Abstract

Ptychography is a particularly powerful coherent diffraction imaging technique. In ptychography, a localized beam that illuminates the object is scanned in a step-wise fashion, resulting in an array of partially overlapping probing spots on the object. The intensity diffraction pattern from each spot is recorded separately. Then, a complex-valued image is computationally constructed from the set of measured diffraction patterns. Ptychography is based on scanning, hence it results with a long overall acquisition time, in the order of a second or more. Also, the scanning limited resolution, vibration stability, drift, and dynamic range weaken the performances of ptychographic microscopes. We propose and analyze single-shot ptychography, where tens or hundreds of quasi-localized, partially overlapping beams illuminate the object simultaneously. Various schemes for single-shot ptychography, in both the transmission and reflection modes, with coherent and partially coherent illumination and for single-shot Fourier ptychography are proposed. Experimentally, we demonstrate single-shot ptychography with a 180 ms exposure time (limited by the CCD minimal acquisition time) using a sub-milliwatt diode laser that simultaneously illuminates the object with 49 partially overlapping beams. Single-shot ptychography, which combines the celebrated power of ptychography with (ultra)fast imaging, will surely open up new opportunities in microscopy.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

N. Rawat, I.-C. Hwang, Y. Shi, and B.-G. Lee, “Optical image encryption via photon-counting imaging and compressive sensing based ptychography,” J. Opt. 17, 065704 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Sidorenko, O. Kfir, Y. Shechtman, A. Fleischer, Y. C. Eldar, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Sparsity-based super-resolved coherent diffraction imaging of one-dimensional objects,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8209–8217 (2015).

L. Tian and L. Waller, “3D intensity and phase imaging from light field measurements in an LED array microscope,” Optica 2, 104–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

2013 (8)

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Pan, C. Liu, and J. Zhu, “Single shot ptychographical iterative engine based on multi-beam illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4845–4848 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, “From grain boundaries to single defects: a review of coherent methods for materials imaging in the x-ray sciences,” JOM 65, 1183–1201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shi, T. Li, Y. Wang, Q. Gao, S. Zhang, and H. Li, “Optical image encryption via ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1425–1427 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Marrison, L. Räty, P. Marriott, and P. O’Toole, “Ptychography–a label free, high-contrast imaging technique for live cells using quantitative phase information,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2369–2376 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Shi, Y.-L. Wang, and S.-G. Zhang, “Generalized ptychography with diverse probes,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Szameit, Y. Shechtman, E. Osherovich, E. Bullkich, P. Sidorenko, H. Dana, S. Steiner, E. B. Kley, S. Gazit, T. Cohen-Hyams, S. Shoham, M. Zibulevsky, I. Yavneh, Y. C. Eldar, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Sparsity-based single-shot subwavelength coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11, 455–459 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730–737 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2585–2587 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Gazit, A. Szameit, Y. C. Eldar, and M. Segev, “Super-resolution and reconstruction of sparse sub-wavelength images,” Opt. Express 17, 23920–23946 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express 16, 7264–7278 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychography and related diffractive imaging methods,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 150, 87–184 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, and A. G. Cullis, “Transmission microscopy without lenses for objects of unlimited size,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 227–231 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4798 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Adams, K. Parulski, and K. Spaulding, “Color processing in digital cameras,” IEEE Micro 18, 20–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

1969 (1)

W. Hoppe, “Beugung im inhomogenen primärstrahlwellenfeld. I. prinzip einer phasenmessung von elektronenbeungungsinterferenzen,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, “From grain boundaries to single defects: a review of coherent methods for materials imaging in the x-ray sciences,” JOM 65, 1183–1201 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. E.

Adams, J.

J. Adams, K. Parulski, and K. Spaulding, “Color processing in digital cameras,” IEEE Micro 18, 20–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

Balaur, E.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Batey, D. J.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

Beerlink, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berenguer, F.

Bullkich, E.

A. Szameit, Y. Shechtman, E. Osherovich, E. Bullkich, P. Sidorenko, H. Dana, S. Steiner, E. B. Kley, S. Gazit, T. Cohen-Hyams, S. Shoham, M. Zibulevsky, I. Yavneh, Y. C. Eldar, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Sparsity-based single-shot subwavelength coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11, 455–459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger-scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cadenazzi, G. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

Claus, D.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cloetens, P.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

P. Sidorenko, O. Kfir, Y. Shechtman, A. Fleischer, Y. C. Eldar, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Sparsity-based super-resolved coherent diffraction imaging of one-dimensional objects,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8209–8217 (2015).

A. Szameit, Y. Shechtman, E. Osherovich, E. Bullkich, P. Sidorenko, H. Dana, S. Steiner, E. B. Kley, S. Gazit, T. Cohen-Hyams, S. Shoham, M. Zibulevsky, I. Yavneh, Y. C. Eldar, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Sparsity-based single-shot subwavelength coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11, 455–459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cohen-Hyams, T.

A. Szameit, Y. Shechtman, E. Osherovich, E. Bullkich, P. Sidorenko, H. Dana, S. Steiner, E. B. Kley, S. Gazit, T. Cohen-Hyams, S. Shoham, M. Zibulevsky, I. Yavneh, Y. C. Eldar, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Sparsity-based single-shot subwavelength coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11, 455–459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, and A. G. Cullis, “Transmission microscopy without lenses for objects of unlimited size,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 227–231 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dana, H.

A. Szameit, Y. Shechtman, E. Osherovich, E. Bullkich, P. Sidorenko, H. Dana, S. Steiner, E. B. Kley, S. Gazit, T. Cohen-Hyams, S. Shoham, M. Zibulevsky, I. Yavneh, Y. C. Eldar, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Sparsity-based single-shot subwavelength coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11, 455–459 (2012).
[Crossref]

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

Dierolf, M.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dinapoli, R.

Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dong, S.

Dorsch, R. G.

Eldar, Y. C.

P. Sidorenko, O. Kfir, Y. Shechtman, A. Fleischer, Y. C. Eldar, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Sparsity-based super-resolved coherent diffraction imaging of one-dimensional objects,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8209–8217 (2015).

A. Szameit, Y. Shechtman, E. Osherovich, E. Bullkich, P. Sidorenko, H. Dana, S. Steiner, E. B. Kley, S. Gazit, T. Cohen-Hyams, S. Shoham, M. Zibulevsky, I. Yavneh, Y. C. Eldar, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Sparsity-based single-shot subwavelength coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11, 455–459 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Gazit, A. Szameit, Y. C. Eldar, and M. Segev, “Super-resolution and reconstruction of sparse sub-wavelength images,” Opt. Express 17, 23920–23946 (2009).
[Crossref]

Enders, B.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4798 (2004).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic setups for conventional (scanning) and single-shot ptychography. (a) Conventional ptychographical setup with scanning. (b) Single-shot ptychographical setup with array of pinholes and plane wave illumination. (c) Ray tracing in single-shot ptychography. Lens L1, with focal distance f1, focuses the light beams that diffracted from the pinholes into the object, which is located distance d before the back focal plane of lens L1. Lens L2, with focal distance f2, focuses the diffracted light from the object to the CCD.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Numerical demonstration of single-shot ptychography using the scheme in Fig. 1(b) with f1=f2=75mm, d=18.75mm, b=1.4mm, D=25μm, N=12, and λ=405nm. Amplitude (a) and phase (b) of the original object. Black dashed square marks the region confining the centers of the 144 illuminating probe beams. (c) Amplitude of the incident field, i.e., the interference of the 144 probe beams, on the object plane. (d) Measured diffraction pattern from the object. 144 diffraction patterns are clearly distinguishable. (e) Zoom in on plot d, showing nine diffraction patterns. (f) Reconstructed probe beam (note the different scale in this plot with respect to the other plots). Reconstructed amplitude (g) and phase (h). Reconstruction is good within the illuminating region (the black square) and degrades outside of it.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental single-shot ptychography. (a) A scheme of the setup. Laser diode (λ=405nm and 1 mW power) is spatially filtered and collimated. The beam illuminates a 7×7 square array of pinholes with b=1.4mm and D=75μm that is located at the input face of a symmetric 4f system with f=75mm. The object is located 18.75 mm before the Fourier plane of the 4f system. The CCD is located at the output face of the 4f system. Measured diffraction patterns with (b) and without (c) the object.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental demonstration of single-shot ptychography. Reconstructed amplitude (a) and phase (b) of the object and amplitude (c) of the probe beam from measured diffraction patterns [Figs. 3(b) and 3(c)]. (d) An image of the object measured by conventional microscope with 10× magnification.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. More schemes of single-shot ptychography. (a) Single-shot ptychography using LED array. (b) Single-shot ptychography in reflection mode. (c) Single-shot ptychography using microlens array.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic setup for single-shot Fourier ptychography.

Equations (3)

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Im(ν)=|F[P(rRm)O(r)]|2.
I(ν)=|F[O(r)mP(rRm)exp(ikmr)]|2.
I(ν)=m|F[O(r)P(rRm)exp(ikmr)]|2.

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