Abstract

Quantum information technology strongly relies on the coupling of optical photons with narrowband quantum systems, such as quantum dots, color centers, and atomic systems. This coupling requires matching the optical wavelength and bandwidth to the desired system, which presents a considerable problem for most available sources of quantum light. Here we demonstrate the coupling of alkali dipole transitions with a tunable source of photon pairs. Our source is based on spontaneous parametric downconversion in a triply resonant whispering gallery mode resonator. For this, we have developed novel wavelength-tuning mechanisms that allow a coarse tuning to either the cesium or rubidium wavelength, with subsequent continuous fine-tuning to the desired transition. As a demonstration of the functionality of the source, we performed a heralded single-photon measurement of the atomic decay. We present a major advance in controlling the spontaneous downconversion process, which makes our bright source of heralded single photons now compatible with a plethora of narrowband resonant systems.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

M. Förtsch, G. Schunk, J. U. Fürst, D. Strekalov, T. Gerrits, M. J. Stevens, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, S. W. Nam, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Highly efficient generation of single-mode photon pairs from a crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator source,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023812 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, Z. Xie, J. F. McMillan, J. Burkhart, V. S. Ilchenko, C. W. Wong, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Miniature multioctave light source based on a monolithic microcavity,” Optica 2, 40–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

T. Utikal, E. Eichhammer, L. Petersen, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spectroscopic detection and state preparation of a single praseodymium ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Siyushev, G. Stein, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, “Molecular photons interfaced with alkali atoms,” Nature 509, 66–70 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, X. Guo, C. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Loy, and S. Du, “Photon pairs with coherence time exceeding 1 μs,” Optica 1, 84–88 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Schunk, J. U. Fürst, M. Förtsch, D. V. Strekalov, U. Vogl, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern,” Opt. Express 22, 30795–30806 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Harder, V. Ansari, B. Brecht, T. Dirmeier, C. Marquardt, and C. Silberhorn, “An optimized photon pair source for quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 21, 13975–13985 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Fekete, D. Rieländer, M. Cristiani, and H. de Riedmatten, “Ultranarrow-band photon-pair source compatible with solid state quantum memories and telecommunication networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 220502 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, B. Chng, G. Maslennikov, D. Matsukevich, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Narrow band source of transform-limited photon pairs via four-wave mixing in a cold atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 123602 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Breunig, B. Sturman, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, and K. Buse, “Whispering gallery modes at the rim of an axisymmetric optical resonator: analytical versus numerical description and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Express 21, 30683–30692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Demchenko and M. Gorodetsky, “Analytical estimates of eigenfrequencies, dispersion, and field distribution in whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 3056–3063 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bader, S. Heugel, A. L. Chekhov, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Efficient coupling to an optical resonator by exploiting time-reversal symmetry,” New J. Phys. 15, 123008 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

J. Fürst, D. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a whispering-gallery-mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Wolfgramm, Y. A. de Icaza Astiz, F. A. Beduini, A. Cerè, and M. W. Mitchell, “Atom-resonant heralded single photons by interaction-free measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 053602 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Review article: single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. P. Specht, C. Nölleke, A. Reiserer, M. Uphoff, E. Figueroa, S. Ritter, and G. Rempe, “A single-atom quantum memory,” Nature 473, 190–193 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Söller, B. Brecht, P. J. Mosley, L. Y. Zang, A. Podlipensky, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and C. Silberhorn, “Bridging visible and telecom wavelengths with a single-mode broadband photon pair source,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition: an overview,” Chem. Rev. 110, 111–131 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Scholz, L. Koch, and O. Benson, “Statistics of narrow-band single photons for quantum memories generated by ultrabright cavity-enhanced parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063603 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics 3, 706–714 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Kozyreff, J. L. Dominguez Juarez, and J. Martorell, “Whispering-gallery-mode phase matching for surface second-order nonlinear optical processes in spherical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043817 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

K. Hammerer, E. Polzik, and J. Cirac, “Teleportation and spin squeezing utilizing multimode entanglement of light with atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 052313 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 6, 163 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Efficient conditional preparation of high-fidelity single photon states for fiber-optic quantum networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093601 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Low-threshold parametric nonlinear optics with quasi-phase-matched whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1304–1308 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature 423, 731–734 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, “Deterministic single-photon source for distributed quantum networking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature 419, 594–597 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Lounis and W. E. Moerner, “Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature,” Nature 407, 491–493 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. Hald, J. L. Sørensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, “Spin squeezed atoms: a macroscopic entangled ensemble created by light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319–1322 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Ou and Y. J. Lu, “Cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion for the prolongation of correlation time between conjugate photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2556–2559 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1980 (1)

D. N. Klyshko, “Use of two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112–1117 (1980).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

W. L. Bond, “Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674–1677 (1965).
[Crossref]

Afzelius, M.

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Fürst, D. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a whispering-gallery-mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alibart, O.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 6, 163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Andersen, U.

J. Fürst, D. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a whispering-gallery-mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andersen, U. L.

J. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. (a) Type-I PDC in a z-cut WGMR is performed with a pump beam at 532 nm coupling via a diamond prism on top. A second coupling port can be used for dielectric tuning. Alternatively, the dielectric substrate can be replaced with a second diamond prism for mode analysis [36]. (b) Top view of the WGMR. (c) Illustration of the eigenmodes of WGMRs. These eigenmodes are defined by the azimuthal mode number m, radial mode number q, and angular mode number p.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Temperature tuning of the PDC process in our triply resonant optical parametric oscillator above the pump threshold. The generated signal and idler beams connect various alkali atoms to telecom wavelengths. (a) Emission wavelengths from 790 to 1630 nm are measured for a fundamental pump mode with mp1, qp=1, and pp=0 emitting into various signal and idler mode combinations. We show the branches relevant for tuning to the D1 lines of Cs and Rb85/87. (b) Temperature fine-tuning of the fundamental conversion channel qp, qs, qi=1,1,1 around the Cs D1 line shows a stepwise tuning behavior keeping the azimuthal mode number mp of the pump fixed. (c) The same stepwise tuning behavior is found for the nonfundamental conversion channel qp, qs, qi=1,3,3 around the Rb85/87 D1 line. The right panels show the calculated absorption profiles for Cs and Rb85/87 [45]. The uncertainties shown result from the limited resolution of the optical spectrum analyzer (AQ6370C, Yokogawa).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Frequency tuning of the PDC process measured via a beat signal between the signal beam and the Ti:sapphire reference laser in a saturated absorption configuration. The right panels show the measured Ti:sapphire absorption at the Cs D1 F4F3 line, including the Doppler-free dip on resonance. (a) A change in the azimuthal mode number mp of the pump mode accompanied by a temperature adjustment results in an average change in the signal emission frequency by Δνs=254MHz. (b) Tuning across the Doppler-broadened line is achieved by shifting the resonance frequencies of the pump and the parametric modes with a movable dielectric substrate in the evanescent fields (we estimate the distance change per applied voltage on the actuator to be 15nmV1).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Absorption of the signal light by the atoms. (a) In this measurement, we decreased the pump power below the OPO threshold to demonstrate resonant single photons. The pump laser frequency was locked to the fundamental mode, whereas the WGMR temperature was changed continuously. We measured a suppression of the count rate by 97±3% at the Cs D1 F4F3 line in (a) and 98±4% at the Rb85 D1 F3F2 line in (b). The frequency width of the peaks directly gives the respective phase-matching bandwidths of the PDC process. Images of bright fluorescence in the Cs cell in (c) and the Rb cell in (d) were taken far above the OPO threshold.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Photon–atom coupling. (a) The measured coincidences (2 ns bin width, 120 s integration time) from the directly detected signal and idler photons are fitted with the double-exponential function given by Eq. (5). This yields a decay time of τsi=9.4ns corresponding to a photon bandwidth of γsi=16.9MHz. (b) This measurement of heralded fluorescence (2 ns bin width, 60 min integration time) allows a direct probing of the atomic decay. The time delay of Δτ=10ns with respect to the reference measurement in (b) is in agreement with the theoretical model given by Eq. (6).

Equations (7)

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νp(T,d)=νs(T,d)+νi(T,d),
mp=ms+mi,
mp,ms,mimp,ms±1,mi1,
mp,ms,mimp±1,ms,mi1,
δνs(T,d)=δνp(T,d)δνi(T,d).
gsi(2)(τ)12·e|τ|/τsiτsi
gfi(2)(τ)12·{eτ/τsiτf+τsi,τ<0,eτ/τfτf+τsi+eτ/τsieτ/τfτsiτf,τ>0.

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