Abstract

Ultra-short pulses are an attractive way of expanding today’s terahertz time-domain systems toward frequencies above 2 THz, and moreover mode control enables reliable generation of terahertz frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers. We report on a waveguide engineering technique that enables the generation of a bandwidth up to 1  THz and an ultra-short pulse length of 2.5 ps in injection-seeded terahertz quantum cascade lasers. The reported technique is able to control and fully suppress higher order lateral modes in broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers by introducing side-absorbers to metal–metal waveguides. The side-absorbers consist of a top metallization setback with respect to the laser ridge and an additional lossy metal layer. In continuous wave operation, the side-absorbers lead to octave-spanning laser emission, ranging from 1.63 to 3.37 THz, exhibiting a 725 GHz wide flat top within a 10 dB intensity range, as well as frequency comb operation with a bandwidth of 442 GHz. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to optimize the impact of the side-absorbers on the emission properties and to determine the required increase of waveguide losses. Furthermore, these studies have led to a better understanding of the pulse formation dynamics of injection-seeded quantum cascade lasers.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. C. Wang, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Spectral gain profile of a multi-stack terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 181118 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, S. G. Razavipour, Z. Wasilewski, and D. Ban, “An investigation on optimum ridge width and exposed side strips width of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 21, 31951–31959 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8501106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

M. Martl, J. Darmo, C. Deutsch, M. Brandstetter, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Gain and losses in THz quantum cascade laser with metal-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 19, 733–738 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191104 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 16659–16669 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449, 698–701 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M. I.

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. M.

Andronico, A.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arthaber, H.

Bachmann, D.

D. Bachmann, N. Leder, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, H. Arthaber, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Broadband terahertz amplification in a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23, 3117–3125 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Spectral gain profile of a multi-stack terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 181118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ban, D.

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 171104 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, N. Leder, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, H. Arthaber, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Broadband terahertz amplification in a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23, 3117–3125 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Spectral gain profile of a multi-stack terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 181118 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beere, H.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madeo, P. Cavalie, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20, 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bosco, L.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 171104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brandstetter, M.

Burghoff, D.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. C. Wang, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. C. Wang, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
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B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124–2126 (2003).
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Calligaro, M.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449, 698–701 (2007).
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Capasso, F.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
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C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
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J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
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Castellano, F.

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191104 (2011).
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Cavalie, P.

Chassagneux, Y.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
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Chen, L.

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
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J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
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Colombelli, R.

F. Wang, I. Kundu, L. Chen, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Engineered far-fields of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with integrated planar horn structures,” Opt. Express 24, 2174–2182 (2016).
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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2, 944–949 (2015).
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P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
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C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
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P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
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Darmo, J.

D. Bachmann, N. Leder, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, H. Arthaber, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Broadband terahertz amplification in a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23, 3117–3125 (2015).
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D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Spectral gain profile of a multi-stack terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 181118 (2014).
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M. Martl, J. Darmo, C. Deutsch, M. Brandstetter, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Gain and losses in THz quantum cascade laser with metal-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 19, 733–738 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449, 698–701 (2007).
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Davies, A. G.

F. Wang, I. Kundu, L. Chen, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Engineered far-fields of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with integrated planar horn structures,” Opt. Express 24, 2174–2182 (2016).
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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2, 944–949 (2015).
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J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
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J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madeo, P. Cavalie, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20, 20855–20862 (2012).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
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P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
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R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
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Deutsch, C.

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Spectral gain profile of a multi-stack terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 181118 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Martl, J. Darmo, C. Deutsch, M. Brandstetter, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Gain and losses in THz quantum cascade laser with metal-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 19, 733–738 (2011).
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Dhillon, S.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S. S.

F. Wang, I. Kundu, L. Chen, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Engineered far-fields of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with integrated planar horn structures,” Opt. Express 24, 2174–2182 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2, 944–949 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
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J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madeo, P. Cavalie, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20, 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449, 698–701 (2007).
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Faist, J.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 171104 (2016).
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M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, N. Leder, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, H. Arthaber, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Broadband terahertz amplification in a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23, 3117–3125 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Spectral gain profile of a multi-stack terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 181118 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191104 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
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J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers (Oxford University, 2013).

Fan, J. A.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Filloux, P.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
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Fischer, M.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freeman, J. R.

Gao, J. R.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.-R.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. C. Wang, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grattan, K. T. V.

H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8501106 (2013).
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Han, N.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. C. Wang, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hayton, D. J.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. C. Wang, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hovenier, J. N.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. C. Wang, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hugi, A.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jukam, N.

Kao, T.-Y.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. C. Wang, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kašalynas, I.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S. P.

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madeo, P. Cavalie, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20, 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klaassen, T. O.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Klang, P.

Klapwijk, T. M.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kohen, S.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krall, M.

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Spectral gain profile of a multi-stack terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 181118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kröll, J.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449, 698–701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kašalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191104 (2011).
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B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124–2126 (2003).
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H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8501106 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulations. (a) Mirror losses of a 70 μm wide, 13 μm high, and 2 mm long laser. (b) Overlap factor for the same ridge with different amounts of lossy side-absorbers (blue, none; red, 2 μm; green, 4 μm). Solid lines are calculations for TM00 modes and dashed lines are for TM01 modes. The inset displays the electric field distribution of these two modes in a 13 μm high waveguide. (c) Impact of lossy side-absorbers (setback with 5 nm of nickel on top) on the threshold gain for a 70 μm wide ridge.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of a coupled cavity THz QCL device, processed with lossy side-absorbers (3 μm wide setback and 5 nm of nickel) on the long amplification section only. (b) Light–current–voltage characteristics of a 2  mm×70  μm dry-etched metal–metal THz QCL, measured before (blue line) and after (red line) introducing a lossy side-absorber on one side.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Suppression of higher order lateral modes by lossy side-absorbers and its impact on the laser spectrum of broadband QCLs. (a) Typical spectrum of a 2 mm long and 70 μm wide dry-etched laser without setback. (b) Laser spectrum of the same QCL after removing a stripe of 3 μm on one side of the top metallization with a FIB and depositing 5 nm of nickel. The device shows an octave-spanning bandwidth. (c) Spectrum of a coupled cavity QCL device with a 2.93 mm long and 75 μm wide laser section, including lossy side-absorbers on both sides. The black line represents the atmospheric absorption of the nonvacuum FTIR system used (not to scale).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Electrical beatnote as a function of laser bias current, measured in CW at 20 K. The beatnote indicates two FC regimes centered at 395 and 430 mA, visible as narrow RF peaks.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Far-field pattern of a 2 mm long and 70 μm wide laser (a) before and (b) after implementing a 3 μm wide side-absorber in pulsed operation. Due to the suppression of TM01 modes, the far-field in (b) is more directional in the φ axis.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Injection-seeded THz emission of coupled cavity metal–metal QCLs, operated in the AMP (blue lines) and the REF (red lines) modes. (a) Standard device without lossy side-absorbers. (b) Mode-controlled device with side-absorbers. (c) Squared THz electric field pulse train of (b). The inset shows the intensity profiles of the three pulses, revealing a pulse length of 2.5 ps for the first pulse (P1).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fourier-transformed TDS traces of (a) a standard and (b) a spectrally optimized heterogeneous QC amplifier device, driven in the AMP (blue lines) and REF (red lines) modes. (c) Nonseeded laser spectrum (FTIR) of the optimized device from (b) at the maximal operation point.

Equations (3)

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gth(ν)=αm(ν)+αw(ν)Γ(ν),
Γ(ν)=activedzdxEz2(z,x,ν)ε(z,x,ν)z,x=dzdxE2(z,x,ν)ε(z,x,ν),
αw(ν)=4πλk(ν).

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