Abstract

Silicon photonics promises to address the challenges for next-generation short-reach optical interconnects. Growing bandwidth demand in hyper-scale data centers and high-performance computing motivates the development of faster and more efficient silicon photonics links. While it is challenging to raise the serial line rate, further scaling of the data rate can be realized by, for example, increasing the number of parallel fibers, increasing the number of wavelengths per fiber, and using multilevel pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). Among these approaches, PAM has a unique advantage because it does not require extra lasers or a costly overhaul of optical fiber cablings within the existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first fully monolithically integrated silicon photonic four-level PAM (PAM-4) transmitter operating at 56 Gb/s and demonstrate error-free transmission (bit-error rate <1012) up to 50 Gb/s without forward-error correction. The superior PAM-4 waveform is enabled by co-design and co-optimization of the silicon traveling-wave modulators with the monolithic CMOS driver circuits. Our results show that monolithic silicon photonics technology is a promising platform for future ultrahigh data rate optical interconnects.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Modulator figure of merit for short reach data links

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. C. Rosenberg, P. Pepeljugoski, J. S. Orcutt, and W. M. J. Green
Opt. Express 25(20) 24326-24339 (2017)

Silicon photonic receiver and transmitter operating up to 36 Gb/s for λ~1550 nm

Jiho Joo, Ki-Seok Jang, Sang Hoon Kim, In Gyoo Kim, Jin Hyuk Oh, Sun Ae Kim, Gyu-Seob Jeong, Yoonsoo Kim, Jun-Eun Park, Sungwoo Kim, Hankyu Chi, Deog-Kyoon Jeong, and Gyungock Kim
Opt. Express 23(9) 12232-12243 (2015)

Optimization of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped silicon photonic MZMs for high-speed short-reach optical links

Shiyu Zhou, Hsin-ta Wu, Khosrov Sadeghipour, Carmelo Scarcella, Cormac Eason, Marc Rensing, Mark J. Power, Cleitus Antony, Peter O’Brien, Paul D. Townsend, and Peter Ossieur
Opt. Express 25(4) 4312-4325 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
  5. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.
  7. C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.
  8. A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “Comparison of intersymbol interference power penalties for OOK and 4-PAM in short-range optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3525–3534 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Rodes, M. Mueller, B. Li, J. Estaran, J. B. Jensen, T. Gruendl, M. Ortsiefer, C. Neumeyr, J. Rosskopf, and K. J. Larsen, “High-speed 1550  nm VCSEL data transmission link employing 25  Gbd 4-PAM modulation and hard decision forward error correction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 689–695 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112  Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3  μm,” Opt. Express 22, 21018–21036 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.
  13. M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
  14. N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.
  15. T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.
  16. T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–18 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Rosenberg, W. Green, S. Assefa, D. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. Shank, and Y. Vlasov, “A 25  Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. M. T. Pedretti, “Monolithic separate absorption and modulation Mach-Zehnder wavelength converters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, 2007).
  21. S. Kumar, Impact of Nonlinearities on Fiber Optic Communications, Vol. 7 of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports (Springer, 2011).
  22. P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.
  23. I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Shappir, and U. Levy, “Optimization of efficiency-loss figure of merit in carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 19518–19529 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “An interior-ridge silicon microring modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3907–3914 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

2010 (3)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).

2000 (1)

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abbasfar, A.

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, A.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Agrell, E.

Amirkhany, A.

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anderson, F. G.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Anderson, S.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Andrekson, P.

Assefa, S.

Baker, F.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Baks, C. W.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Rosenberg, W. Green, S. Assefa, D. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. Shank, and Y. Vlasov, “A 25  Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Ben-Ezra, S.

Block, B.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bo, Z.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Boyer, N.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

Buchmann, P.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

Catli, B.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Cervasio, A.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Chagnon, M.

Chang, P. L.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chilstedt, S.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Conti, D.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Cucci, B.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Dama, B.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Dang, D.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Delong, C.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Desiatov, B.

Ding, Y.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Doan, T.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Doany, F.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Ellis-Monaghan, J.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Engelmann, S.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Estaran, J.

Feilchenfeld, N. B.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Ferrario, J.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Gagné, J.-F.

Gardes, F.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garlepp, B.

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gill, D.

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Gordon, M.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Gothoskar, P.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Goykhman, I.

Green, W.

Green, W. M. J.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Gruendl, T.

Haensch, W.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

He, T.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Hedges, C.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Hofrichter, J.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Horowitz, M.

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Horst, F.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Hosseini, E. S.

Janta-Polczynski, A.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

Jeeradit, M.

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jensen, J. B.

Jinguji, K.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

Joseph, E.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Jun, C.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Kangmin, H.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Karlsson, M.

Kawachi, M.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kern, A. M.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Khater, M.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Kiewra, E.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Kimbrell, E. L.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kissinger, D.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Knoll, D.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Kollipara, R. T.

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kossel, M.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

Kroh, M.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, Impact of Nonlinearities on Fiber Optic Communications, Vol. 7 of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports (Springer, 2011).

Larsen, K. J.

Larsson, A.

Latrasse, C.

Leidy, R.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Lessard, S.

Levy, U.

Li, B.

Liao, J. T.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Libsch, F.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Lichoulas, T. W.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).

Lischke, S.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

López, I. G.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Maling, J.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Martin, Y.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mazzini, M.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

McLean, K.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Meghelli, M.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Menolfi, C.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

Metz, P.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A.

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mohammed, E.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Momtaz, A.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Morf, T.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

Mueller, M.

Nah, J.-W.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

Nazemi, A.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Neumeyr, C.

Nicewicz, M.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Numata, H.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

Offrein, B.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Orcutt, J.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Orcutt, J. S.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Ortsiefer, M.

Osman, M.

Painchaud, Y.

Palermo, S.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paquet, C.

Pedretti, A. M. T.

A. M. T. Pedretti, “Monolithic separate absorption and modulation Mach-Zehnder wavelength converters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, 2007).

Petousi, D.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Pfnuer, S.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Plant, D.

Porth, B.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Poulin, M.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).

Proesel, J.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Proesel, J. E.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reinholm, C.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Reshotko, M. R.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reutemann, R.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

Rito, P.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Rodes, R.

Rosenberg, J.

Rosenberg, J. C.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Rosskopf, J.

Ruegg, M.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

Sacher, W. D.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Savoj, J.

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmatz, M.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).

Shank, S.

J. Rosenberg, W. Green, S. Assefa, D. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. Shank, and Y. Vlasov, “A 25  Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Shappir, J.

Shastri, K.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Siadat, D.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Singh, U.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

Stayt, J.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Stojanovic, V.

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stricker, A.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stricker, A. D.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Sugita, A.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sun, P.-C.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Sunder, S.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Szczerba, K.

Taira, Y.

T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

Takato, N.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

Takenobu, S.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

Thomson, D.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, X.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Timurdogan, E.

Toifl, T.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

Traverso, M.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Ulusoy, A. C.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Van der Spiegel, J.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Vlasov, Y.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rosenberg, W. Green, S. Assefa, D. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. Shank, and Y. Vlasov, “A 25  Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Watts, M. R.

Webster, M.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

Westbergh, P.

Whiting, C.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Willets, C.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Wilson, W.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Xiong, C.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).

Yang, M.

Young, I.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhi, H.

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Zimmermann, L.

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (2)

A. Amirkhany, A. Abbasfar, J. Savoj, M. Jeeradit, B. Garlepp, R. T. Kollipara, V. Stojanovic, and M. Horowitz, “A 24  Gb/s software programmable analog multi-tone transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 999–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of error-free 32-Gb/s operation from monolithic CMOS nanophotonic transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

A. Nazemi, H. Kangmin, B. Catli, C. Delong, U. Singh, T. He, H. Zhi, Z. Bo, A. Momtaz, and C. Jun, “A 36  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter using an 8b 18  GS/s DAC in 28  nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25  Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90  nm CMOS SOI,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 72–73.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20  Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1 V transmitter in 40  nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13  μm CMOS,” in IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

M. Traverso, M. Mazzini, M. Webster, S. Anderson, P.-C. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, and J. Stayt, “25  Gbaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2015), p. 25.7.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, H. Numata, Y. Martin, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, and E. L. Kimbrell, “Enabling large-scale deployment of photonics through cost-efficient and scalable packaging,” in IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 155–156.

A. M. T. Pedretti, “Monolithic separate absorption and modulation Mach-Zehnder wavelength converters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, 2007).

S. Kumar, Impact of Nonlinearities on Fiber Optic Communications, Vol. 7 of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports (Springer, 2011).

P. Rito, I. G. López, D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, M. Kroh, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, D. Kissinger, and A. C. Ulusoy, “A monolithically integrated segmented driver and modulator in 0.25  μm SiGe:C BiCMOS with 13  dB extinction ratio at 28  Gb/s,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (3739 KB)      Supplemental Material

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical micrograph of the monolithically integrated PAM-4 transmitter. Two directional couplers with thermo-optically tunable phase shifters serve as input and output couplers for the Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM). The layout of the silicon photonic waveguides is overlaid on top of the micrograph. The magnified waveguide sections in the inset show the thermally tunable input couplers and MZM phase control. Yellow squares are drawn around the CMOS drivers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Top-level circuit diagram for the CMOS transmitter driver, which consists of a three-stage inductively peaked current mode logic differential preamplifier followed by a nominal open drain driver. The circuit power supply voltage (VDD) is 1.2 V and the modulator termination resistors RTERM are terminated at a 1.5 V termination power supply (AVTT). The open drain driver’s output amplitude is adjustable using a three-bit digital register (TX_reg) to offset the MZM’s nonlinear transfer function. (b) Transistor-level circuit schematics of the three-stage predriver and the open drain driver for one MZM segment. The current bias of the driver is set by a reference voltage (VREF), as shown in the dashed box. With a 30  Ω termination impedance, single-ended output drive swing Vo of the CMOS driver is 1.08 Vpp (2.16 Vpp differentially).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized electro-optic response of the two Mach–Zehnder segments measured on a breakout MZM site without the CMOS drivers. The measurement is taken with a PN junction reverse bias of 0.8  V, which is the DC offset supplied by the CMOS drivers. The long segment has a 3 dB electro-optic bandwidth of 21 GHz. The short segment’s 3 dB bandwidth is beyond the maximum frequency limit of our lightwave component analyzer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental PAM-4 waveforms at (a) 25 Gbaud (50 Gb/s) and (b) 28 Gbaud (56 Gb/s) measured with 2311 bit PRBS. The ERs between average power level 11 and 00 are measured to be approximately 6.0 dB for both data rates.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) BER (log10 BER plotted in logarithmic scale) as a function of OMAouter for PAM-4 and NRZ transmitters operating at 12.5 Gbaud with 271 bit PRBS patterns. The PAM-4 transmitter shows a 5.5 dB power penalty at BER=1012 relative to the NRZ transmitter. The PAM-4 transmitter tested with 2231 bit PRBS shows an additional 0.3 dB power penalty. The insets show the 12.5 Gbaud PAM-4 and NRZ eye diagrams, which were recorded at a BER<1012. The lines are linear fits to the raw BER data (diamond and circle symbols). (b) BER as a function of OMA for PAM-4 and NRZ transmitters operating at 25 Gbaud with 271 bit PRBS patterns. The PAM-4 transmitter shows a 6.0 dB power penalty relative to the NRZ transmitter at BER=1012. The insets show the 25 Gbaud PAM-4 and NRZ eye diagrams, which were recorded at a BER<1012.

Metrics