Abstract

How quanta of energy and charge are transported on both atomic spatial and ultrafast timescales is at the heart of modern technology. Recent progress in ultrafast spectroscopy has allowed us to directly study the dynamical response of an electronic system to interaction with an electromagnetic field. Here, we present energy-dependent photoemission delays from the noble metal surfaces Ag(111) and Au(111). An interferometric technique based on attosecond pulse trains is applied simultaneously in a gas phase and a solid-state target to derive surface-specific photoemission delays. Experimental delays on the order of 100 as are in the same time range as those obtained from simulations. The strong variation of measured delays with excitation energy in Ag(111), which cannot be consistently explained invoking solely electron transport or initial state localization as supposed in previous work, indicates that final state effects play a key role in photoemission from solids.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S.-H. Yang, A. X. Gray, A. M. Kaiser, B. S. Mun, B. C. Sell, “Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 073513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. G. Borisov, D. Sanchez-Portal, A. K. Kazansky, P. M. Echenique, “Resonant and nonresonant processes in attosecond streaking from metals,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 121110 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states in magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 087401 (2012).
[Crossref]

U. Heinzmann, J. H. Dil, “Spin–orbit-induced photoelectron spin polarization in angle-resolved photoemission from both atomic and condensed matter targets,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24, 173001 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

C.-H. Zhang, U. Thumm, “Streaking and Wigner time delays in photoemission from atoms and surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 033401 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guenot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. D. Muiño, D. Sánchez-Portal, V. M. Silkin, E. V. Chulkov, P. M. Echenique, “Time-dependent electron phenomena at surfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 971–976 (2011).

2010 (3)

M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase measurement of resonant two-photon ionization in helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. E. Krasovskii, V. M. Silkin, V. U. Nazarov, P. M. Echenique, E. V. Chulkov, “Dielectric screening and band-structure effects in low-energy photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 125102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

U. Bovensiepen, S. Declair, M. Lisowski, P. A. Loukakos, A. Hotzel, M. Richter, A. Knorr, M. Wolf, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in metals: real-time analysis of a reflected light field using photoelectrons,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045415 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Swoboda, J. M. Dahlström, T. Ruchon, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, “Intensity dependence of laser-assisted attosecond photoionization spectra,” Laser Phys. 19, 1591–1599 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Lemell, B. Solleder, K. Tökesi, J. Burgdörfer, “Simulation of attosecond streaking of electrons emitted from a tungsten surface,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 062901 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Zhang, U. Thumm, “Attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy of metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123601 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carre, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mevel, P. Salieres, R. Taieb, Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kazansky, P. M. Echenique, “One-electron model for the electronic response of metal surfaces to subfemtosecond photoexcitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 177401 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus, “Near-field observation of spatial phase shifts associated with Goos–Haenschen and surface plasmon resonance effects,” Opt. Express 16, 1958–1964 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. C. Baggesen, L. B. Madsen, “Theory for time-resolved measurements of laser-induced electron emission from metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032903 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Miaja-Avila, C. Lei, M. Aeschlimann, J. L. Gland, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Saathoff, “Laser-assisted photoelectric effect from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113604 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Accessing properties of electron wave packets generated by attosecond pulse trains through time-dependent calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013401 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S17–S21 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. A. A. d. Carvalho, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Time delay,” Phys. Rep. 364, 83–174 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. T. Georges, “Calculation of surface electromagnetic fields in laser–metal surface interaction,” Opt. Commun. 188, 321–331 (2001).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

O. K. Andersen, Z. Pawlowska, O. Jepsen, “Illustration of the linear-muffin-tin-orbital tight-binding representation: compact orbitals and charge density in Si,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5253–5269 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

H. Eckardt, L. Fritsche, J. Noffke, “Self-consistent relativistic band structure of the noble metals,” J. Phys. F 14, 97 (1984).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

K. L. Kliewer, “Electromagnetic effects at metal surfaces: a nonlocal view,” Surf. Sci. 101, 57–83 (1980).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

S. Doniach, M. Sunjic, “Many-electron singularity in X-ray photoemission and X-ray line spectra from metals,” J. Phys. C 3, 285 (1970).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

C. N. Berglund, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission studies of copper and silver: theory,” Phys. Rev. 136, A1030–A1044 (1964).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

D. W. Turner, M. I. Al Jobory, “Determination of ionization potentials by photoelectron energy measurement,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 3007–3008 (1962).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

C. Nordling, E. Sokolowski, K. Siegbahn, “Precision method for obtaining absolute values of atomic binding energies,” Phys. Rev. 105, 1676–1677 (1957).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

E. P. Wigner, “Lower limit for the energy derivative of the scattering phase shift,” Phys. Rev. 98, 145 (1955).
[Crossref]

1905 (1)

A. Einstein, “Ueber einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt,” Ann. Phys.-Berlin 322, 132–148 (1905).

Aeschlimann, M.

L. Miaja-Avila, C. Lei, M. Aeschlimann, J. L. Gland, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Saathoff, “Laser-assisted photoelectric effect from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Al Jobory, M. I.

D. W. Turner, M. I. Al Jobory, “Determination of ionization potentials by photoelectron energy measurement,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 3007–3008 (1962).
[Crossref]

Andersen, O. K.

O. K. Andersen, Z. Pawlowska, O. Jepsen, “Illustration of the linear-muffin-tin-orbital tight-binding representation: compact orbitals and charge density in Si,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5253–5269 (1986).
[Crossref]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baggesen, J. C.

J. C. Baggesen, L. B. Madsen, “Theory for time-resolved measurements of laser-induced electron emission from metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barth, J. V.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states in magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 087401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berglund, C. N.

C. N. Berglund, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission studies of copper and silver: theory,” Phys. Rev. 136, A1030–A1044 (1964).
[Crossref]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Borisov, A. G.

A. G. Borisov, D. Sanchez-Portal, A. K. Kazansky, P. M. Echenique, “Resonant and nonresonant processes in attosecond streaking from metals,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 121110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bothschafter, E. M.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states in magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 087401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bovensiepen, U.

U. Bovensiepen, S. Declair, M. Lisowski, P. A. Loukakos, A. Hotzel, M. Richter, A. Knorr, M. Wolf, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in metals: real-time analysis of a reflected light field using photoelectrons,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045415 (2009).
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Pfeiffer, A. N.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
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Pitarke, J. M.

E. V. Chulkov, I. Sklyadneva, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, J. M. Pitarke, L. M. Sandratskii, P. Buczek, K. Ishioka, J. Schäfer, M. Weinelt, Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Vol. 2: Fundamentals (Wiley-VCH, 2012).

Quéré, F.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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U. Bovensiepen, S. Declair, M. Lisowski, P. A. Loukakos, A. Hotzel, M. Richter, A. Knorr, M. Wolf, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in metals: real-time analysis of a reflected light field using photoelectrons,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045415 (2009).
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S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carre, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mevel, P. Salieres, R. Taieb, Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
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M. Swoboda, J. M. Dahlström, T. Ruchon, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, “Intensity dependence of laser-assisted attosecond photoionization spectra,” Laser Phys. 19, 1591–1599 (2009).
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L. Miaja-Avila, C. Lei, M. Aeschlimann, J. L. Gland, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, G. Saathoff, “Laser-assisted photoelectric effect from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113604 (2006).
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R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
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S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carre, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mevel, P. Salieres, R. Taieb, Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
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A. G. Borisov, D. Sanchez-Portal, A. K. Kazansky, P. M. Echenique, “Resonant and nonresonant processes in attosecond streaking from metals,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 121110 (2013).
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R. D. Muiño, D. Sánchez-Portal, V. M. Silkin, E. V. Chulkov, P. M. Echenique, “Time-dependent electron phenomena at surfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 971–976 (2011).

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E. V. Chulkov, I. Sklyadneva, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, J. M. Pitarke, L. M. Sandratskii, P. Buczek, K. Ishioka, J. Schäfer, M. Weinelt, Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Vol. 2: Fundamentals (Wiley-VCH, 2012).

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M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase measurement of resonant two-photon ionization in helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
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M. Swoboda, J. M. Dahlström, T. Ruchon, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, “Intensity dependence of laser-assisted attosecond photoionization spectra,” Laser Phys. 19, 1591–1599 (2009).
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J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Accessing properties of electron wave packets generated by attosecond pulse trains through time-dependent calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013401 (2005).
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E. V. Chulkov, I. Sklyadneva, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, J. M. Pitarke, L. M. Sandratskii, P. Buczek, K. Ishioka, J. Schäfer, M. Weinelt, Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Vol. 2: Fundamentals (Wiley-VCH, 2012).

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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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S.-H. Yang, A. X. Gray, A. M. Kaiser, B. S. Mun, B. C. Sell, “Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 073513 (2013).
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R. D. Muiño, D. Sánchez-Portal, V. M. Silkin, E. V. Chulkov, P. M. Echenique, “Time-dependent electron phenomena at surfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 971–976 (2011).

E. E. Krasovskii, V. M. Silkin, V. U. Nazarov, P. M. Echenique, E. V. Chulkov, “Dielectric screening and band-structure effects in low-energy photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 125102 (2010).
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M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase measurement of resonant two-photon ionization in helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
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M. Swoboda, J. M. Dahlström, T. Ruchon, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, “Intensity dependence of laser-assisted attosecond photoionization spectra,” Laser Phys. 19, 1591–1599 (2009).
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S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007).

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J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
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C.-H. Zhang, U. Thumm, “Streaking and Wigner time delays in photoemission from atoms and surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 033401 (2011).
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C.-H. Zhang, U. Thumm, “Attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy of metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123601 (2009).
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C. Lemell, B. Solleder, K. Tökesi, J. Burgdörfer, “Simulation of attosecond streaking of electrons emitted from a tungsten surface,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 062901 (2009).
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E. V. Chulkov, I. Sklyadneva, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, J. M. Pitarke, L. M. Sandratskii, P. Buczek, K. Ishioka, J. Schäfer, M. Weinelt, Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Vol. 2: Fundamentals (Wiley-VCH, 2012).

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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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S.-H. Yang, A. X. Gray, A. M. Kaiser, B. S. Mun, B. C. Sell, “Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 073513 (2013).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Accessing properties of electron wave packets generated by attosecond pulse trains through time-dependent calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013401 (2005).
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S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carre, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mevel, P. Salieres, R. Taieb, Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. B (5)

E. E. Krasovskii, V. M. Silkin, V. U. Nazarov, P. M. Echenique, E. V. Chulkov, “Dielectric screening and band-structure effects in low-energy photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 125102 (2010).
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C.-H. Zhang, U. Thumm, “Attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy of metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123601 (2009).
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M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase measurement of resonant two-photon ionization in helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

R. D. Muiño, D. Sánchez-Portal, V. M. Silkin, E. V. Chulkov, P. M. Echenique, “Time-dependent electron phenomena at surfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 971–976 (2011).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

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S. Hüfner, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Springer, 2003).

E. V. Chulkov, I. Sklyadneva, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, J. M. Pitarke, L. M. Sandratskii, P. Buczek, K. Ishioka, J. Schäfer, M. Weinelt, Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Vol. 2: Fundamentals (Wiley-VCH, 2012).

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic illustration of the experiment. (b) Typical photon spectrum of the XUV pulse train. (c) Photoelectron spectrum of Ar. (d) Photoelectron spectra of Ag(111). Replicas of the 4 d band produced by the harmonics of the XUV pulse sit on a background of secondary electrons (blue line). Moreover, the IR field alone generates an ATP background comparable in strength to the signal of interest (red line).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Energy level scheme of the RABBITT process. Interfering two-color two-photon transitions give rise to sidebands (SBs) between adjacent odd high harmonics (HH). (b),(c) Experimental RABBITT traces from Ar and Ag(111) with electrons originating from Ar 3 p and Ag 4 d levels, respectively. Both scans were recorded simultaneously with laser parameters optimized for the surface. A delay-independent background of ATP and secondary electrons was subtracted from (c) to enhance contrast for illustration purposes. (d) Photoelectron spectra from (c) at two different delays. At 100 as (3) the appearance of sidebands is clearly visible, whereas at 800 as (4) the photoelectron spectrum qualitatively resembles the spectrum in the absence of the IR field. (e),(f) Integration over the energy range of SB 18 revealing the oscillation with 2 ω . Experimental curves (1) and (2) were fitted with A ( t ) · cos ( 2 ω t ϕ 2 q ) , where ϕ 2 q is the experimental spectral phase as indicated and A ( t ) is the pulse envelope function.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Raw data of typical RABBITT traces from Ag(111) and Au(111). (b) Raw phases, ϕ 2 q , extracted from respective surface and argon RABBITT traces. Phases from individual measurements were aligned with the average phase set to zero and contain an unknown offset phase. (c) Surface-specific phase plotted as the phase difference, ϕ 2 q s ϕ 2 q g , between corresponding surface and gas phase RABBITT scans. Error bars represent the standard deviation of six scans for Ag(111) and eight scans for Au(111).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic representation of the three steps involved in the surface RABBITT: (1) initial excitation of the electron by absorption of an XUV photon, (2) ballistic transport within the solid, and (3) absorption/emission of an IR photon.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimentally determined photoemission delays. (a) Emission from the Ag(111) 4 d band (golden diamonds). Results of our simulations are delimited by the extreme cases with and without screening (upper and lower blue lines). (b) Results for emission from the Au(111) 5 d band. The additional error bars at 0 as in (a) and (b) indicate the experimental error ( 2 σ τ ) of the propagation delay, τ prop , which leads to uncertainty in the delay scale. This error is added to the simulated values and illustrated by the light-blue shaded areas for better comparison.

Equations (1)

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τ 2 q s = τ λ , 2 q s + τ c c , 2 q s + τ trans , 2 q s = ϕ 2 q s ϕ 2 q g 2 ω + τ λ , 2 q g + τ c c , 2 q g τ prop + τ refl .

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