Abstract

High confinement, integrated silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides have recently emerged as an attractive platform for on-chip nonlinear optical devices. The fabrication of high-Q SiN microresonators with anomalous group velocity dispersion has enabled broadband nonlinear optical frequency comb generation. Such frequency combs have been successfully applied in coherent communication and ultrashort pulse generation. However, the reliable fabrication of high confinement waveguides from stoichiometric, high stress SiN remains challenging. Here we present a novel photonic Damascene fabrication process enabling the use of substrate topography for stress control and thin film crack prevention. With close to unity sample yield we fabricate microresonators with 1.35 μm thick waveguides and optical Q-factors of 3.7×106 and demonstrate single temporal dissipative Kerr soliton based coherent optical frequency comb generation. Our newly developed process is also interesting for other material platforms, photonic integration, and mid-infrared Kerr comb generation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Epping, M. Hoekman, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, G. Heideman, A. Van Rees, P. J. M. Van Der Slot, C. Lee, and K. Boller, “High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical applications,” Opt. Express 23, 642–648 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

2012 (5)

2011 (2)

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Sun, J. Cheng, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides and high-Q resonators using a Damascene process,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2378–2380 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 11366–11370 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiN x microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. T. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Agha, I.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barclay, P. E.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiN x microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bellutti, P.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boller, K.

Bombardier, S. G.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Riemensberger, K. Hartinger, T. Herr, V. Brasch, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 20, 27661–27669 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, T. Herr, M. Geiselmann, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation,” arXiv:1410.8598 (2014).

A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, V. Brasch, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Higher order mode suppression in high-Q anomalous dispersion SiN microresonators for temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation,” arXiv:1511.05381 (2015).

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

Cardenas, J.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

Coen, S.

Cote, W. J.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Crivellari, M.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cronin, J. E.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Daldosso, N.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Davanço, M.

Del’Haye, P.

S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Parametric seeding of a microresonator optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 21, 17615–17624 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

Dutt, A.

Epping, J.

Erkintalo, M.

Fain, R.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, A.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

Freude, W.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a CMOS-compatible platform,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1685–1687 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gavartin, E.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geiselmann, M.

V. Brasch, T. Herr, M. Geiselmann, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation,” arXiv:1410.8598 (2014).

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

Gondarenko, A.

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 11366–11370 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
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P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
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V. Brasch, T. Herr, M. Geiselmann, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation,” arXiv:1410.8598 (2014).

Griffith, A. G.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Guo, H.

A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, V. Brasch, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Higher order mode suppression in high-Q anomalous dispersion SiN microresonators for temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation,” arXiv:1511.05381 (2015).

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

Guo, J.

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. T. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
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Habermehl, S.

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. T. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
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Halir, R.

Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Riemensberger, K. Hartinger, T. Herr, V. Brasch, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 20, 27661–27669 (2012).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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Herr, T.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Riemensberger, K. Hartinger, T. Herr, V. Brasch, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 20, 27661–27669 (2012).
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V. Brasch, T. Herr, M. Geiselmann, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation,” arXiv:1410.8598 (2014).

Hill, W. R.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Hillerkuss, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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Holzwarth, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Riemensberger, K. Hartinger, T. Herr, V. Brasch, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 20, 27661–27669 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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Johnson, A. R.

Jones, R.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
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Jost, J. D.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
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C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Karpov, M.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

Kerszykowski, G.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Kimerling, L.

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Riemensberger, K. Hartinger, T. Herr, V. Brasch, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 20, 27661–27669 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, T. Herr, M. Geiselmann, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation,” arXiv:1410.8598 (2014).

A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, V. Brasch, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Higher order mode suppression in high-Q anomalous dispersion SiN microresonators for temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation,” arXiv:1511.05381 (2015).

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

Ko, S. H.

K. H. Nam, I. H. Park, and S. H. Ko, “Patterning by controlled cracking,” Nature 485, 221–224 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koch, B.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
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Kompocholis, C.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
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Kondratiev, N. M.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
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Koos, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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Kordts, A.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, V. Brasch, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Higher order mode suppression in high-Q anomalous dispersion SiN microresonators for temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation,” arXiv:1511.05381 (2015).

Lamont, M. R. E.

Landis, H. S.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Lau, R. K.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Lauermann, M.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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Leaird, D. E.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
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Lee, C.

Lee, Y. H. D.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Leinse, A.

Leuthold, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiN x microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
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Levy, J. S.

Li, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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Liang, D.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
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Lihachev, G.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, T. Herr, M. Geiselmann, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation,” arXiv:1410.8598 (2014).

Lipson, M.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
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K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 1335–1343 (2013).
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K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming SiN film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 22829–22833 (2013).
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R. Halir, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a CMOS-compatible platform,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1685–1687 (2012).
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Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
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A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 11366–11370 (2009).
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Liu, L.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
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Lui, A.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
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Luke, K.

Mabuchi, H.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiN x microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
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Mateman, R.

Melchiorri, M.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miao, H.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Mirgorodskiy, I.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
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Mohanty, A.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
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Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
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Nam, K. H.

K. H. Nam, I. H. Park, and S. H. Ko, “Patterning by controlled cracking,” Nature 485, 221–224 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Painter, O.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiN x microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
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Papp, S. B.

Park, I. H.

K. H. Nam, I. H. Park, and S. H. Ko, “Patterning by controlled cracking,” Nature 485, 221–224 (2012).
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Pavesi, L.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, V. Brasch, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Higher order mode suppression in high-Q anomalous dispersion SiN microresonators for temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation,” arXiv:1511.05381 (2015).

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

V. Brasch, T. Herr, M. Geiselmann, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation,” arXiv:1410.8598 (2014).

Pfeifle, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Poindexter, D. J.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Poitras, C. B.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming SiN film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 22829–22833 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pollard, C. W.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Pucker, G.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Riboli, F.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Riemensberger, J.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Riemensberger, K. Hartinger, T. Herr, V. Brasch, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 20, 27661–27669 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ross, G. H.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Ryan, J. G.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Saha, K.

Salem, R.

Sbrana, F.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schindler, P.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmogrow, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M. J.

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. T. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shim, B.

Srinivasan, K.

I. Agha, M. Davanço, B. Thurston, and K. Srinivasan, “Low-noise chip-based frequency conversion by four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in SiN_x waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2997–2999 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiN x microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, C. T.

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. T. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thurston, B.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Der Slot, P. J. M.

Van Rees, A.

Varghese, L. T.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vawter, G. A.

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. T. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wegner, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weimann, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wen, Y. H.

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wolff, S.

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

Yu, M.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiN x microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7, 453–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (8)

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

K. H. Nam, I. H. Park, and S. H. Ko, “Patterning by controlled cracking,” Nature 485, 221–224 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. J. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. T. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

V. Brasch, T. Herr, M. Geiselmann, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation,” arXiv:1410.8598 (2014).

C. W. Kaanta, S. G. Bombardier, W. J. Cote, W. R. Hill, G. Kerszykowski, H. S. Landis, D. J. Poindexter, C. W. Pollard, G. H. Ross, J. G. Ryan, S. Wolff, and J. E. Cronin, “Dual Damascene: a ULSI wiring technology,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (1991), pp. 144–152.

A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, V. Brasch, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Higher order mode suppression in high-Q anomalous dispersion SiN microresonators for temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation,” arXiv:1511.05381 (2015).

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman induced soliton self-frequency shift in microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” arXiv:1506.08767 (2015).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Nonlinear wavelength conversion in integrated waveguides and principles of their dispersion engineering. (a) Upon launching a short light pulse into the waveguide (top), its initial spectrum is nonlinearly broadened. Coupling the light of a single frequency, continuous wave laser into the ring resonator (bottom) produces short soliton pulses with broad spectral envelope. (b) Most materials exhibit anomalous GVD at longer wavelengths but not necessarily at telecom wavelengths. However, for efficient nonlinear wavelength conversion, the GVD of the highly confining waveguides must be anomalous. (c), (d) By tailoring the waveguide cross section to highly confine the optical mode, the anomalous waveguide dispersion can overcompensate the normal material dispersion. Thus dispersion engineering determines the required waveguide dimensions for a given operating wavelength.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Problems in subtractive SiN waveguide fabrication. (a) Schematic top view of a microresonator (blue) with cracks formed by the highly stressed SiN film. (b) Cleaved waveguide cross section showing the limited aspect ratio between adjacent waveguides (a geometry used for resonator waveguide coupling) and void formation of the low temperature oxide (LTO) cladding layer. (c) Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image showing the thin oxide layers formed during multistep deposition of SiN.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Photonic Damascene process for integrated SiN waveguides. (a)–(f) Schematic process flow of the photonic Damascene process. (g) Optical image of a SiN microresonator surrounded by the stress release structure (rectangle dimensions 5μm×5μm). The zoomed inset reveals the 10 μm wide area to each side of the waveguide that has no stress release structure to avoid scattering losses. The crack formed due to incomplete removal of excess SiN but does not penetrate the waveguide. (h), (i) Focused ion beam (FIB) cross section of the coupling region between the ring resonator and the bus waveguide, revealing a waveguide resonator separation below 200 nm. The individual SiN waveguides (blue) are 1.5 μm wide and 0.85 μm high and homogenously filled with SiN. The coupling region is free of voids, and no effect of the waveguide proximity on the waveguide shape is observed.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Example of thick, high-Q SiN resonators. (a) Cleaved cross section through a SiN waveguide (blue) with 1.35 μm height and 1.15 μm width fabricated using the photonic Damascene process. (b) Resonance linewidth at λ=1598nm of a microresonator with a radius of 238 μm (FSR100GHz) built from 1.35 μm high and 1.5 μm wide waveguides. A resonance linewidth of 50 MHz is extracted, which corresponds to a quality factor of Q=3.7×106. The sidebands of the 400 MHz phase modulated beam for calibration are visible.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Dispersion characterization of microresonators. (a) Schematic of the setup (adapted from [26]) used to record a frequency calibrated transmission amplitude of the device under test (DUT). The bandpass filters (BP) transform the beat signal between the scanning ECDL and the frequency comb (resp. the fiber laser) into marker peaks for relative (resp. absolute) frequency calibration. (b) Mode structure of a microresonator with 238.2 μm radius, 1.75 μm waveguide width, and 0.85 μm waveguide height. The plot shows the deviation of each detected mode from a FSR of 95.65 GHz. The E11x mode family is underlaid in orange, and the E11y mode family in yellow. (c) Magnified view of the local parabolic dispersion of the E11y mode family. The detected resonances are fitted with a parabola (red dashed line), and a value of D2/2π=0.49MHz is extracted (anomalous GVD).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Frequency comb generation in the single soliton regime. (a) Dissipative Kerr soliton based frequency comb generation inside a 95.7 GHz SiN microresonator pumped with a 6 W laser at 192.9 THz. The red line is a fit of the spectral envelope with a sech2 function. A 3 dB bandwidth of 6.6 THz is extracted, corresponding to a soliton pulse duration of approximately 50 fs. (b) Statistics of step distribution in the converted comb light power based on 20 consecutive scans of a 3 W pump laser across the cavity resonance. The color-coded histogram reveals millisecond timescales for the steps and a higher occurrence probability for multisoliton states. (c) Schema of the device layout that comprises a 100 μm long single-mode waveguide section for higher-order mode suppression.

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