Abstract

Nonclassical multi-photon and number states are attractive because of their wide applicability, and experimental generation of these states is a longstanding aim. We prepare photon triplets using a spontaneous Raman scattering process in a hot atomic ensemble cascaded by a spontaneous parametric downconversion process in a periodically poled nonlinear waveguide; strong temporal correlations are observed between the photons. This represents the first combination of nonlinear processes of different orders with different physical systems, and demonstrates the scheme’s feasibility. The triplets exist in the telecommunications band, which is promising for testing of quantum mechanical laws for multi-photon entanglement over large distances.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

D. R. Hamel, L. K. Shalm, H. Hübel, A. J. Miller, F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, K. J. Resch, and T. Jennewein, Nat. Photonics 8, 801 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Guerreiro, A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, N. Sangouard, and R. T. Thew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 173601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, L. Cao, H. Wang, A. M. Marino, W. Zhang, and J. Jing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

L. K. Shalm, D. R. Hamel, Z. Yan, C. Simon, K. J. Resch, and T. Jennewein, Nat. Phys. 9, 19 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Guerreiro, E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, N. Sangouard, J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, H. Zbinden, R. T. Thew, and N. Gisin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2324 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yokoyama, R. Ukai, S. C. Armstrong, C. Sornphiphatphong, T. Kaji, S. Suzuki, J.-I. Yoshikawa, H. Yonezawa, N. C. Menicucci, and A. Furusawa, Nat. Photonics 7, 982 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 482, 489 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nat. Photonics 6, 225 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Jia, Z. Yan, Z. Duan, X. Su, H. Wang, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253604 (2012).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, X.-B. Zou, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Express 20, 11433 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 488, 185 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Sangouard, B. Sanguinetti, N. Curtz, N. Gisin, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 120403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, B.-H. Liu, L. Peng, Y.-H. Li, L. Li, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, Nat. Commun. 2, 546 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Hübel, D. R. Hamel, A. Fedrizzi, S. Ramelow, K. J. Resch, and T. Jennewein, Nature 466, 601 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. T. Willis, F. E. Becerra, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 82, 053842 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, Opt Express 17, 023153 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

C. Y. Lu, X.-Q. Zhou, O. Gühne, W.-B. Gao, J. Zhang, Z.-S. Yuan, A. Goebel, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, Nat. Phys. 3, 91 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Y. Xiang, Y. F. Huang, F. W. Sun, P. Zhang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023604 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

O. Gühne, G. Tóth, P. Hyllus, and H. J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 120405 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Persson, T. Aichel, V. Zwiller, L. Samuelson, and O. Benson, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233314 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Eibl, S. Gaertner, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Żukowski, and H. Weinfurte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 200403 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 423, 731 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Schlingemann and R. F. Werner, Phys. Rev. A 65, 012308 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. W. Pan, M. Daniell, S. Gasparoni, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4435 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J.-W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 403, 515 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. E. Keller, M. H. Rubin, Y. Shih, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2076 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. M. Greenberger, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and A. Zeilinger, Am. J. Phys. 58, 1131 (1990).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

S. N. Gupta, Phys. Rev. 96, 1453 (1954).
[Crossref]

Aichel, T.

J. Persson, T. Aichel, V. Zwiller, L. Samuelson, and O. Benson, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, S. C.

S. Yokoyama, R. Ukai, S. C. Armstrong, C. Sornphiphatphong, T. Kaji, S. Suzuki, J.-I. Yoshikawa, H. Yonezawa, N. C. Menicucci, and A. Furusawa, Nat. Photonics 7, 982 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.-H.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nat. Photonics 6, 225 (2012).
[Crossref]

Becerra, F. E.

R. T. Willis, F. E. Becerra, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 82, 053842 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benson, O.

J. Persson, T. Aichel, V. Zwiller, L. Samuelson, and O. Benson, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boca, A.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 423, 731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boozer, A. D.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 423, 731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bourennane, M.

M. Eibl, S. Gaertner, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Żukowski, and H. Weinfurte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 200403 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

J.-W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 403, 515 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bowen, W. P.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 423, 731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Briegel, H. J.

O. Gühne, G. Tóth, P. Hyllus, and H. J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 120405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.-D.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 488, 185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

Z. Qin, L. Cao, H. Wang, A. M. Marino, W. Zhang, and J. Jing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 488, 185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Z.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 482, 489 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q. F.

Chen, Y.-A.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 488, 185 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 482, 489 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nat. Photonics 6, 225 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-B.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 482, 489 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. W.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 423, 731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Curtz, N.

N. Sangouard, B. Sanguinetti, N. Curtz, N. Gisin, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 120403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Daniell, M.

J. W. Pan, M. Daniell, S. Gasparoni, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4435 (2001).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 403, 515 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.-J.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 482, 489 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ding, D.-S.

Duan, L.-M.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 423, 731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Duan, Z.

X. Jia, Z. Yan, Z. Duan, X. Su, H. Wang, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eibl, M.

M. Eibl, S. Gaertner, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Żukowski, and H. Weinfurte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 200403 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fedrizzi, A.

H. Hübel, D. R. Hamel, A. Fedrizzi, S. Ramelow, K. J. Resch, and T. Jennewein, Nature 466, 601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

T. Guerreiro, A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, N. Sangouard, and R. T. Thew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 173601 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Guerreiro, E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, N. Sangouard, J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, H. Zbinden, R. T. Thew, and N. Gisin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2324 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, M.

Fowler, A. G.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 482, 489 (2012).
[Crossref]

Furusawa, A.

S. Yokoyama, R. Ukai, S. C. Armstrong, C. Sornphiphatphong, T. Kaji, S. Suzuki, J.-I. Yoshikawa, H. Yonezawa, N. C. Menicucci, and A. Furusawa, Nat. Photonics 7, 982 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaertner, S.

M. Eibl, S. Gaertner, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Żukowski, and H. Weinfurte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 200403 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.-B.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, Nature 482, 489 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Lu, X.-Q. Zhou, O. Gühne, W.-B. Gao, J. Zhang, Z.-S. Yuan, A. Goebel, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, Nat. Phys. 3, 91 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gasparoni, S.

J. W. Pan, M. Daniell, S. Gasparoni, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4435 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gisin, N.

T. Guerreiro, A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, N. Sangouard, and R. T. Thew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 173601 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Guerreiro, E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, N. Sangouard, J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, H. Zbinden, R. T. Thew, and N. Gisin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2324 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Sangouard, B. Sanguinetti, N. Curtz, N. Gisin, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 120403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goebel, A.

C. Y. Lu, X.-Q. Zhou, O. Gühne, W.-B. Gao, J. Zhang, Z.-S. Yuan, A. Goebel, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, Nat. Phys. 3, 91 (2007).
[Crossref]

Greenberger, D. M.

D. M. Greenberger, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and A. Zeilinger, Am. J. Phys. 58, 1131 (1990).
[Crossref]

Guerreiro, T.

T. Guerreiro, A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, N. Sangouard, and R. T. Thew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 173601 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Guerreiro, E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, N. Sangouard, J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, H. Zbinden, R. T. Thew, and N. Gisin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2324 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gühne, O.

C. Y. Lu, X.-Q. Zhou, O. Gühne, W.-B. Gao, J. Zhang, Z.-S. Yuan, A. Goebel, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, Nat. Phys. 3, 91 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Gühne, G. Tóth, P. Hyllus, and H. J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 120405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guo, G. C.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Simplified depiction of experimental setup for tripartite photon generation. The picture in the dashed circle is the energy level diagram for the SRS process. λ/2, half-wave plate; DM, dichroic mirror, from which light in the telecom band is reflected, while visible light is transmitted; FC, fiber coupler; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; FBG, fiber Bragg grating (reflective for 1475 nm laser and transparent for 1530 nm light); P1, pump 1; P2, pump 2; S1, signal 1; S2, signal 2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The green line (squares) indicates the measured cross correlation between the signal 1 and signal 2 photons versus the two-photon detuning δ, which is defined as Δ2Δ1. The red line (circles) shows the single count of signal 2 photons versus the detuning δ, including the collection and detection losses.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Cross-correlation rate between the signal 1 and signal 2 photons. (b) Auto-correlation of signal 1 photons. (c) Auto-correlation of signal 2 photons. The statistical fluctuations of the number of events in a bin of the histogram are of the order of N (the error bars of the subsequent data are processed using the same method).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured coincidence rate between signal 3 and signal 4 when 6×106 signal 2 photons per second are input to the PPLN waveguide. In this process, two free-running detectors are used to measure the coincidence counts. The SNR is 16.7.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Three-photon coincidence rate measured over 232 h. The maximum tripod event is 32. The noise levels are approximately 2.9 counts. The time on the x axis is the delay between the signal 1 photons and the coincidence signal from signals 3 and 4.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R=[gs1,s2(2)(τ)]2gs1,s1(2)(0)gs2,s2(2)(0)1,
g1,2,3(3)=a^1a^2a^3a^1a^2a^3n^1n^2n^3,
g1,2,3(3)=n1n2n3n1n2n3.
g1,1(2)g2,2(2)g3,3(2)=n12n22n32n12n22n32.
(g1,2,3(3))2g1,1(2)g2,2(2)g3,3(2).
R3=[gs1,s3,s4(3)(τ1,τ2)]2gs1,s1(2)(0)gs3,s3(2)(0)gs4,s4(2)(0)1,

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