Abstract

Integrated sources of indistinguishable photons have attracted a lot of attention because of their applications in quantum communication and optical quantum computing. Here, we demonstrate an ultracompact quantum splitter for degenerate photon pairs based on a monolithic silicon chip. It incorporates a Sagnac loop and a microring resonator with a total footprint of 0.011mm2, generating and deterministically splitting indistinguishable photon pairs using two-photon interference. The ring resonator provides an enhanced photon generation rate, and the Sagnac loop ensures the photons travel through equal path lengths and interfere with the correct phase to enable the reversed Hong–Ou–Mandel (HOM) effect to take place. In the experiment, we observed a HOM dip visibility of 94.5±3.3%, indicating the generated photons are in a suitable state for further integration with other components for quantum applications, such as controlled-NOT gates.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325 (2010).
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D. Höckel, L. Koch, and O. Benson, Phys. Rev. A 83, 013802 (2011).
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J. He, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and C. Xiong, Opt. Lett. 39, 3575 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

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Ladouceur, F.

Lee, K.

Lehoucq, G.

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

Li, J.

Li, M.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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Li, X.

Liang, C.

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. A 75, 023803 (2007).
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Lipson, M.

Liscidini, M.

Liu, F. M.

H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
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V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, Nat. Photonics 5, 222 (2011).
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Maccone, L.

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, Nat. Photonics 5, 222 (2011).
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Marchena, E.

Marshall, G. D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, C. Monat, A. S. Clark, C. Grillet, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. Krauss, J. Rarity, and B. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 36, 3413 (2011).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Massar, S.

Matthews, J.

A. Politi, J. Matthews, and J. O’Brien, Science 325, 1221 (2009).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Migdall, A.

Minaeva, O.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, A.

Monat, C.

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, C. M.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, Nature 498, 470 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J.

A. Politi, J. Matthews, and J. O’Brien, Science 325, 1221 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, Science 320, 646 (2008).
[Crossref]

O’Faolain, L.

Ohira, K.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345 (1999).
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Peng, J.

Pernice, W. H. P.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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Poladian, L.

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A. Politi, J. Matthews, and J. O’Brien, Science 325, 1221 (2009).
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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, Science 320, 646 (2008).
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Rarity, J. G.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

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F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
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Schmidt, B.

Schuck, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
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W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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Sharping, J.

Silverstone, J. W.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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Sorel, M.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, L. G. Helt, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, M. Galli, and D. Bajoni, Opt. Express 20, 23100 (2012).
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Steel, M. J.

Stone, R. J.

Strain, M. J.

Sun, F.

Suzuki, N.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, Nature 498, 470 (2013).
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K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325 (2010).
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W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, Nature 498, 470 (2013).
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N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photonics 1, 165 (2007).
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J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325 (2010).
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Yu, S.

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H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
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Zhao, N.

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H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
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H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
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H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
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Zwiller, V.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, Nat. Photonics 5, 222 (2011).
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J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photonics 1, 165 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, Nat. Phys. 8, 285 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, Nature 498, 470 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. A 75, 023803 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, K. Lee, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 76, 031804 (2007).
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D. Höckel, L. Koch, and O. Benson, Phys. Rev. A 83, 013802 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345 (1999).
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L. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 150501 (2005).
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H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

Science (2)

A. Politi, J. Matthews, and J. O’Brien, Science 325, 1221 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, Science 320, 646 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the working principle: waveguides A and B, connected to two grating couplers, reach the same side of a multimode interference coupler (MMI), whose two output ports are connected, forming a Sagnac loop; a silicon ring resonator is coupled to the Sagnac loop in order to enhance the photon-pair generation rate. (b) Schematic of degenerate photon-pair generation via SFWM. Two pump photons at different wavelengths are annihilated to create a pair of degenerate single photons.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup. A broadband mode-locked laser was spectrally sliced into two synchronized pumps using a spectral pulse shaper (SPS) and subsequently amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA); a fiber 5050 coupler was used to split the pumps into two; bandpass filters (BPFs) were used to ensure only pump λ1 was injected to port A and only pump λ2 was injected to port B; polarization controllers (PCs) matched the pumps to the TE mode required by the waveguide. Right before injecting the pump waves into the sample, a circulator on each side was inserted for collection of generated single photons. After coupling the photons out from the sample, BPFs were used to reject the pumps. The photons were then either directly connected to superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) or connected through a HOM setup consisting of tunable delay lines, PCs, and a fiber 5050 coupler (indicated inside blue lines); the gray area inside the figure shows a SEM image of the device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Counts (left axis) and coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR, right axis, purple squares, with error bars) as a function of coupled average power. Measured raw coincidences (red circles, Craw), accidental coincidences (green triangles, A), and true coincidences (blue diamonds, Ctrue=Craw-A) are shown in the plot. The blue line is a quadratic fit of Ctrue, when coupled Pavg<90μW. With coupled power higher than 100 μW, the counts are rolling off from the fit due to two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Count rate for split (|11) and bunched (|20 and |02) pairs. Top: When two pumps were injected separately into the two ports of the sample, a splitting ratio of 88.9±6.7% after subtracting noise was achieved. Bottom: When two pumps were injected together into one of the ports of the sample, a bunching ratio of 88.2±9.0% after subtracting noise was achieved.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Hong–Ou–Mandel experimental results. A visibility of 94.5±3.3% is observed after subtracting accidental coincidences. Green circles indicate raw coincidences (error bars are Poissonian), red squares indicate accidental coincidences, and black lines are the Lorentzian fit for the raw coincidences and linear fit for the accidental coincidences.

Equations (2)

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|Ψring=|2cw|0ccw+eiδφ|0cw|2ccw2.
|ΨMMI=1eiδφ2|Ψ2002+i(1+eiδφ)2|Ψ11,

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