Abstract

Entangled-photon pairs are essential for many applications in quantum computation and communication, and quantum state tomography (QST) is the universal tool to characterize such entangled-photon sources. In QST, very low-power signals must be measured with single-photon detectors and coincidence logic. Here, we experimentally implement a new protocol, “stimulated-emission tomography” (SET), allowing us to obtain the information provided by QST when the photon pairs are generated by parametric fluorescence. This approach exploits a stimulated process that results in a signal several orders of magnitude larger than in QST. In particular, we characterize the polarization state of photons that would be generated in spontaneous parametric downconversion using SET. We find that SET accurately predicts the purity and concurrence of the spontaneously generated photons in agreement with the results of QST. We expect that SET will be extremely useful to characterize entanglement sources based on parametric fluorescence, providing a fast and efficient technique to potentially replace or supplement QST.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

B. Fang, O. Cohen, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, V. O. Lorenz, Optica 1, 281 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. H. Mahler, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, C. Ferrie, R. Blume-Kohout, A. M. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 183601 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 193602 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, G. Weihs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153605 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Okamoto, M. Iefuji, S. Oyama, K. Yamagata, H. Imai, A. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130404 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, S. T. Flammia, S. Becker, J. Eisert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150401 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. Ling, A. Lamas-Linares, C. Kurtsiefer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043834 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Altepeter, E. Jeffrey, P. Kwiat, Opt. Express 13, 8951 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Walther, K. J. Resch, T. Rudolph, E. Schenck, H. Weinfurter, V. Vedral, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Zeilinger, Nature 434, 169 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, A. M. Steinberg, Nature 429, 161 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Raussendorf, D. E. Browne, H. J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022312 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, A. G. White, Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

R. D. Gill, S. Massar, Phys. Rev. A 61, 042312 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Jozsa, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2315 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abolghasem, P.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, G. Weihs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153605 (2012).
[Crossref]

Abrams, D. S.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000).
[Crossref]

Altepeter, J.

Aspelmeyer, M.

P. Walther, K. J. Resch, T. Rudolph, E. Schenck, H. Weinfurter, V. Vedral, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Zeilinger, Nature 434, 169 (2005).
[Crossref]

Becker, S.

D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, S. T. Flammia, S. Becker, J. Eisert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bijlani, B. J.

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, G. Weihs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153605 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blume-Kohout, R.

D. H. Mahler, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, C. Ferrie, R. Blume-Kohout, A. M. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 183601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boto, A. N.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000).
[Crossref]

Boucher, G.

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

Braunstein, S. L.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000).
[Crossref]

Briegel, H. J.

R. Raussendorf, D. E. Browne, H. J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022312 (2003).
[Crossref]

Browne, D. E.

R. Raussendorf, D. E. Browne, H. J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022312 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chuang, I. L.

M. A. Nielsen, I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

Cohen, O.

Coudreau, T.

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Darabi, A.

D. H. Mahler, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, C. Ferrie, R. Blume-Kohout, A. M. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 183601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Della Frera, A.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dowling, J. P.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ducci, S.

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eckstein, A.

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eisert, J.

D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, S. T. Flammia, S. Becker, J. Eisert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fang, B.

Favero, I.

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrie, C.

D. H. Mahler, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, C. Ferrie, R. Blume-Kohout, A. M. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 183601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Filloux, P.

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flammia, S. T.

D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, S. T. Flammia, S. Becker, J. Eisert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, A.

R. Okamoto, M. Iefuji, S. Oyama, K. Yamagata, H. Imai, A. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gill, R. D.

R. D. Gill, S. Massar, Phys. Rev. A 61, 042312 (2000).
[Crossref]

Goggin, M.

Gross, D.

D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, S. T. Flammia, S. Becker, J. Eisert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Helmy, A. S.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, G. Weihs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153605 (2012).
[Crossref]

Helt, L. G.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Horn, R.

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, G. Weihs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153605 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horn, R. T.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Iefuji, M.

R. Okamoto, M. Iefuji, S. Oyama, K. Yamagata, H. Imai, A. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Imai, H.

R. Okamoto, M. Iefuji, S. Oyama, K. Yamagata, H. Imai, A. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130404 (2012).
[Crossref]

James, D. F. V.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, A. G. White, Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jeffrey, E.

Jennewein, T.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jozsa, R.

R. Jozsa, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2315 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kang, D.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, G. Weihs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153605 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keller, A.

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kok, P.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kolenderski, P.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kurtsiefer, C.

A. Ling, A. Lamas-Linares, C. Kurtsiefer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043834 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kwiat, P.

Kwiat, P. G.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, A. G. White, Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lamas-Linares, A.

A. Ling, A. Lamas-Linares, C. Kurtsiefer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043834 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lemaitre, A.

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leo, G.

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ling, A.

A. Ling, A. Lamas-Linares, C. Kurtsiefer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043834 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liscidini, M.

A. Eckstein, G. Boucher, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, S. Ducci, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014).

B. Fang, O. Cohen, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, V. O. Lorenz, Optica 1, 281 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 193602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.-K.

D. Gross, Y.-K. Liu, S. T. Flammia, S. Becker, J. Eisert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, V. O.

Lundeen, J. S.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, A. M. Steinberg, Nature 429, 161 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mahler, D. H.

D. H. Mahler, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, C. Ferrie, R. Blume-Kohout, A. M. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 183601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Massar, S.

R. D. Gill, S. Massar, Phys. Rev. A 61, 042312 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mattle, K.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[Crossref]

Milman, P.

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, M. W.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, A. M. Steinberg, Nature 429, 161 (2004).
[Crossref]

Munro, W. J.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, A. G. White, Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, M. A.

M. A. Nielsen, I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

Okamoto, R.

R. Okamoto, M. Iefuji, S. Oyama, K. Yamagata, H. Imai, A. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Orieux, A.

A. Orieux, A. Eckstein, A. Lemaitre, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, T. Coudreau, A. Keller, P. Milman, S. Ducci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oyama, S.

R. Okamoto, M. Iefuji, S. Oyama, K. Yamagata, H. Imai, A. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rangarajan, R.

Raussendorf, R.

R. Raussendorf, D. E. Browne, H. J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022312 (2003).
[Crossref]

Resch, K. J.

P. Walther, K. J. Resch, T. Rudolph, E. Schenck, H. Weinfurter, V. Vedral, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Zeilinger, Nature 434, 169 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rozema, L. A.

D. H. Mahler, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, C. Ferrie, R. Blume-Kohout, A. M. Steinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 183601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, T.

P. Walther, K. J. Resch, T. Rudolph, E. Schenck, H. Weinfurter, V. Vedral, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Zeilinger, Nature 434, 169 (2005).
[Crossref]

Scarcella, C.

R. T. Horn, P. Kolenderski, D. Kang, P. Abolghasem, C. Scarcella, A. Della Frera, A. Tosi, L. G. Helt, S. V. Zhukovsky, J. E. Sipe, G. Weihs, A. S. Helmy, T. Jennewein, Sci. Rep. 3, 2314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schenck, E.

P. Walther, K. J. Resch, T. Rudolph, E. Schenck, H. Weinfurter, V. Vedral, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Zeilinger, Nature 434, 169 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Supplement 1: PDF (496 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Simple cartoon of a SPDC “sandwich” source that produces entangled-photon pairs. (b) Stimulated version of the SPDC sandwich source; now a seed beam is sent into the signal mode to stimulate light into the idler mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Our entangled-photon source and the generation of our seed beam for stimulated-emission tomography (SET). The signal and idler modes are coupled into single-mode fibers, and sent to a tomography apparatus. (b) The standard quantum tomography apparatus consists of a pair of polarization measurements on each mode (implemented using waveplates and polarizing beamsplitter cubes). The output modes of each cube are coupled to single-photon detectors, and coincidences between detectors are monitored. (c) The SET apparatus is almost identical to the quantum tomography apparatus, but photodiodes replace the single-photon detectors, and there are no coincidence measurements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two-photon density matrices reconstructed by (a) standard QST and (b) SET. The SET reconstruction is based on the single-photon density matrices shown in Table 1 of Supplement 1. The density matrices reconstructed using the two methods have a fidelity of 0.963 with each other.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Plot of the concurrence versus | α | 2 ; | α | 2 was extracted from QST. These data were taken for entangled states of the nominal form α | H H + β | V V . The green squares were extracted from SET, the blue circles are from QST, and the blue curve is a simple theory calculation assuming perfectly pure states. (b) Plot of the purity extracted from SET versus the purity extracted from standard QST. For these data | α | 2 0.5 , and the compensation crystal in the source was systematically misaligned to reduce the purity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effect of the seed angle. The circles represent the phase of the entangled state predicted by SET plotted versus the seed incidence angle. The dashed line is a fit to these data, indicating a phase change of 0.312 rad per mrad. The squares represent the product of the intensity of the signal and idler light coupled into the fiber. The solid curve is a Gaussian fit to these data.

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