Abstract

High-index dielectric nanoparticles support leaky geometrical resonances in the visible spectral range with large interaction cross sections, and find applications in nanoscale optoelectronic devices and surface coatings. Coupling between such resonant nanoparticles in close proximity can give rise to enhanced directionality and confinement. Here, we combine dark-field (DF) scattering spectroscopy with cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging spectroscopy to study hybridization of resonant modes in coupled silicon nanoparticles and directly image the modal field profiles of these hybridized eigenmodes. The DF measurements show a strong influence of the gap size on the scattering spectrum as a result of hybridization. Using finite-element modeling we calculate the eigenmodes of the dimer and identify the hybridized eigenmodes in the scattering spectrum. CL imaging spectroscopy is used to directly map the modal field profiles of single particles and dimer structures with deep-subwavelength spatial resolution. Detailed comparison with eigenmode calculations shows that the measured modal field profiles correspond to the hybridized symmetric electric and antisymmetric magnetic bonding modes. We study dimers composed of large dielectric bars to explore the ability of CL imaging to map highly complex hybridized field profiles inside resonant nanostructures. Our results demonstrate the ability to characterize the complex resonant properties of coupled nanostructures, paving the way for more complex applications and devices based on resonant dielectric nanoparticles.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (4)

J. Yan, P. Liu, Z. Lin, H. Wang, H. Chen, C. Wang, and G. Yang, “Directional Fano resonance in a silicon nanosphere dimer,” ACS Nano 9, 2968–2980 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Bakker, D. Permyakov, Y. F. Yu, D. Markovich, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, L. Gonzaga, A. Samusev, Y. Kivshar, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Magnetic and electric hotspots with silicon nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 15, 2137–2142 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Zywietz, M. K. Schmidt, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, J. Aizpurua, and B. N. Chichkov, “Electromagnetic resonances of silicon nanoparticle dimers in the visible,” ACS Photon. 2, 913–920 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen, B. J. M. Brenny, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Cathodoluminescence microscopy: optical imaging and spectroscopy with deep-subwavelength resolution,” MRS Bull. 40(04), 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

T. Coenen, F. B. Arango, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, “Directional emission from a single plasmonic scatterer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3250 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen and A. Polman, “Optical properties of single plasmonic holes probed with local electron beam excitation,” ACS Nano 8, 7350–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Y. Jia, K. Zhang, Y. Zhou, R. H. Fan, X. Xiong, and R. W. Peng, “Broadband optical scattering in coupled silicon nanocylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 244312 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, T. S. Mahony, Y. C. Jun, S. Campione, J. Ginn, D. A. Bender, J. R. Wendt, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, J. B. Wright, and I. Brener, “Optical magnetic mirrors without metals,” Optica 1, 250–256 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

T. Coenen, J. van de Groep, and A. Polman, “Resonant modes of single silicon nanocavities excited by electron irradiation,” ACS Nano 7, 1689–1698 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Albella, M. A. Poyli, M. K. Schmidt, S. A. Maier, F. Moreno, J. J. Sáenz, and J. Aizpurua, “Low-loss electric and magnetic field-enhanced spectroscopy with subwavelength silicon dimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 13573–13584 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7, 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. van de Groep and A. Polman, “Designing dielectric resonators on substrates: combining magnetic and electric resonances,” Opt. Express 21, 26285–26302 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, Y. Yu, and L. Cao, “General modal properties of optical resonances in subwavelength nonspherical dielectric structures,” Nano Lett. 13, 3559–3565 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Person, M. Jain, Z. Lapin, J. J. Sáenz, G. Wicks, and L. Novotny, “Demonstration of zero optical backscattering from single nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13, 1806–1809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1527 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. J. R. Vesseur, T. Coenen, H. Caglayan, N. Engheta, and A. Polman, “Experimental verification of n = 0 structures for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013902 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mater. 11, 781–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Deep subwavelength spatial characterization of angular emission from single-crystal Au plasmonic ridge nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 6, 1742–1750 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning light absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12, 4971–4976 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12, 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. K. Schmidt, R. Esteban, J. J. Sáenz, I. Suárez-Lacalle, S. Mackowski, and J. Aizpurua, “Dielectric antennas: a suitable platform for controlling magnetic dipolar emission,” Opt. Express 20, 13636–13650 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097402 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (2)

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209–275 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, J.-S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10, 1229–1233 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schuller and M. L. Brongersma, “General properties of dielectric optical antennas,” Opt. Express 17, 24084–24095 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, F. Zhang, and D. Lippens, “Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(12), 60–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9, 3619–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, H. Zhao, Q. Xie, X. Huang, B. Li, J. Zhou, and L. Li, “Experimental demonstration of isotropic negative permeability in a three-dimensional dielectric composite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 027402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4, 899–903 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421, 241–245 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1970 (1)

K. H. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, R.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421, 241–245 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S.-H.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9, 3619–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

U. Zywietz, M. K. Schmidt, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, J. Aizpurua, and B. N. Chichkov, “Electromagnetic resonances of silicon nanoparticle dimers in the visible,” ACS Photon. 2, 913–920 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Albella, M. A. Poyli, M. K. Schmidt, S. A. Maier, F. Moreno, J. J. Sáenz, and J. Aizpurua, “Low-loss electric and magnetic field-enhanced spectroscopy with subwavelength silicon dimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 13573–13584 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. K. Schmidt, R. Esteban, J. J. Sáenz, I. Suárez-Lacalle, S. Mackowski, and J. Aizpurua, “Dielectric antennas: a suitable platform for controlling magnetic dipolar emission,” Opt. Express 20, 13636–13650 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. García-Etxarri, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, L. Chantada, F. Scheffold, J. Aizpurua, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Strong magnetic response of submicron silicon particles in the infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 4815–4826 (2011).
[Crossref]

Albella, P.

P. Albella, M. A. Poyli, M. K. Schmidt, S. A. Maier, F. Moreno, J. J. Sáenz, and J. Aizpurua, “Low-loss electric and magnetic field-enhanced spectroscopy with subwavelength silicon dimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 13573–13584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anderson, Z.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7, 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arango, F. B.

T. Coenen, F. B. Arango, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, “Directional emission from a single plasmonic scatterer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bakker, R. M.

R. M. Bakker, D. Permyakov, Y. F. Yu, D. Markovich, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, L. Gonzaga, A. Samusev, Y. Kivshar, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Magnetic and electric hotspots with silicon nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 15, 2137–2142 (2015).
[Crossref]

Basilio, L. I.

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bender, D. A.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffmann, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12, 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, T. S. Mahony, Y. C. Jun, S. Campione, J. Ginn, D. A. Bender, J. R. Wendt, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, J. B. Wright, and I. Brener, “Optical magnetic mirrors without metals,” Optica 1, 250–256 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brenny, B. J. M.

T. Coenen, B. J. M. Brenny, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Cathodoluminescence microscopy: optical imaging and spectroscopy with deep-subwavelength resolution,” MRS Bull. 40(04), 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Briggs, D. P.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7, 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, J.-S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10, 1229–1233 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schuller and M. L. Brongersma, “General properties of dielectric optical antennas,” Opt. Express 17, 24084–24095 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref]

Caglayan, H.

E. J. R. Vesseur, T. Coenen, H. Caglayan, N. Engheta, and A. Polman, “Experimental verification of n = 0 structures for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013902 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cahoon, J. F.

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P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Deep subwavelength spatial characterization of angular emission from single-crystal Au plasmonic ridge nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 6, 1742–1750 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mater. 11, 781–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. J. R. Vesseur and A. Polman, “Plasmonic whispering gallery cavities as optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11, 5524–5530 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 143103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poyli, M. A.

P. Albella, M. A. Poyli, M. K. Schmidt, S. A. Maier, F. Moreno, J. J. Sáenz, and J. Aizpurua, “Low-loss electric and magnetic field-enhanced spectroscopy with subwavelength silicon dimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 13573–13584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prodan, E.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4, 899–903 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

Raman, A.

Reinhardt, C.

U. Zywietz, M. K. Schmidt, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, J. Aizpurua, and B. N. Chichkov, “Electromagnetic resonances of silicon nanoparticle dimers in the visible,” ACS Photon. 2, 913–920 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12, 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Renger, J.

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mater. 11, 781–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sáenz, J. J.

P. Albella, M. A. Poyli, M. K. Schmidt, S. A. Maier, F. Moreno, J. J. Sáenz, and J. Aizpurua, “Low-loss electric and magnetic field-enhanced spectroscopy with subwavelength silicon dimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 13573–13584 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Person, M. Jain, Z. Lapin, J. J. Sáenz, G. Wicks, and L. Novotny, “Demonstration of zero optical backscattering from single nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13, 1806–1809 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. K. Schmidt, R. Esteban, J. J. Sáenz, I. Suárez-Lacalle, S. Mackowski, and J. Aizpurua, “Dielectric antennas: a suitable platform for controlling magnetic dipolar emission,” Opt. Express 20, 13636–13650 (2012).
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A. García-Etxarri, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, L. Chantada, F. Scheffold, J. Aizpurua, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Strong magnetic response of submicron silicon particles in the infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 4815–4826 (2011).
[Crossref]

Samusev, A.

R. M. Bakker, D. Permyakov, Y. F. Yu, D. Markovich, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, L. Gonzaga, A. Samusev, Y. Kivshar, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Magnetic and electric hotspots with silicon nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 15, 2137–2142 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sapienza, R.

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mater. 11, 781–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Scheffold, F.

Schmidt, M. K.

U. Zywietz, M. K. Schmidt, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, J. Aizpurua, and B. N. Chichkov, “Electromagnetic resonances of silicon nanoparticle dimers in the visible,” ACS Photon. 2, 913–920 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Albella, M. A. Poyli, M. K. Schmidt, S. A. Maier, F. Moreno, J. J. Sáenz, and J. Aizpurua, “Low-loss electric and magnetic field-enhanced spectroscopy with subwavelength silicon dimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 13573–13584 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. K. Schmidt, R. Esteban, J. J. Sáenz, I. Suárez-Lacalle, S. Mackowski, and J. Aizpurua, “Dielectric antennas: a suitable platform for controlling magnetic dipolar emission,” Opt. Express 20, 13636–13650 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuller, J. A.

Sinclair, M. B.

S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, T. S. Mahony, Y. C. Jun, S. Campione, J. Ginn, D. A. Bender, J. R. Wendt, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, J. B. Wright, and I. Brener, “Optical magnetic mirrors without metals,” Optica 1, 250–256 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, K.-D.

S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning light absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12, 4971–4976 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spinelli, P.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stevens, J. O.

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4, 899–903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Suárez-Lacalle, I.

Valentine, J.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7, 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

van de Groep, J.

T. Coenen, J. van de Groep, and A. Polman, “Resonant modes of single silicon nanocavities excited by electron irradiation,” ACS Nano 7, 1689–1698 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. van de Groep and A. Polman, “Designing dielectric resonators on substrates: combining magnetic and electric resonances,” Opt. Express 21, 26285–26302 (2013).
[Crossref]

van der Molen, K. L.

van Hulst, N. F.

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mater. 11, 781–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

Verschuuren, M. A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vesseur, E. J. R.

T. Coenen, B. J. M. Brenny, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Cathodoluminescence microscopy: optical imaging and spectroscopy with deep-subwavelength resolution,” MRS Bull. 40(04), 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. J. R. Vesseur, T. Coenen, H. Caglayan, N. Engheta, and A. Polman, “Experimental verification of n = 0 structures for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013902 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Deep subwavelength spatial characterization of angular emission from single-crystal Au plasmonic ridge nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 6, 1742–1750 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. J. R. Vesseur and A. Polman, “Plasmonic whispering gallery cavities as optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11, 5524–5530 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 143103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

J. Yan, P. Liu, Z. Lin, H. Wang, H. Chen, C. Wang, and G. Yang, “Directional Fano resonance in a silicon nanosphere dimer,” ACS Nano 9, 2968–2980 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Y. Jia, K. Zhang, Y. Zhou, R. H. Fan, X. Xiong, and R. W. Peng, “Broadband optical scattering in coupled silicon nanocylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 244312 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. S.

Wang, H.

J. Yan, P. Liu, Z. Lin, H. Wang, H. Chen, C. Wang, and G. Yang, “Directional Fano resonance in a silicon nanosphere dimer,” ACS Nano 9, 2968–2980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Warne, L. K.

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wendt, J. R.

S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, T. S. Mahony, Y. C. Jun, S. Campione, J. Ginn, D. A. Bender, J. R. Wendt, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, J. B. Wright, and I. Brener, “Optical magnetic mirrors without metals,” Optica 1, 250–256 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097402 (2012).
[Crossref]

White, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wicks, G.

S. Person, M. Jain, Z. Lapin, J. J. Sáenz, G. Wicks, and L. Novotny, “Demonstration of zero optical backscattering from single nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13, 1806–1809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wright, J. B.

Xie, Q.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, H. Zhao, Q. Xie, X. Huang, B. Li, J. Zhou, and L. Li, “Experimental demonstration of isotropic negative permeability in a three-dimensional dielectric composite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 027402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

C. Wang, Z. Y. Jia, K. Zhang, Y. Zhou, R. H. Fan, X. Xiong, and R. W. Peng, “Broadband optical scattering in coupled silicon nanocylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 244312 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, P. Liu, Z. Lin, H. Wang, H. Chen, C. Wang, and G. Yang, “Directional Fano resonance in a silicon nanosphere dimer,” ACS Nano 9, 2968–2980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

J. Yan, P. Liu, Z. Lin, H. Wang, H. Chen, C. Wang, and G. Yang, “Directional Fano resonance in a silicon nanosphere dimer,” ACS Nano 9, 2968–2980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7, 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

L. Huang, Y. Yu, and L. Cao, “General modal properties of optical resonances in subwavelength nonspherical dielectric structures,” Nano Lett. 13, 3559–3565 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y. F.

R. M. Bakker, D. Permyakov, Y. F. Yu, D. Markovich, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, L. Gonzaga, A. Samusev, Y. Kivshar, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Magnetic and electric hotspots with silicon nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 15, 2137–2142 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1527 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Yun, W. S.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9, 3619–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, F. Zhang, and D. Lippens, “Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(12), 60–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

C. Wang, Z. Y. Jia, K. Zhang, Y. Zhou, R. H. Fan, X. Xiong, and R. W. Peng, “Broadband optical scattering in coupled silicon nanocylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 244312 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, H. Zhao, Q. Xie, X. Huang, B. Li, J. Zhou, and L. Li, “Experimental demonstration of isotropic negative permeability in a three-dimensional dielectric composite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 027402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, F. Zhang, and D. Lippens, “Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(12), 60–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, H. Zhao, Q. Xie, X. Huang, B. Li, J. Zhou, and L. Li, “Experimental demonstration of isotropic negative permeability in a three-dimensional dielectric composite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 027402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, F. Zhang, and D. Lippens, “Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(12), 60–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, H. Zhao, Q. Xie, X. Huang, B. Li, J. Zhou, and L. Li, “Experimental demonstration of isotropic negative permeability in a three-dimensional dielectric composite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 027402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

C. Wang, Z. Y. Jia, K. Zhang, Y. Zhou, R. H. Fan, X. Xiong, and R. W. Peng, “Broadband optical scattering in coupled silicon nanocylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 244312 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zijlstra, P.

Zywietz, U.

U. Zywietz, M. K. Schmidt, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, J. Aizpurua, and B. N. Chichkov, “Electromagnetic resonances of silicon nanoparticle dimers in the visible,” ACS Photon. 2, 913–920 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12, 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (4)

T. Coenen, J. van de Groep, and A. Polman, “Resonant modes of single silicon nanocavities excited by electron irradiation,” ACS Nano 7, 1689–1698 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, P. Liu, Z. Lin, H. Wang, H. Chen, C. Wang, and G. Yang, “Directional Fano resonance in a silicon nanosphere dimer,” ACS Nano 9, 2968–2980 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Deep subwavelength spatial characterization of angular emission from single-crystal Au plasmonic ridge nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 6, 1742–1750 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen and A. Polman, “Optical properties of single plasmonic holes probed with local electron beam excitation,” ACS Nano 8, 7350–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

U. Zywietz, M. K. Schmidt, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, J. Aizpurua, and B. N. Chichkov, “Electromagnetic resonances of silicon nanoparticle dimers in the visible,” ACS Photon. 2, 913–920 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 143103 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Wang, Z. Y. Jia, K. Zhang, Y. Zhou, R. H. Fan, X. Xiong, and R. W. Peng, “Broadband optical scattering in coupled silicon nanocylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 244312 (2014).
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J. Lumin. (1)

K. H. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

P. Albella, M. A. Poyli, M. K. Schmidt, S. A. Maier, F. Moreno, J. J. Sáenz, and J. Aizpurua, “Low-loss electric and magnetic field-enhanced spectroscopy with subwavelength silicon dimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 13573–13584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (1)

Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, F. Zhang, and D. Lippens, “Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(12), 60–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

T. Coenen, B. J. M. Brenny, E. J. R. Vesseur, and A. Polman, “Cathodoluminescence microscopy: optical imaging and spectroscopy with deep-subwavelength resolution,” MRS Bull. 40(04), 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (9)

E. J. R. Vesseur and A. Polman, “Plasmonic whispering gallery cavities as optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11, 5524–5530 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. M. Bakker, D. Permyakov, Y. F. Yu, D. Markovich, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, L. Gonzaga, A. Samusev, Y. Kivshar, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Magnetic and electric hotspots with silicon nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 15, 2137–2142 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9, 3619–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4, 899–903 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Person, M. Jain, Z. Lapin, J. J. Sáenz, G. Wicks, and L. Novotny, “Demonstration of zero optical backscattering from single nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13, 1806–1809 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, J.-S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10, 1229–1233 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, Y. Yu, and L. Cao, “General modal properties of optical resonances in subwavelength nonspherical dielectric structures,” Nano Lett. 13, 3559–3565 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning light absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12, 4971–4976 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12, 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1527 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Coenen, F. B. Arango, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, “Directional emission from a single plasmonic scatterer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3250 (2014).
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Nat. Mater. (3)

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mater. 11, 781–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1, 106–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7, 791–795 (2013).
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Nature (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421, 241–245 (2003).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, H. Zhao, Q. Xie, X. Huang, B. Li, J. Zhou, and L. Li, “Experimental demonstration of isotropic negative permeability in a three-dimensional dielectric composite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 027402 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097402 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. J. R. Vesseur, T. Coenen, H. Caglayan, N. Engheta, and A. Polman, “Experimental verification of n = 0 structures for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013902 (2013).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209–275 (2010).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) SEM image of Si dimer on oxide layer (imaged under 52°), (b) FIB cross section of the Si dimer, showing the rounded square shape of the particles and the small underetch. The different layers are labeled. The particles are surrounded by Pt, which is deposited to improve the quality of the FIB cross section.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dark-field scattering spectra for a single square (blue), dimers with various spacing, and a rectangle (red). The spectrum for the flat background is also shown (gray). Note that each spectrum is normalized to 1 separately and displayed with a vertical offset for visibility. SEM images of the corresponding particles taken at normal incidence are shown on the right. The scale bar in all images is 100 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic of the (a) symmetric mxmx bonding mode and (b) symmetric mymy bonding mode. (c)–(f) In-plane cross cuts (xy plane) through the middle of dimers showing the electric field intensity [(c), (d)] and magnetic field intensity [(e), (f)] of the symmetric mxmx bonding mode [(c), (e)] and symmetric mymy bonding mode [(d), (f)]. The particle contours are also shown (gray). The calculated eigenfrequencies are fmxmx=(561+19i) THz and fmymy=(579+31i) THz.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Normalized CL spectrum for a single square. The SEM image of the particle collected simultaneously with the CL spectrum is shown as an inset. (b) Two-dimensional CL intensity maps for resonant peaks in (a) at λ=390nm, λ=430nm, and λ=485nm, (c) |Ez|2 of the vertical electric dipole (pz, left), in-plane electric dipole (px, py, center), and in-plane magnetic dipole (mx, my, right). The corresponding eigenfrequencies are fpz=(826+52i) THz, fpx,y=(807+35i) THz, and fmx,y=(589+15i) THz. The profiles in (c) have been obtained by averaging over the two in-plane directions to account for degeneracy; the field for px,y is plotted 25 nm above the center of the particle. (d) Schematic representations of the eigenmodes.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. CL intensity spectra for a single square (blue), dimers with various spacing, and a rectangle (red). Note that the spectra are vertically offset for visibility.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Two-dimensional CL intensity maps for λ=450nm (left) and λ=490nm (right) showing hybridized modal field profiles, (b) cross cuts through (a) showing the high field intensity on the outside (left) and inside (right) of the dimer, (c) cross cuts displaying |Ez|2 for the symmetric pxpx bonding mode (left) and the antisymmetric mymy bonding mode (right). The corresponding eigenfrequencies are fpxpx=(728+148i) THz and fmymy=(582+9i) THz. Note that the left cross cut is taken 25 nm above the center of the particle, as Ez=0 in the center for px,y modes. (d) Schematic representation of the hybridized dipolar modes.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) CL intensity spectrum for a single bar (blue) and dimer (red), (b) SEM image (imaged under 52°) of a dimer comprised of rectangular particles with 300 nm length, 100 nm width, and 100 nm height; the particle spacing is 35 nm. (c)–(h) Two-dimensional CL intensity map for (c) λ=390nm, (d) λ=410nm, (e) λ=430nm, (f) λ=460nm, (g) λ=490nm, and (h) λ=530nm, showing hybridization of higher-order eigenmodes.

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