the incident light ( k ¯ ). (b) When the projected wave vector ( k ¯ x ) of the incident light does not match the wave vector of surface plasmon ( k ¯ SP ), no excitation occurs. (c) However, at a certain incident light angle ( θ ), the projected wave vector of the incident light matches the wave vector of surface plasmons, which depends on the wavelength of light and the dielectric properties of the prism ( ϵ 0 ) , metal layer ( ϵ 2 ) , and the surrounding medium ( ϵ 1 ) .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Raman spectra of transferred graphene layers on Bionavis Al 2 O 3 -coated SPR sensors: as-grown on Copper (green curve), 1-layer (1L) graphene on SPR sensor (blue curve), 2-layer (2L) graphene on SPR sensor (magenta curve), and 3-layer (3L) graphene on SPR sensor (red curve). The fluorescence background has been subtracted from the measured Raman spectra for easier comparison. (b) Integrated intensity ratio between 2D and G peaks and (c) the 2D Raman peak position as a function of the number of transfers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SPR curves on [(a) and (c)] Al 2 O 3 and [(b) and (d)] Au sensors. The fits (dashed red curves) have been performed separately for each measurement. The laser excitation wavelength is 670 nm in (a) and (b) and 785 nm in (c) and (d).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) AFM image of the edge of the transferred graphene layer on the Al 2 O 3 sensor and (b) the side profile along the blue line. The height scale in the AFM image corresponds to a 40 nm difference.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Obtained layer thicknesses as a function of the number of graphene transfers on the Al 2 O 3 -coated SPR sensors.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. SPR Angle Shifts of Various Materials

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Table 2. SPR Analysis Results of the Graphene Layers

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Table 3. Comparison between the Complex Refractive Index of Graphene Measured at 670 nm Using Different Methods a

Equations (5)

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ϵ = ϵ + i ϵ ,
n ˜ = n + i k ,
n ˜ = ϵ ,
ϵ = n 2 + k 2 .
ω c ϵ 0 sin θ = ω c ϵ 1 ϵ 2 ϵ 1 + ϵ 2 ,

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