Abstract

Coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation produced by table-top high-harmonic generation (HHG) sources provides a wealth of possibilities in research areas ranging from attosecond physics to high-resolution coherent diffractive imaging. However, it remains challenging to fully exploit the coherence of such sources for interferometry and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS). This is due to the need for a measurement system that is stable at the level of a wavelength fraction, yet allows controlled scanning of time delays. Here, we demonstrate XUV interferometry and FTS in the 17–55 nm wavelength range using an ultrastable common-path interferometer suitable for high-intensity laser pulses that drive the HHG process. This approach enables the generation of fully coherent XUV pulse pairs with sub-attosecond timing variation, tunable time delay, and a clean Gaussian spatial mode profile. We demonstrate the capabilities of our XUV interferometer by performing spatially resolved FTS on a thin film composed of titanium and silicon nitride.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

J. A. Terschlüsen, M. Agåker, M. Svanqvist, S. Plogmaker, J. Nordgren, J. E. Rubensson, H. Siegbahn, and J. Söderström, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 768, 84 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, P. Salières, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nat. Phys. 9, 174 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. W. E. Noom, S. Witte, J. Morgenweg, R. K. Altmann, and K. S. E. Eikema, Opt. Lett. 38, 3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, and G. Cerullo, Opt. Lett. 37, 3027 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 296 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. R. Austin, T. Witting, C. A. Arrell, F. Frank, A. S. Wyatt, J. P. Marangos, J. W. Tisch, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 36, 1746 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J.-C. Rodier, and L. Nahon, Nat. Photonics 5, 149 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nat. Photonics 4, 822 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Furukawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213904 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J. C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 99, 370 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Kovačev, S. V. Fomichev, E. Priori, Y. Mairesse, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, J. Norin, A. Persson, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223903 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. A. Papadogiannis, B. Witzel, C. Kalpouzos, and D. Charalambidis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4289 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Padgett and A. R. Harvey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2807 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

Agåker, M.

J. A. Terschlüsen, M. Agåker, M. Svanqvist, S. Plogmaker, J. Nordgren, J. E. Rubensson, H. Siegbahn, and J. Söderström, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 768, 84 (2014).
[Crossref]

Altmann, R. K.

Altucci, C.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nat. Photonics 4, 822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arrell, C. A.

Auguste, T.

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483 (1999).
[Crossref]

Austin, D. R.

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bellini, M.

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 25, 135 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, J. B.

J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, P. Salières, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nat. Phys. 9, 174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

M. Kovačev, S. V. Fomichev, E. Priori, Y. Mairesse, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, J. Norin, A. Persson, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brida, D.

Campo, D.

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

M. Kovačev, S. V. Fomichev, E. Priori, Y. Mairesse, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, J. Norin, A. Persson, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223903 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cassou, K.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J. C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 99, 370 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

Charalambidis, D.

N. A. Papadogiannis, B. Witzel, C. Kalpouzos, and D. Charalambidis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4289 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nat. Photonics 4, 822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

Y. Meng, C. Zhang, C. Marceau, A. Y. Naumov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 1661 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, C. Zhang, C. Marceau, A. Y. Naumov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Opt. Express 23, 28960 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, P. Salières, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nat. Phys. 9, 174 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref]

d’Oliveira, P.

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483 (1999).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

de Oliveira, N.

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J.-C. Rodier, and L. Nahon, Nat. Photonics 5, 149 (2011).
[Crossref]

Descamps, D.

Dollar, F.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Edwards, M.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J. C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 99, 370 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eikema, K. S. E.

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. W. E. Noom, S. Witte, J. Morgenweg, R. K. Altmann, and K. S. E. Eikema, Opt. Lett. 38, 3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 296 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fabris, D.

Fomichev, S. V.

M. Kovačev, S. V. Fomichev, E. Priori, Y. Mairesse, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, J. Norin, A. Persson, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Frank, F.

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Furukawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213904 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Galloway, B.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gohle, C.

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guilbaud, O.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J. C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 99, 370 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 25, 135 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Harvey, A. R.

M. Padgett and A. R. Harvey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2807 (1995).
[Crossref]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hergott, J.-F.

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 25, 135 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hernández-García, C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, P.-C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jamelot, G.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J. C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 99, 370 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jaron-Becker, A. A.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Joyeux, D.

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J.-C. Rodier, and L. Nahon, Nat. Photonics 5, 149 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (1075 KB)      Supplementary information with experimental details, and supplementary figure S1
» Visualization 1: MP4 (1229 KB)      Raw image data recorded while scanning the time delay between the two pulses, using HHG in Argon

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic overview of the common-path, birefringent wedge-based interferometer. The polarization diagrams depict the polarization (in red) at various positions in the interferometer. The fast axes of the birefringent wedges are indicated using blue arrows. A manual translation stage is used to control the total optical path length through the first wedge pair, while a piezo-driven stage controls the position of the second pair. (b) Schematic overview of the setup for high-harmonic generation. A lens (f=25  cm) focuses the input pulses in the gas jet. A thin tube (inner diameter 1.4 mm) is used to guide the gas from a pulsed nozzle to the interaction region 8 mm behind the nozzle. A 1 mm aperture (not shown) blocks the near-infrared light just before the aluminum film (Al), while transmitting the high harmonics. (c) and (d) Spatial interference patterns for high harmonics generated in argon and neon, respectively. A movie displaying the full time-delay scan from which (c) is taken is shown in Visualization 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Inset: spatial Fourier transform of the interference pattern of HHG in neon [enlarged version in Fig. S1 (Supplement 1)]. Phase (red) and amplitude (black) of the 33rd harmonic (red circle in the inset) as a function of piezo stage position. (b) Consecutive step sizes retrieved from the measured phase. (c) Step size distribution averaged over all harmonics has a standard deviation of 0.25 nm or 0.8 as.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Interferograms from a single pixel for high harmonics produced in neon (a) and argon (d) with a magnified view of the central part (b) and (e). A Fourier transform of the interferograms yields the neon (c) and argon (f) spectra.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Spatially dependent spectrum of a thin titanium/silicon nitride bilayer with an aperture. (a) Retrieved spectra for both the aperture and the bilayer from a single Fourier scan. In the bilayer spectrum the Ti absorption band is clearly visible. The inset shows a transmission image of the bilayer with the hole at the top right side. (b) The spectral transmission of the bilayer (blue squares) matches the expected transmission of 18 nm Ti on 16 nm silicon nitride [27].

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