Abstract

Optically controlled phase shifters are desirable for optical communication, sensors, and signal processing due to their simple implementation and low cost. We propose an all-fiber phase shifter assisted by graphene’s photothermal effect. In a graphene-coated microfiber, graphene’s ohmic heating promises efficient fiber index change and phase shift via the thermo-optic effect. On a fabricated device with a length of 5 mm, we obtain a phase shift exceeding 21π with a nearly linear slope of 0.091π/mW (0.192π/mW) when pumped by 980 nm (1540 nm) light, which enables all-optical switching with an extinction ratio of 20 dB and a rise (fall) time of 9.1 ms (3.2 ms) following the 10%–90% rule. This graphene-assisted index change and phase shifter featured with all-in-fiber, low power requirement, and ease of fabrication may open the door for graphene’s realistic applications in all-optical signal processing.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (5)

W. Liu and J. Yao, Opt. Lett. 39, 922 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, B. Yao, A. Zhang, Y. Rao, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Gong, W. Zhang, Y. Chen, and K. S. Chiang, Opt. Lett. 39, 1235 (2014).

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kou, J. Chen, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Lu, Optica 1, 307 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Shahoei and J. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 818 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

E. Hendry, P. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 18, 7714 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Vienne, Y. Li, L. Tong, and P. Grelu, Opt. Lett. 33, 1500 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

O. Tarasenko and W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 32, 1356 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, Opt. Commun. 176, 355 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Al-Raweshidy, H. S.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, Opt. Commun. 176, 355 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bae, M.

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, J.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhatti, A.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, Opt. Commun. 176, 355 (2000).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, Y.

Chiang, K. S.

Davis, M. K.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Englund, D.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

Grelu, P.

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hale, P.

E. Hendry, P. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, W.

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, P. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, F.

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

Hu, Z.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jang, S.

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jovanovic, N.

Kou, J.

Lahoz, F. J.

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, A.

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, L.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liu, W.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Liu and J. Yao, Opt. Lett. 39, 922 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loayssa, A.

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Mak, K. F.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Margulis, W.

Marshall, G. D.

Member, S.

Meng, C.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, S.

E. Hendry, P. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moger, J.

E. Hendry, P. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Murtaza, G.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, Opt. Commun. 176, 355 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pantell, R. H.

Peng, J.

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qian, K.

Qiu, M.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y.

Ren, Z.

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rorrer, G. L.

J. Welty, C. E. Wicks, G. L. Rorrer, and R. E. Wilson, Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Savchenko, A.

E. Hendry, P. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shahoei, H.

H. Shahoei and J. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shiue, R.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tarasenko, O.

Tong, L.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Vienne, Y. Li, L. Tong, and P. Grelu, Opt. Lett. 33, 1500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vienne, G.

Walker, D.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Welty, J.

J. Welty, C. E. Wicks, G. L. Rorrer, and R. E. Wilson, Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Wicks, C. E.

J. Welty, C. E. Wicks, G. L. Rorrer, and R. E. Wilson, Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Williams, R. J.

Wilson, R. E.

J. Welty, C. E. Wicks, G. L. Rorrer, and R. E. Wilson, Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Withford, M. J.

Wu, Y.

Xia, Y.

Xiao, Y.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

Xu, X.

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

Yao, J.

W. Liu and J. Yao, Opt. Lett. 39, 922 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shahoei and J. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, X.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhan, L.

Zhang, A.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, W.

Zhou, Y.

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, K.

S. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Shahoei and J. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 818 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M. Qi, Y. Zhou, F. Hu, X. Xu, W. Li, A. Li, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 15054 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. Heinz, and D. Englund, Nano Lett. 13, 691 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, Nano Lett. 14, 955 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, Opt. Commun. 176, 355 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Hendry, P. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 97401 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Welty, C. E. Wicks, G. L. Rorrer, and R. E. Wilson, Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2000).

http://www.phoenixphotonics.com/website/products/fiber-phase-shifter.html .

http://www.directindustry.com/prod/general-photonics/phase-shifters-fiber-optic-36256-530013.html .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Optical microscope images of the tapered microfiber (a) before and (b) after graphene transfer, (c) measured transmission spectra of the microfiber before (blue) and after (red) graphene transfer, where the black line shows the propagation attenuation calculated from the two measured spectra, (d) radial distribution of the simulated guiding mode in GMF at wavelengths of 980 nm (red) and 1540 nm (blue) with a zoomed distribution around the fiber edge, and the upper inset shows a two-dimensional mode distribution at 1540 nm (graphene is indicated by the white line).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the phase shift in GMF, (b) measured interference fringes without (blue) and with (red) pump.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured phase shifts in GMF at different incident powers of the (a) 980 nm and (b) 1540 nm pump, where the red dashed lines indicate linear fittings, (c) temperature changes of the GMF calculated from phase shifts in (a) (blue dotted line) and from the numerical analysis of the heat transfer process (red dashed line), where the inset is the steady-state heat distribution of the GMF cross section.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) All-optical switching by the GMF, (b) temporal response of the optical switching.

Equations (1)

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k 2 T ( r ) = Q s ,

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