Abstract

Imaging of a weak target hidden behind a scattering medium can be significantly confounded by glare. We report a method, termed coherence gated negation (CGN), that uses destructive optical interference to suppress glare and allow improved imaging of a weak target. As a demonstration, we show that by permuting through a set range of amplitude and phase values for a reference beam interfering with the optical field from the glare and target reflection, we can suppress glare by an order of magnitude, even when the optical wavefront is highly disordered. This strategy significantly departs from conventional coherence gating methods in that CGN actively “gates out” the unwanted optical contributions while conventional methods “gate in” the target optical signal. We further show that the CGN method can outperform conventional coherence gating image quality in certain scenarios by more effectively rejecting unwanted optical contributions.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Spectral holography for coherence-gated imaging

Marian P. Shih, Hsuan S. Chen, and Emmett N. Leith
Opt. Lett. 24(1) 52-54 (1999)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7, 141–147 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1, 227–232 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. Yang, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Imaging blood cells through scattering biological tissue using speckle scanning microscopy,” Opt. Express 22, 3405–3413 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18, 12283–12290 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 784–790 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. E. Edrei and G. Scarcelli, “Optical imaging through dynamic turbid media using the Fourier-domain shower-curtain effect,” Optica 3, 71–74 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and I. Zielenski, “3D range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768406 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and T. Scholz, “Investigation of range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Opt. Eng. 51, 061303 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Laurenzis and E. Bacher, “Image coding for three-dimensional range-gated imaging,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3824–3828 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Buttafava, J. Zeman, A. Tosi, K. Eliceiri, and A. Velten, “Non-line-of-sight imaging using a time-gated single photon avalanche diode,” Opt. Express 23, 20997–21011 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1049–1052 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Kadambi, V. Taamazyan, S. Jayasuriya, and R. Raskar, “Frequency domain TOF: encoding object depth in modulation frequency,” arXiv:1503.01804 (2015).
  22. L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. Zhu, Y. Chen, J. Liang, Q. Xu, L. Gao, C. Ma, and L. V. Wang, “Space- and intensity-constrained reconstruction for compressed ultrafast photography,” Optica 3, 694 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. R. Leitch and M. O. Tokhi, “Active noise control systems,” IEE Proc. Part A 134, 525–546 (1987).
  26. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  27. I. Grulkowski, J. Liu, and B. Potsaid, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38, 673–675 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. I. Yamaguchi, T. Matsumura, and J.-I. Kato, “Phase-shifting color digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1108–1110 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. Zhang, D. Van Der Weide, and J. Oliver, “Superfast phase-shifting method for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Express 18, 9684–9689 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. P. S. Huang and S. Zhang, “Fast three-step phase-shifting algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5086–5091 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Buttafava, J. Zeman, A. Tosi, K. Eliceiri, and A. Velten, “Non-line-of-sight imaging using a time-gated single photon avalanche diode,” Opt. Express 23, 20997–21011 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1049–1052 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1, 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Imaging blood cells through scattering biological tissue using speckle scanning microscopy,” Opt. Express 22, 3405–3413 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and T. Scholz, “Investigation of range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Opt. Eng. 51, 061303 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and I. Zielenski, “3D range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768406 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18, 12283–12290 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. Van Der Weide, and J. Oliver, “Superfast phase-shifting method for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Express 18, 9684–9689 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7, 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. R. Leitch and M. O. Tokhi, “Active noise control systems,” IEE Proc. Part A 134, 525–546 (1987).

Bacher, E.

Bawendi, M. G.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, J.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Betzig, E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7, 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blum, C.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buttafava, M.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Choi, W.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Christnacher, F.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and T. Scholz, “Investigation of range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Opt. Eng. 51, 061303 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and I. Zielenski, “3D range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768406 (2010).
[Crossref]

DiMarzio, C. A.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Edrei, E.

Eliceiri, K.

Faccio, D.

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1049–1052 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

L. Zhu, Y. Chen, J. Liang, Q. Xu, L. Gao, C. Ma, and L. V. Wang, “Space- and intensity-constrained reconstruction for compressed ultrafast photography,” Optica 3, 694 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gariepy, G.

G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1049–1052 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grange, R.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Grulkowski, I.

Guerrieri, F.

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gupta, O.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hai, P.

J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Heidmann, P.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R.

G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1049–1052 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heshmat, B.

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Horstmeyer, R.

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. L.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huang, P. S.

Jayasuriya, S.

A. Kadambi, V. Taamazyan, S. Jayasuriya, and R. Raskar, “Frequency domain TOF: encoding object depth in modulation frequency,” arXiv:1503.01804 (2015).

Ji, N.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7, 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Judkewitz, B.

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1, 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kadambi, A.

A. Kadambi, V. Taamazyan, S. Jayasuriya, and R. Raskar, “Frequency domain TOF: encoding object depth in modulation frequency,” arXiv:1503.01804 (2015).

Kang, S.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kato, J.-I.

Katz, O.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ko, H.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krstajic, N.

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lagendijk, A.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laurenzis, M.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and T. Scholz, “Investigation of range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Opt. Eng. 51, 061303 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Laurenzis and E. Bacher, “Image coding for three-dimensional range-gated imaging,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3824–3828 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and I. Zielenski, “3D range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leach, J.

G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1049–1052 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leitch, R. R.

R. R. Leitch and M. O. Tokhi, “Active noise control systems,” IEE Proc. Part A 134, 525–546 (1987).

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

L. Zhu, Y. Chen, J. Liang, Q. Xu, L. Gao, C. Ma, and L. V. Wang, “Space- and intensity-constrained reconstruction for compressed ultrafast photography,” Optica 3, 694 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Ma, C.

Matsumura, T.

Milkie, D. E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7, 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Monnin, D.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and T. Scholz, “Investigation of range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Opt. Eng. 51, 061303 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and I. Zielenski, “3D range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mosk, A. P.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oliver, J.

Potsaid, B.

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Raskar, R.

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kadambi, V. Taamazyan, S. Jayasuriya, and R. Raskar, “Frequency domain TOF: encoding object depth in modulation frequency,” arXiv:1503.01804 (2015).

Ruan, H.

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1, 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scarcelli, G.

Scholz, T.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and T. Scholz, “Investigation of range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Opt. Eng. 51, 061303 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Taamazyan, V.

A. Kadambi, V. Taamazyan, S. Jayasuriya, and R. Raskar, “Frequency domain TOF: encoding object depth in modulation frequency,” arXiv:1503.01804 (2015).

Thomson, R. R.

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tisa, S.

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tokhi, M. O.

R. R. Leitch and M. O. Tokhi, “Active noise control systems,” IEE Proc. Part A 134, 525–546 (1987).

Tonolini, F.

G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1049–1052 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tosi, A.

M. Buttafava, J. Zeman, A. Tosi, K. Eliceiri, and A. Velten, “Non-line-of-sight imaging using a time-gated single photon avalanche diode,” Opt. Express 23, 20997–21011 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

Van Der Weide, D.

van Putten, E. G.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Veeraraghavan, A.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[Crossref]

Velten, A.

M. Buttafava, J. Zeman, A. Tosi, K. Eliceiri, and A. Velten, “Non-line-of-sight imaging using a time-gated single photon avalanche diode,” Opt. Express 23, 20997–21011 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vos, W. L.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

L. Zhu, Y. Chen, J. Liang, Q. Xu, L. Gao, C. Ma, and L. V. Wang, “Space- and intensity-constrained reconstruction for compressed ultrafast photography,” Optica 3, 694 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. M.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willwacher, T.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woo, S.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yang, C.

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1, 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoon, C.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeman, J.

Zhang, S.

Zhou, E. H.

Zhu, L.

Zielenski, I.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and I. Zielenski, “3D range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEE Proc. Part A (1)

R. R. Leitch and M. O. Tokhi, “Active noise control systems,” IEE Proc. Part A 134, 525–546 (1987).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7, 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (6)

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, “Guidestar-assisted wavefront-shaping methods for focusing light into biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 9, 563–571 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2, 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, F. Tonolini, R. Henderson, J. Leach, and D. Faccio, “Detection and tracking of moving objects hidden from view,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1049–1052 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and T. Scholz, “Investigation of range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Opt. Eng. 51, 061303 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, D. Monnin, and I. Zielenski, “3D range-gated imaging in scattering environments,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Liang, L. Gao, P. Hai, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15504 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Kadambi, V. Taamazyan, S. Jayasuriya, and R. Raskar, “Frequency domain TOF: encoding object depth in modulation frequency,” arXiv:1503.01804 (2015).

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (1892 KB)       
» Visualization 1: AVI (19618 KB)      A glare suppressed CGN image is acquired after the reference beam goes through all the permutations.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of the CGN technique. The CGN system uses a laser as the illumination source for the active imaging system. With the presence of a scattering medium, a significant portion of the light is backscattered to the camera that images the target. A plane-wave reference beam, with path length and polarization matched to the backscattered light (glare), is used to cancel the glare by destructive interference. In this case, we step both the amplitude and phase of the reference beam to cover a significant dynamic range of the glare and combine each of them with the glare, respectively, resulting in a set of speckle images from the camera. By taking the minimum intensity of each pixel vector along the time axis of the speckle image set, we can reconstruct the image of the target with significant glare suppression.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental demonstration of CGN. (a) Experimental setup. AM, amplitude modulator; BS, beam splitter; CBS, cubic beam splitter; FP, fiber port; HWP, half-wave plate; L, lens; M, mirror; OBJ, objective lens; OS, optical shutter; P, polarizer; PM, phase modulator; PSMF, polarization-maintaining single mode fiber. (b) Image of the target without glare. (c) Image of the target with glare before CGN. (d) Image of the target after CGN.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Characterization of glare suppression factor. (a) Comparison of glare suppression factor between measurement and simulation results with various phase and amplitude steps. (b) Histogram of pixel intensities before and after glare suppression, with intensity maps of the glare shown in the insets.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reconstruction of the target at different distances. (a) Illustration of the target positions. (b)–(d) Before CGN, images of the target at positions A, B, and C, respectively. (e)–(g) After CGN, images of the target at positions A, B, and C, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of CGN and CG techniques. (a) Illustration of the experimental configuration. (b) Cartoon diagrams that schematically illustrate the difference between CGN and CG techniques when both the target and scattering medium are within the coherence gating window. The CGN technique uses an inverted coherence gating function to gate out the glare significantly, with less suppression of the target, resulting in higher target intensity than glare. The CG technique gates in the target intensity with less preservation of glare. However, the residue of the glare remains higher than the target intensity because of the strong nature of the glare. (c) Original image of the target with glare. (d) Reconstructed image of the target with the CGN technique. (e) Reconstructed image of the target with the CG technique.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ii(p,q)=Itarget(p,q)+|Eglare(p,q)+Er,i(p,q)|2,

Metrics