Abstract

Silicon has attracted great interest as a platform for both linear and nonlinear integrated photonics for over 15 years. While its primary applications have been in the telecom window (near 1.5 μm), the capability of exploiting its full transparency window to 8 μm in the mid-IR is highly attractive, since this will open it up to entirely new applications in fields such as spectroscopy, chemical and biological sensing, and free-space communications. However, while silicon-on-insulator has shown great promise just beyond the telecommunications window [to the shortwave IR band (2.5 μm)], its wavelength range has been limited to < 4 μm by absorption in the silica cladding layer. Here, we demonstrate octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in silicon, covering a continuous spectral range from 1.9 to beyond 6 μm in dispersion-engineered silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) nanowires. This represents both the widest spectrum and longest wavelength generated to date in any silicon platform, and establishes SOS as a promising new platform for integrated nonlinear photonics in the mid-IR.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hansch, J. V. Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picque, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, D. D. Hudson, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-on-sapphire pillar waveguides for Mid-IR supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 23, 17345–17354 (2015).

2014 (5)

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J. M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides in mid-IR application,” Opt. Express 22, 508–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zou, H. Subbaraman, S. Chakravarty, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, W. C. Lai, P. Wray, and R. T. Chen, “Grating-coupled silicon-on-sapphire integrated slot waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3070–3073 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, A. G. Griffith, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning mid infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4518–4521 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. R. Petersen, U. Moller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. A. Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3  μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8, 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

R. J. Shankar, B. Irfan, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. V. Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. L. Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, N. Venkatram, J. Gosciniak, Y. Cui, G. Qian, W. Ji, and D. T. H. Tan, “Multi-photon absorption and third-order nonlinearity in silicon at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21, 32192–32198 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Ku, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Characterization of mid-infrared silicon-on-sapphire microring resonators with thermal tuning,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095–1102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Sang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

M. J. R. Heck, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Lang, M. N. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. B. Redondo, C. Husko, D. Eades, Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Observation of soliton compression in silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3160 (2011).

F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 15212–15220 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 20172–20181 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

T. B. Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18, 12127–12135 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4, 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. L. Spott, Y. Liu, T. B. Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5  μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Afshar and T. M. Monro, “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part I: Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 17, 2298–2318 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (6)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “A silicon waveguides for creating quantum-correlated photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3140–3142 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. E. Sharping, K. F. Lee, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and P. Kumar, “Generation of correlated photons in nanoscale silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 12388–12393 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1180–1182 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

A. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. L. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and C. Franco, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. O. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, “Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387–2390 (1998).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Y. H. Lo, R. J. Deri, J. Harbison, B. J. Skromme, M. Seto, D. M. Hwang, and T. P. Lee, “GaAs-on-InP heteroepitaxial waveguides grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1242–1244 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. Pradhan, R. Garg, and M. Arora, “Multiphonon infrared absorption in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 25–30 (1987).

1980 (1)

A. Vaidyanathan, T. Walker, and A. H. Guenther, “The relative roles of avalanche multiplication and multiphoton absorption in laser-induced damage of dielectrics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 89–93 (1980).
[Crossref]

Afshar, S.

Agrawal, G. P.

Aitchison, J. S.

Alic, N.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4, 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arora, M.

M. Pradhan, R. Garg, and M. Arora, “Multiphonon infrared absorption in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 25–30 (1987).

Asher, W.

Atanackovic, P.

Baets, R.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hansch, J. V. Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picque, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. V. Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. L. Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 20172–20181 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

C. R. Petersen, U. Moller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. A. Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3  μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8, 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benson, T.

C. R. Petersen, U. Moller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. A. Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3  μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8, 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. J. Shankar, B. Irfan, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top: Calculated dispersion (D) and effective index ( N eff ) curve for the SOS nanowire with a cross section of 2400 nm by 480 nm shown in inset, having zero dispersion wavelengths at 3.3 and 7.1 μm (see Methods section). Bottom: Experimental setup. a, gold mirror; b, Geltech BD2 chalcogenide lens, NA (= 0.85); c, chip; d, reflective microscope objective, NA (= 0.5); e, beam splitter, which was replaced by gold mirror during measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SOS propagation loss obtained with a low-power tunable OPA source to avoid any nonlinear effects. The peak between 3.3 and 3.4 μm represents C-H absorption. Error bars include uncertainty in streak analysis, coupling coefficient, and detectivity of the detector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental data with input peak power ranging from 200 W to 2.5 kW and (b) simulation results. Here, the pump corresponds to 7 W.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission versus coupled intensity at the input of a 5 μm by 0.5 μm SOS waveguide. (a)–(d) Experimental and calculated transmission at (a) 3.5 μm, (b) 3.7 μm, (c) 3.9 μm, and (d) 4.1 μm. Error bars include uncertainty in coupling coefficient, detectivity, calibration, and nonlinear power response error of the detector.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated (a) temporal evolution and (b) spectral evolution along the waveguide at a peak power of 2.5 kW.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculation of the dependence of SOS dispersion on nanowire dimension. Here, the width is varied from 2.4 μm for a constant height of 500 nm, while the height is varied from 500 nm for a constant width of 2.4 μm. (a)  β 2 , (b)  β 3 (at 3.7 μm), and (c) ZDW dependence on width and height variations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated spectral broadening of silicon rib nanowire (inset) with pumping at 4 μm generating a dispersive wave beyond the second ZDW at 5 μm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Supercontinuum Results

Equations (1)

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E z = α ( ω ) 2 E + m 2 i m + 1 β m m ! m E t m + i ( γ ( ω 0 ) + i γ t ) E × t R ( t t ) | E | 2 d t ( γ 4 p a 2 A eff 3 | E | 6 3 p a ( ω ) | E | 4 σ 2 ( 1 + i μ ) N c ) E .

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