Abstract

The onrushing challenge to store the exponentially increasing amount of information generated each year with sustainable big data techniques has compelled ongoing technical revolutions in data storage. Even though recognized as an energy efficient solution, current optical data storage techniques based on bit-sequential scanning microscopy can enable a capacity of only a few tens of gigabytes per disk and a data rate of a few tens of megabits/second, restricted by the diffraction barrier of light. Here, we show that nanoscopy based on the principle of superresolution photoinduction-inhibited nanolithography can be effectively parallelized using accurate phase manipulations assisted by spatial light modulators. This new feature not only allows for three-dimensional recorded bits with a uniform feature size at tens of nanometers and a new equivalent capacity record of 30 TB per disk, but also a 2-orders-of-magnitude improvement in the data rate toward gigabits/second. Thus, our technique paves the way for the development of sustainable big data storage enabled by photonics.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2011 (4)

2010 (1)

M. Gu and X. P. Li, Opt. Photon. News 21(7), 28 (2010).
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2009 (3)

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X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
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A. Chmyrov, J. Keller, T. Grotjohann, M. Ratz, E. d’Este, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 10, 737 (2013).
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Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

Y. Cao, Z. Gan, B. Jia, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 19, 19486 (2011).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Fischer, J.

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Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

Y. Cao, Z. Gan, B. Jia, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 19, 19486 (2011).
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J. Zhang, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 033901 (2014).
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Greenberg, A.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39, 68 (2009).

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A. Chmyrov, J. Keller, T. Grotjohann, M. Ratz, E. d’Este, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 10, 737 (2013).
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Gu, M.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, H. Lin, X. Li, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 39, 1621 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Gu, X. Li, and Y. Cao, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e177 (2014).

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).

M. Gu, H. Lin, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 38, 3627 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, Z. Gan, B. Jia, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 19, 19486 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Cao, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 36, 2510 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Gu and X. P. Li, Opt. Photon. News 21(7), 28 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, Nature 459, 410 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Li, C. Bullen, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161116 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, S. Wu, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 32, 277 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Gu, Y. Cao, X. Li, and Z. Gan, Data Storage at the Nanoscale: Advances and Applications, F. Gan and Y. Wang, eds. (Pan Stanford, 2015).

M. Gu, Advanced Optical Imaging Theory (Springer, 2000).

Hamilton, J.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39, 68 (2009).

Hell, S. W.

A. Chmyrov, J. Keller, T. Grotjohann, M. Ratz, E. d’Este, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 10, 737 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Lett. 23, 655 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett. 19, 780 (1994).
[Crossref]

Her, T. H.

Hu, B.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
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Huang, L.

Jahn, R.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
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Jakobs, S.

A. Chmyrov, J. Keller, T. Grotjohann, M. Ratz, E. d’Este, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 10, 737 (2013).
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O. Trelles, P. Prins, M. Snir, and R. C. Jansen, Nat. Rev. Genet. 12, 224 (2011).

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X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
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S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, Chem. Rev. 100, 1777 (2000).
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J. Zhang, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 033901 (2014).
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A. Chmyrov, J. Keller, T. Grotjohann, M. Ratz, E. d’Este, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 10, 737 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koomey, J.

J. Koomey, “Growth in data center electricity use 2005 to 2010,” (Analytics, 2011).

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T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

Lamprecht, B.

Lan, T. H.

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leitner, A.

Li, C.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, H. Lin, X. Li, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 39, 1621 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Gu, X. Li, and Y. Cao, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e177 (2014).

M. Gu, H. Lin, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 38, 3627 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Cao, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 36, 2510 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, S. Wu, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 32, 277 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Li, C. Bullen, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161116 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Gu, Y. Cao, X. Li, and Z. Gan, Data Storage at the Nanoscale: Advances and Applications, F. Gan and Y. Wang, eds. (Pan Stanford, 2015).

Li, X. P.

M. Gu and X. P. Li, Opt. Photon. News 21(7), 28 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Liu, J.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maltz, D. A.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39, 68 (2009).

Mazur, E.

McLeod, R. R.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miao, J.

Milosavljevic, M.

Milster, T. D.

T. D. Milster, Opt. Photon. News 16(3), 28 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paganin, D. M.

Parthenopoulos, D. A.

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, Science 245, 843 (1989).
[Crossref]

Patel, P.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39, 68 (2009).

Pavlov, K. M.

Pick, R.

Podorov, S. G.

Prins, P.

O. Trelles, P. Prins, M. Snir, and R. C. Jansen, Nat. Rev. Genet. 12, 224 (2011).

Ratz, M.

A. Chmyrov, J. Keller, T. Grotjohann, M. Ratz, E. d’Este, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 10, 737 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, H. Lin, X. Li, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 39, 1621 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rentzepis, P. M.

E. Walker and P. M. Rentzepis, Nat. Photonics 2, 406 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, Science 245, 843 (1989).
[Crossref]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. A 253, 358 (1959).
[Crossref]

Rizzoli, S. O.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sahu, A.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sayre, D.

Scott, T. F.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[Crossref]

Snir, M.

O. Trelles, P. Prins, M. Snir, and R. C. Jansen, Nat. Rev. Genet. 12, 224 (2011).

Strickler, J. H.

J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, A. C.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tien, C. H.

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 14, 1021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Trelles, O.

O. Trelles, P. Prins, M. Snir, and R. C. Jansen, Nat. Rev. Genet. 12, 224 (2011).

Unterreiner, A. N.

Walker, E.

E. Walker and P. M. Rentzepis, Nat. Photonics 2, 406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 6, 6984 (2015).
[Crossref]

Webb, W. W.

J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Parallelized nanoscopy for ultrahigh capacity and ultrafast optical recording. (a) Scheme of the phase modulation method assisted by two synchronized SLMs. (b) Illustration of 3D superresolved multifocal arrays through duplicating the overlapped Gaussian and (c) doughnut focal spot pairs in the focal region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Demonstration of parallelized recording of identical patterns by the 2×2 multifocal array. (a) SEM images of the recorded pattern when the inhibition beam was switched off. The arrows indicate the recording sequence by translating the sample with respect to the focal plane. (b) SEM images of the recorded pattern at inhibition power of 210 mW. The scale bar represents 500 nm. (c) SEM images of recorded identical figure nines at bit separation of 250 nm. The scale bar represents 1 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Demonstration of dynamic ultrafast recording by superresolved multifocal arrays. For comparison, the SEM images of recorded patterns by (a) the 2×2 superresolved multifocal array and (b) the multifocal array of the induction beam only. The bit separation is set at 200 nm. Each letter is recorded by one of the focal spots in the 2×2 multifocal array. The scale bars are 1 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Demonstration of 3D parallelized recording through a volumetric superresolved multifocal array. (a) The scheme of 3D parallelized recording on the prefabricated multilayered structure with a layer separation of 1.5 μm. (b) SEM images of the three layers of bit arrays recorded by the superresolved multifocal array with a bit separation of 200 nm and uniform bit size of 80 nm.

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