Abstract

Nonlinear interactions between ultrashort optical waveforms and solids can be used to induce and steer electric currents on femtosecond (fs) timescales, holding promise for electronic signal processing at PHz (1015  Hz) frequencies [Nature 493, 70 (2013)]. So far, this approach has been limited to insulators, requiring extreme peak electric fields (>1  V/Å) and intensities (>1013  W/cm2). Here, we show all-optical generation and control of electric currents in a semiconductor relevant for high-speed and high-power (opto)electronics, gallium nitride (GaN), within an optical cycle and on a timescale shorter than 2 fs, at intensities at least an order of magnitude lower than those required for dielectrics. Our approach opens the door to PHz electronics and metrology, applicable to low-power (non-amplified) laser pulses, and may lead to future applications in semiconductor and (photonic) integrated circuit technologies.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

O. Kwon, T. Paasch-Colberg, V. Apalkov, B. K. Kim, J. J. Kim, M. I. Stockman, and D. Kim, Sci. Rep. 6, 21272 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Wismer, S. Y. Kruchinin, M. Ciappina, M. I. Stockman, and V. S. Yakovlev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 197401 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, T. Yamaguchi, A. Suda, and H. Gotoh, Nat. Phys. 12, 741 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, Science 346, 1348 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, O. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Muhlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kubel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, Nat. Photonics 8, 214 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Y. Kruchinin, M. Korbman, and V. S. Yakovlev, Phys. Rev. B 87, 115201 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. Ruppert, S. Thunich, G. Abstreiter, A. F. I. Morral, A. W. Holleitner, and M. Betz, Nano Lett. 10, 1799 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

I. Franco and P. Brumer, J. Phys. B 41, 074003 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. Van Driel, Nat. Phys. 3, 632 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Franco, M. Shapiro, and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126802 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 427, 817 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

H. Morkoc, R. Cingolani, and B. Gil, Solid State Electron. 43, 1909 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Hache, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. Van Driel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Suzuki, T. Uenoyama, and A. Yanase, Phys. Rev. B 52, 8132 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. G. Story, D. I. Duncan, and T. F. Gallagher, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3875 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

G. Kurizki, M. Shapiro, and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3435 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. B. Krieger and G. J. Iafrate, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 20, 1307 (1965).

1936 (1)

C. Zener, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 145, 523 (1936).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

C. Ruppert, S. Thunich, G. Abstreiter, A. F. I. Morral, A. W. Holleitner, and M. Betz, Nano Lett. 10, 1799 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alnaser, A.

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, O. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Muhlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kubel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, Nat. Photonics 8, 214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Apalkov, V.

O. Kwon, T. Paasch-Colberg, V. Apalkov, B. K. Kim, J. J. Kim, M. I. Stockman, and D. Kim, Sci. Rep. 6, 21272 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, O. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Muhlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kubel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, Nat. Photonics 8, 214 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ashida, M.

H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, T. Itoh, S. Saito, and K. Sakai, “Ultrabroadband detection of terahertz radiation from 0.1 to 100  THz with photoconductive antenna,” in Ultrafast Optics V (Springer, 2007), pp. 317–323.

Atanasov, R.

A. Hache, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. Van Driel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 427, 817 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 427, 817 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barth, J. V.

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, O. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Muhlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kubel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, Nat. Photonics 8, 214 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernardini, F.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002 (1999).
[Crossref]

Betz, M.

C. Ruppert, S. Thunich, G. Abstreiter, A. F. I. Morral, A. W. Holleitner, and M. Betz, Nano Lett. 10, 1799 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. Van Driel, Nat. Phys. 3, 632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R. D. R.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[Crossref]

Borja, L. J.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, Science 346, 1348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bristow, A. D.

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. Van Driel, Nat. Phys. 3, 632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brumer, P.

I. Franco and P. Brumer, J. Phys. B 41, 074003 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Franco, M. Shapiro, and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126802 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Kurizki, M. Shapiro, and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3435 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ciappina, M.

M. S. Wismer, S. Y. Kruchinin, M. Ciappina, M. I. Stockman, and V. S. Yakovlev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 197401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cingolani, R.

H. Morkoc, R. Cingolani, and B. Gil, Solid State Electron. 43, 1909 (1999).
[Crossref]

Costa, L.

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. Van Driel, Nat. Phys. 3, 632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deal, W. R.

R. Lai, X. B. Mei, W. R. Deal, W. Yoshida, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, V. Radisic, M. Lange, T. Gaier, L. Samoska, and A. Fung, “Sub 50  nm InP HEMT device with Fmax greater than 1  THz,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM 2007) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 609–611.

Della Sala, F.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002 (1999).
[Crossref]

Di Carlo, A.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002 (1999).
[Crossref]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 427, 817 (2004).
[Crossref]

Duncan, D. I.

J. G. Story, D. I. Duncan, and T. F. Gallagher, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3875 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ernstorfer, R.

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, O. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Muhlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kubel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, Nat. Photonics 8, 214 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story (Springer, 2000).

Fiorentini, V.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[Crossref]

Franco, I.

I. Franco and P. Brumer, J. Phys. B 41, 074003 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Franco, M. Shapiro, and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fung, A.

R. Lai, X. B. Mei, W. R. Deal, W. Yoshida, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, V. Radisic, M. Lange, T. Gaier, L. Samoska, and A. Fung, “Sub 50  nm InP HEMT device with Fmax greater than 1  THz,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM 2007) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 609–611.

Gaier, T.

R. Lai, X. B. Mei, W. R. Deal, W. Yoshida, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, V. Radisic, M. Lange, T. Gaier, L. Samoska, and A. Fung, “Sub 50  nm InP HEMT device with Fmax greater than 1  THz,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM 2007) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 609–611.

Gallagher, T. F.

J. G. Story, D. I. Duncan, and T. F. Gallagher, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3875 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gandman, A.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, Science 346, 1348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gerster, D.

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, O. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Muhlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kubel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, Nat. Photonics 8, 214 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gil, B.

H. Morkoc, R. Cingolani, and B. Gil, Solid State Electron. 43, 1909 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gotoh, H.

H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, T. Yamaguchi, A. Suda, and H. Gotoh, Nat. Phys. 12, 741 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goulielmakis, E.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 427, 817 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hache, A.

A. Hache, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. Van Driel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306 (1997).
[Crossref]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 427, 817 (2004).
[Crossref]

Holleitner, A. W.

C. Ruppert, S. Thunich, G. Abstreiter, A. F. I. Morral, A. W. Holleitner, and M. Betz, Nano Lett. 10, 1799 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holzner, S.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hughes, J. L. P.

A. Hache, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. Van Driel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306 (1997).
[Crossref]

Iafrate, G. J.

J. B. Krieger and G. J. Iafrate, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986).
[Crossref]

Itoh, T.

H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, T. Itoh, S. Saito, and K. Sakai, “Ultrabroadband detection of terahertz radiation from 0.1 to 100  THz with photoconductive antenna,” in Ultrafast Optics V (Springer, 2007), pp. 317–323.

Jancu, J.-M.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

T. Paasch-Colberg, A. Schiffrin, N. Karpowicz, S. Kruchinin, O. Saglam, S. Keiber, O. Razskazovskaya, S. Muhlbrandt, A. Alnaser, M. Kubel, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, J. Reichert, T. Wittmann, J. V. Barth, M. I. Stockman, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, Nat. Photonics 8, 214 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (1832 KB)      This document provides supplementary information on our experimental methods and theoretical formalism.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) GaN surface patterned with gold electrodes (inset: SEM image) exposed to a CEP-controlled few-cycle VIS/NIR pulse with an instantaneous electric field, F L ( t ) . Electrodes are unbiased. (b) CEP-dependent component Q P of the collected charge per pulse as a function of propagation length Δ l in the fused silica wedges and of the CEP change, Δ ϕ CE . Applied peak field amplitude, F 0 = 0.4    V / Å . Inter-electrode spacing: 5 μm. (c) Maximum Q P (amplitude of sine fit of Q P ( Δ ϕ CE ) ) as a function of F 0 and I 0 for 100 nm and 10 μm junctions. Data normalized with respect to values for maximum F 0 . Data for SiO 2 [10] are shown for comparison. Arrows indicate breaking of the scaling power law. Solid curves: quantum-mechanical simulation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Charge-balancing CEP, ϕ CE ( + 0 ) , as a function of F 0 and I 0 . Zero reference for ϕ CE ( + 0 ) is set at F 0 = 0.8    V / Å . Data for SiO 2 are shown for comparison [12]. Solid curves: quantum mechanical simulation. (b), (c)  Q P ( Δ ϕ CE ) for F 0 = 0.79 [B in (a)] and 0.47 V/Å (C). Vertical dashed lines indicate the shift of ϕ CE ( + 0 ) with F 0 . Solid curves: smoothed experimental data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Injection-drive experiment. Two orthogonally polarized VIS/NIR laser pulses, delayed by Δ t , irradiate a 5 μm Au-GaN-Au junction ( F 0 ( i ) 0.4    V / Å ; F 0 ( d ) 0.06    V / Å ). ϕ CE ( i ) and ϕ CE ( d ) are set such that Q P ( Δ ϕ CE ) = 0 when F L ( i ) ( t ) and F L ( d ) ( t ) are applied independently. (b) CEP-dependent component Q P as a function of Δ t . (c) Same as (b), with Δ ϕ CE ( d ) = π . (d) Normalized modulus squared (solid) and phase (dashed) of the Fourier transform of Q P ( Δ t ) , Q ˜ P = F [ Q P ( Δ t ) ] , in (b) (blue) and (c) (cyan). Red: VIS/NIR pulse spectrum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Current injection mechanism in GaN. Charge carriers are created via interfering two- and three-photon transitions between valence (VB) and conduction (CB) bands (blue circles: occupied states; white: unoccupied). Heavy hole, light hole, and crystal-field split-off VBs are shown. Background: laser pulse spectrum. Dynamic phase shifts (dashed black arrows) Δ φ f i ( ± ) Δ φ f i ( ± k x , t 1 , t 2 ) resulting from field-induced intraband carrier motion (solid black arrows) determine whether interferences are constructive or destructive. (b) Applied optical electric field F L ( t ) , induced polarization field F P ( t ) calculated with quantum mechanical dynamic screening model and total field F ( t ) = F L ( t ) + F P ( t ) . (c), Time-dependent current density J ( t ) and electron population in the two lowest CBs calculated with quantum mechanical dynamic screening model.

Equations (1)

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Δ φ f i ( k x , t 1 , t 2 ) = 1 t 1 t 2 Δ E f i [ K x ( t ) ] d t ,

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