Abstract

Spectrum analysis is a key functionality in modern radio frequency (RF) systems. In particular, fast and accurate estimation of multiple unknown RF signal frequencies over a wide measurement range is crucial in defense applications. Although photonic techniques benefit from an enhanced frequency estimation range along with reduced size and weight relative to their RF counterparts, they have been limited by a fundamental trade-off between measurement range and accuracy. Here, we circumvent this trade-off by harnessing the photon and phonon interactions in a photonic chip through stimulated Brillouin scattering, resulting in an accurate estimation of multiple RFs of up to 38 GHz with a record-low error of 1 MHz.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Filippo, Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems, 2nd ed. (SciTech, 2006).
  2. P. W. East, “Fifty years of instantaneous frequency measurement,” IET Radar Sonar Navig. 6, 112–122 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Tsui, Microwave Receivers with Electronic Warfare Applications (SciTech, 2005).
  4. W. B. Sullivan and J. Electronic, “Instantaneous frequency measurement receivers for maritime patrol,” J. Electron. Defence 25, 55–62 (2002).
  5. H. Chi, Y. Chen, Y. Mei, X. F. Jin, S. L. Zheng, and X. M. Zhang, “Microwave spectrum sensing based on photonic time stretch and compressive sampling,” Opt. Lett. 38, 136–138 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. D. Marpaung, “On-chip photonic-assisted instantaneous microwave frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 837–840 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  9. D. Marpaung, B. Morrison, M. Pagani, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low power, chip-based stimulated Brillouin scattering microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh selectivity,” Optica 2, 76–83 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Marpaung, B. Morrison, R. Pant, and B. J. Eggleton, “Frequency agile microwave photonic notch filter with anomalously high stopband rejection,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4300–4303 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. V. Laer, B. Kuyken, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Marpaung, M. Pagani, B. Morrison, and B. J. Eggleton, “Nonlinear integrated microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 3421–3427 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Rugeland, Z. Yu, C. Sterner, O. Tarasenko, G. Tengstrand, and W. Margulis, “Photonic scanning receiver using an electrically tuned fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3794–3796 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, and R. Pant, “Inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering in photonic integrated circuits,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5, 536–587 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Y. Jiang, D. Marpaung, M. Pagani, L. S. Yan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multiple frequencies microwave measurement using a tunable Brillouin RF photonic filter,” in CLEO Pacific Rim (2015), paper T02_1032.
  16. P. W. East, “Design techniques and performance of digital IFM,” IEE Proc. 129, 154–163 (1982).

2015 (2)

D. Marpaung, B. Morrison, M. Pagani, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low power, chip-based stimulated Brillouin scattering microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh selectivity,” Optica 2, 76–83 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. V. Laer, B. Kuyken, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

P. W. East, “Fifty years of instantaneous frequency measurement,” IET Radar Sonar Navig. 6, 112–122 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2002 (1)

W. B. Sullivan and J. Electronic, “Instantaneous frequency measurement receivers for maritime patrol,” J. Electron. Defence 25, 55–62 (2002).

1982 (1)

P. W. East, “Design techniques and performance of digital IFM,” IEE Proc. 129, 154–163 (1982).

Aditya, S.

Baets, R.

R. V. Laer, B. Kuyken, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chan, E. H. W.

Chen, Y.

Chi, H.

Choi, D.-Y.

East, P. W.

P. W. East, “Fifty years of instantaneous frequency measurement,” IET Radar Sonar Navig. 6, 112–122 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. W. East, “Design techniques and performance of digital IFM,” IEE Proc. 129, 154–163 (1982).

Eggleton, B. J.

Electronic, J.

W. B. Sullivan and J. Electronic, “Instantaneous frequency measurement receivers for maritime patrol,” J. Electron. Defence 25, 55–62 (2002).

Filippo, N.

N. Filippo, Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems, 2nd ed. (SciTech, 2006).

Fu, S.

Jiang, H. Y.

H. Y. Jiang, D. Marpaung, M. Pagani, L. S. Yan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multiple frequencies microwave measurement using a tunable Brillouin RF photonic filter,” in CLEO Pacific Rim (2015), paper T02_1032.

Jin, X. F.

Kuyken, B.

R. V. Laer, B. Kuyken, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laer, R. V.

R. V. Laer, B. Kuyken, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. T.

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S. J.

Margulis, W.

Marpaung, D.

Mei, Y.

Minasian, R. A.

Morrison, B.

Nguyen, T. A.

Niu, J.

Pagani, M.

Pant, R.

Poulton, C. G.

Rugeland, P.

Shum, P. P.

Sterner, C.

Sullivan, W. B.

W. B. Sullivan and J. Electronic, “Instantaneous frequency measurement receivers for maritime patrol,” J. Electron. Defence 25, 55–62 (2002).

Tarasenko, O.

Tengstrand, G.

Thourhout, D. V.

R. V. Laer, B. Kuyken, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsui, J.

J. Tsui, Microwave Receivers with Electronic Warfare Applications (SciTech, 2005).

Wu, J.

Xu, K.

Yan, L. S.

H. Y. Jiang, D. Marpaung, M. Pagani, L. S. Yan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multiple frequencies microwave measurement using a tunable Brillouin RF photonic filter,” in CLEO Pacific Rim (2015), paper T02_1032.

Yu, Z.

Zhang, X. M.

Zheng, S. L.

Zhou, J.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

IEE Proc. (1)

P. W. East, “Design techniques and performance of digital IFM,” IEE Proc. 129, 154–163 (1982).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Marpaung, “On-chip photonic-assisted instantaneous microwave frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 837–840 (2013).
[Crossref]

IET Radar Sonar Navig. (1)

P. W. East, “Fifty years of instantaneous frequency measurement,” IET Radar Sonar Navig. 6, 112–122 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Defence (1)

W. B. Sullivan and J. Electronic, “Instantaneous frequency measurement receivers for maritime patrol,” J. Electron. Defence 25, 55–62 (2002).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. V. Laer, B. Kuyken, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 9, 199–203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Other (3)

H. Y. Jiang, D. Marpaung, M. Pagani, L. S. Yan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multiple frequencies microwave measurement using a tunable Brillouin RF photonic filter,” in CLEO Pacific Rim (2015), paper T02_1032.

N. Filippo, Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems, 2nd ed. (SciTech, 2006).

J. Tsui, Microwave Receivers with Electronic Warfare Applications (SciTech, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Conventional photonic IFM system using RF power-to-frequency mapping and (b) the proposed IFM system using distributed RF power-to-frequency mapping.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Conceptual diagram of the proposed photonic IFM system. ΩB, SBS frequency shift; a, b, measured output RF power; Ref., reference; fc, central frequency of the bandstop filter. (b) The analytical relation between the unknown RF and the RF power change in each channel ΔP(Nfs,fc). (c) The formed mapping between the ACF and the unknown RF, i.e., ΔP(nfs,fc)ΔP((n+1)fs,fc) [dB] in the frequency band of nfs<fc<(n+1)fs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup. LD, laser; OC, optical coupler; MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulator; DPMZM, dual-parallel MZM; EDFA, Er-doped fiber amplifier; ISO, inline optical isolator; PD, photodetector. (a)–(e) The optical/RF spectra at different points.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured optical spectra. (a) Carrier-suppressed double sideband at the output of the MZM and (b) phase-modulated signal with unequal amplitude at the output of the DPMZM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Output RF power function related to the modulated frequency of the MZM at different reference signals and (b) the corresponding ACF based on the measured RF power functions [i.e., P(nvB/2,fMZM)P((n+1)vB/2,fMZM)] in the frequency band of nvB/2+ΩB<fMZM<(n+1)vB/2+ΩB.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured output RF power for inputs with different RFs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured frequency estimated errors of an RF signal in the range of 9–38 GHz; the error is less than ±1MHz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance Comparison of Existing IFM Systemsa

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