Abstract

Silicon (Si) photonics is forming a fabless ecosystem, which is enabling low-cost and densely integrated components for optical communications and quantum information. We present a Si optical transmitter for polarization-encoded quantum key distribution (QKD). The chip was fabricated in a standard Si photonic foundry process and integrated together a pulse generator, intensity modulator, variable optical attenuator, and polarization modulator in a 1.3mm×3mm die area. The devices in the photonic circuit meet the requirements for QKD. The transmitter was used in a proof-of-concept demonstration of the BB84 QKD protocol over a 5 km long fiber link. This work shows the potential of using foundry Si photonics for low-cost, wafer-scale fabricated components for quantum information.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

J. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, J. O. Brien, and M. Thompson, “Silicon quantum photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 1–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 97620A2016.
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J. Wang, D. Bonneau, M. Villa, J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-to-chip quantum photonic interconnect by path-polarization interconversion,” Optica 3, 407–413 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. C. C. Mak, W. D. Sacher, T. Xue, J. C. Mikkelsen, Z. Yong, and J. K. S. Poon, “Automatic resonance alignment of high-order microring filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, “Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications,” Front Phys. 3, 37 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platforms and devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 901–910 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8, 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, and A. Melloni, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2013: toward feedback-controlled integrated photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, T. Barwicz, B. J. Taylor, and J. K. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms,” Opt. Express 22, 3777–3786 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Olislager, J. Safioui, S. Clemmen, K. P. Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Silicon-on-insulator integrated source of polarization-entangled photons,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1960–1962 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1543–1546 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

G. B. Xavier, N. Walenta, G. V. de Faria, G. P. Temporão, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, and J. P. von der Weid, “Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibres with real-time continuous birefringence compensation,” New J. Phys. 11, 045015 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Heideman, A. Leinse, W. Hoving, R. Dekker, D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, R. Stoffer, C. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, and A. Meijerink, “Large-scale integrated optics using triplex waveguide technology: from UV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210R2009.
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, and K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40  Gb/s coherent system,” Opt. Express 16, 873–879 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Nambu, K. Yoshino, and A. Tomita, “Quantum encoder and decoder for practical quantum key distribution using a planar lightwave circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 55, 1953–1970 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 262108 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325–360 (2004).

Y. Nambu, T. Hatanaka, and K. Nakamura, “BB84 quantum key distribution system based on silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1109 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441–444 (2000).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

Achouche, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Ambrosius, H.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Augustin, L.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bakker, A.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Balle, T.

M. Kristensen, J. Maack, A. Thomasen, T. Balle, and J. Selchau, “Quantum key distribution using phase encoding in double-pass silica-on-silicon circuits with grating reflectors,” in Optical Sensors (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SeW4C.1.

Banwell, T.

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Fuchs, C.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
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J. Wang, D. Bonneau, M. Villa, J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-to-chip quantum photonic interconnect by path-polarization interconversion,” Optica 3, 407–413 (2016).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 262108 (2005).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Geuzebroek, D.

R. Heideman, A. Leinse, W. Hoving, R. Dekker, D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, R. Stoffer, C. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, and A. Meijerink, “Large-scale integrated optics using triplex waveguide technology: from UV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210R2009.
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Godfrey, M.

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Gottesman, D.

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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Hadfield, R. H.

J. Wang, D. Bonneau, M. Villa, J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-to-chip quantum photonic interconnect by path-polarization interconversion,” Optica 3, 407–413 (2016).
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P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

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Heiss, D.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Horwath, J.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
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Hoving, W.

R. Heideman, A. Leinse, W. Hoving, R. Dekker, D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, R. Stoffer, C. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, and A. Meijerink, “Large-scale integrated optics using triplex waveguide technology: from UV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210R2009.
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Huang, Y.-M.

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Hwang, W.-Y.

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F. Boeuf, S. Cremer, E. Temporiti, M. Fere, M. Shaw, N. Vulliet, B. Orlando, D. Ristoiu, A. Farcy, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, P. Sun, Y. Chi, H. Petiton, S. Jan, J. R. Manouvrier, C. Baudot, P. L. Maitre, J. F. Carpentier, L. Salager, M. Traldi, L. Maggi, D. Rigamonti, C. Zaccherini, C. Elemi, B. Sautreuil, and L. Verga, “Recent progress in silicon photonics R&D and manufacturing on 300  mm wafer platform,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W3A–1.

Jia, J.-J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
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Jiao, Y.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Kleijn, E.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Klein, E.

R. Heideman, A. Leinse, W. Hoving, R. Dekker, D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, R. Stoffer, C. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, and A. Meijerink, “Large-scale integrated optics using triplex waveguide technology: from UV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210R2009.
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Kondo, H.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 262108 (2005).
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Korthorst, T.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Kurtsiefer, C.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Kwong, D.-L.

Lawniczuk, K.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. De Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the Si PIC transmitter for polarization-encoded QKD. The transmitter consists of a microring pulse generator, microring intensity modulator, VOA, and polarization controller. (b) Optical micrograph of the chip.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of the microring modulator. (b) Normalized transmission spectrum with both microrings set at critical coupling. (c) Tuning of the transmission. (d) Histogram of 8000 overlapping pulses generated by the first microring. (e) Time-dependent accumulated photon counts due to alternating intensities from the modulation of the two microrings. The time bin is 1 ns. (f) Photon number distribution of the pulses in (e) calculated using a time bin of 5 ns.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic of the VOA. The VOA is a cascade of four identical MZIs (labeled M1 to M4). (b) Normalized transmission of each MZI at 1550 nm. The maximum attenuation provided by each MZI is 40.3, 44.0, 53.3, and 46.4 dB. The transmission is normalized to the starting point (zero bias).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematic of the polarization modulator. (b) Normalized transmission of the polarizations versus PIN diode voltage in the MZI, ± Δ V , at a bias of 1.2 V. (c) Total transmitted power (normalized) and power ratio in each basis versus Δ V .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Projections of the polarization states onto | D showing multi-level modulation using the second microring, VOA, and polarization modulator.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Setup schematic. PS, power supply; PG, pulse generator; IM, intensity modulator; AFG, arbitrary function generator; BPF, bandpass filter; SMF, single-mode fiber; TBS, tunable beam splitter; PC, polarization controller; PBS, polarization beam splitter; SPAD, single-photon avalanche photodetector; TIA, time interval analyzer.

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