Abstract

We show that solar cells, widely used in portable devices for power generation, can simultaneously extract a high-speed data signal in an optical wireless communication link. This Letter reports, to the best of our knowledge, the first use of an organic solar cell as an energy-harvesting receiver for visible light communications (VLCs). While generating maximum power in the cell, the communication link can deliver a data rate of 34.2 Mbps with a bit error rate of 4.08×104 using an implementation of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. This approach could lead to printed optical data receivers in future eco-friendly VLC systems. Simultaneous functions of data communication and energy harvesting have great implications for the connectivity of future smart devices, many of which could become self-powered units as part of the “Internet of Things.”

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (1)

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

2014 (4)

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. C. Krebs, N. Espinosa, M. Hösel, R. R. Søndergaard, and M. Jørgensen, Adv. Mater. 26, 29 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z. Ghassemlooy, P. A. Haigh, F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, O. Hayden, I. Papakonstantinou, and S. Rajbhandari, Photon. Res. 1, 65 (2013).

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Afgani, M. Z.

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (IEEE, 2006), p. 134.

Alekseev, A.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Amarasinghe, D.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

Arca, F.

Arumugam, S.

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Breig, B.

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bruckbauer, J.

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campello, J.

J. Campello, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (IEEE, 1998), p. 193.

Cao, Y.

Z. He, C. Zhong, S. Su, M. Xu, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 591 (2012).

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, P.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1465 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, Opt. Express 20, B501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

Ciaramella, E.

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, Opt. Express 20, B501 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cooke, G.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corsini, R.

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, Opt. Express 20, B501 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cortizo-Lacalle, D.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

Cossu, G.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1465 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, Opt. Express 20, B501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diez Herrero, M.

P. Rueda, E. Fernandez Lisbona, and M. Diez Herrero, in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), pp. 817–820.

Elgala, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (IEEE, 2006), p. 134.

Enyuan, X.

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Erdan, G.

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Espinosa, N.

F. C. Krebs, N. Espinosa, M. Hösel, R. R. Søndergaard, and M. Jørgensen, Adv. Mater. 26, 29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fernandez Lisbona, E.

P. Rueda, E. Fernandez Lisbona, and M. Diez Herrero, in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), pp. 817–820.

Findlay, N. J.

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3348–3353.

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (IEEE, 2006), p. 134.

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (to be published), doi:10.1109/JSAC.2015.2391811.
[Crossref]

Haigh, P. A.

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hayden, O.

He, Z.

Z. He, C. Zhong, S. Su, M. Xu, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 591 (2012).

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hedley, G. J.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoa, L.-M.

Hösel, M.

F. C. Krebs, N. Espinosa, M. Hösel, R. R. Søndergaard, and M. Jørgensen, Adv. Mater. 26, 29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Howells, C. T.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hyunchae, C.

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inigo, A. R.

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jørgensen, M.

F. C. Krebs, N. Espinosa, M. Hösel, R. R. Søndergaard, and M. Jørgensen, Adv. Mater. 26, 29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kanibolotsky, A. L.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

Kelly, A. E.

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khalid, A. M.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1465 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, Opt. Express 20, B501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Knipp, D.

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (IEEE, 2006), p. 134.

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, N. Espinosa, M. Hösel, R. R. Søndergaard, and M. Jørgensen, Adv. Mater. 26, 29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Litovski, I.

M. A. Stosovic, D. Lukac, I. Litovski, and V. Litovski, in Proceedings of 11th Symposium on Neural Network Applications in Electrical Engineering (IEEE, 2012), pp. 259–264.

Litovski, V.

M. A. Stosovic, D. Lukac, I. Litovski, and V. Litovski, in Proceedings of 11th Symposium on Neural Network Applications in Electrical Engineering (IEEE, 2012), pp. 259–264.

Lukac, D.

M. A. Stosovic, D. Lukac, I. Litovski, and V. Litovski, in Proceedings of 11th Symposium on Neural Network Applications in Electrical Engineering (IEEE, 2012), pp. 259–264.

Manousiadis, P.

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Manousiadis, P. P.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

Martin, R. W.

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martins, E. R.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mesleh, R.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56 (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Orofino, C.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

Papakonstantinou, I.

Rajbhandari, S.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
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Z. Ghassemlooy, P. A. Haigh, F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, O. Hayden, I. Papakonstantinou, and S. Rajbhandari, Photon. Res. 1, 65 (2013).

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, L.-M. Hoa, S. Rajbhandari, F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, O. Hayden, and I. Papakonstantinou, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3081 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ray, C.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rueda, P.

P. Rueda, E. Fernandez Lisbona, and M. Diez Herrero, in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), pp. 817–820.

Ruseckas, A.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sajjad, M. T.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

Samuel, I. D. W.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Serrano, L. A.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Skabara, P. J.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Søndergaard, R. R.

F. C. Krebs, N. Espinosa, M. Hösel, R. R. Søndergaard, and M. Jørgensen, Adv. Mater. 26, 29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stosovic, M. A.

M. A. Stosovic, D. Lukac, I. Litovski, and V. Litovski, in Proceedings of 11th Symposium on Neural Network Applications in Electrical Engineering (IEEE, 2012), pp. 259–264.

Su, S.

Z. He, C. Zhong, S. Su, M. Xu, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 591 (2012).

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tedde, S. F.

Tsai, S.-T.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsonev, D.

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3348–3353.

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (to be published), doi:10.1109/JSAC.2015.2391811.
[Crossref]

Turnbull, G. A.

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3348–3353.

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (to be published), doi:10.1109/JSAC.2015.2391811.
[Crossref]

Vithanage, D. A.

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wallis, D. J.

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (to be published), doi:10.1109/JSAC.2015.2391811.
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3348–3353.

Ward, A. J.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wong, W.-Y.

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

Z. He, C. Zhong, S. Su, M. Xu, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 591 (2012).

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xia, J.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

Z. He, C. Zhong, S. Su, M. Xu, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 591 (2012).

Xu, Z.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhong, C.

Z. He, C. Zhong, S. Su, M. Xu, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 591 (2012).

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

F. C. Krebs, N. Espinosa, M. Hösel, R. R. Søndergaard, and M. Jørgensen, Adv. Mater. 26, 29 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. J. Findlay, J. Bruckbauer, A. R. Inigo, B. Breig, S. Arumugam, D. J. Wallis, R. W. Martin, and P. J. Skabara, Adv. Mater. 26, 7290 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22, E135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W.-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 23, 4636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. T. Sajjad, P. P. Manousiadis, C. Orofino, D. Cortizo-Lacalle, A. L. Kanibolotsky, S. Rajbhandari, D. Amarasinghe, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 536 (2015).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1465 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Tsonev, C. Hyunchae, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Hyunchae, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, X. Enyuan, G. Erdan, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2035 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. He, C. Zhong, S. Su, M. Xu, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 591 (2012).

Opt. Express (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Other (6)

M. A. Stosovic, D. Lukac, I. Litovski, and V. Litovski, in Proceedings of 11th Symposium on Neural Network Applications in Electrical Engineering (IEEE, 2012), pp. 259–264.

P. Rueda, E. Fernandez Lisbona, and M. Diez Herrero, in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), pp. 817–820.

J. Campello, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (IEEE, 1998), p. 193.

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (IEEE, 2006), p. 134.

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 3348–3353.

Z. Wang, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (to be published), doi:10.1109/JSAC.2015.2391811.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Supplement 1: PDF (835 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Device structure of the PTB 7 : PC 71 BM solar cell and the molecular structures of PTB7 and PC 71 BM . (b) The experimental setup of the VLC data link.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Current density versus voltage ( J V ) curve of the PTB 7 : PC 71 BM solar cell in the dark (blue curve), under the illumination of a standard AM 1.5G solar simulator (red curve), and under the illumination of a modulated red LD (dots).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Solar cell model: an equivalent circuit in a configuration for simultaneous energy harvesting and data communication ( R L and R C are, respectively, the resistors in the energy-harvesting and data communication branches). (b) Frequency response and (c) achievable capacity and optimal bit loading of the solar cell for R C = 35 Ω and R L = 200 Ω .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Panels (a)–(d) show examples of received constellations of the solar cell for R C = 35 Ω and R L = 200 Ω .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the Achievable Data Rate and Power Generated for Different Values of Load Resistance R L when both the Energy-Harvesting Circuit Branch and Communication Circuit Branch are Connected to the Solar Cell a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v ( ω ) i P H ( ω ) = R L C R C ( R S + j ω L + R L C ) 1 ( ( j ω C 0 ) 1 + R C ) 1 r 1 + j ω C + R S H 1 + ( R S + j ω L + R L C ) 1 ,
R L C = 1 / ( ( j ω L 0 + R L ) 1 + ( ( j ω C 0 ) 1 + R C ) 1 ) .

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