Abstract

The response of solids to electromagnetic fields is of crucial importance in many areas of science and technology. Many fundamental questions remain to be answered about the dynamics of the photoexcited electrons that underpin this response, which can evolve on timescales of tens to hundreds of attoseconds. How, for example, is the photoexcited electron affected by the periodic potential as it travels in the solid, and how do the other electrons respond in these strongly correlated systems? Furthermore, control of electronic motion in solids with attosecond precision would pave the way for the development of ultrafast optoelectronics. Attosecond electron dynamics can be traced using streaking, a technique in which a strong near-infrared laser field accelerates an attosecond electron wavepacket photoemitted by an extreme ultraviolet light pulse, imprinting timing information onto it. We present attosecond streaking measurements on the wide-bandgap semiconductor tungsten trioxide, and on gold, a metal used in many nanoplasmonic devices. Information about electronic motion in the solid is encoded on the temporal properties of the photoemitted electron wavepackets, which are consistent with a spread of electron transport times to the surface following photoexcitation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, A. L. Cavalieri, C. Lemell, G. Wachter, E. Magerl, E. M. Bothschafter, M. Jobst, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, J. V. Barth, D. Menzel, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, “Direct observation of electron propagation and dielectric screening on the atomic length scale,” Nature 517, 342–346 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

F. Krausz, M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8, 205–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, U. Thumm, “Initial-state, mean-free-path, and skin-depth dependence of attosecond time-resolved IR-streaked XUV photoemission from single-crystalline magnesium,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033849 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. G. Borisov, D. Sánchez-Portal, A. K. Kazansky, P. M. Echenique, “Resonant and nonresonant processes in attosecond streaking from metals,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 121110(R) (2013).
[Crossref]

W. A. Okell, T. Witting, D. Fabris, D. Austin, M. Bocoum, F. Frank, A. Ricci, A. Jullien, D. Walke, J. P. Marangos, R. Lopez-Martens, J. W. G. Tisch, “Carrier-envelope phase stability of hollow-fibers used for high-energy few-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3918–3921 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

F. Frank, C. Arrell, T. Witting, W. A. Okell, J. McKenna, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, D. Austin, H. Teng, I. A. Walmsley, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Technology for attosecond science,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 071101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B 45, 074014 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, D. R. Solli, M. Gulde, C. Ropers, “Field-driven photoemission from nanostructures quenches the quiver motion,” Nature 483, 190–193 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 087401 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, P. Hommelhoff, “Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip,” Nature 475, 78–81 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Skopalová, D. Y. Lei, T. Witting, C. Arrell, F. Frank, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, “Numerical simulation of attosecond nanoplasmonic streaking,” New J. Phys. 13, 083003 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Süßmann, M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic streaking of localised fields near metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 121406(R) (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Tanuma, C. J. Powell, D. R. Penn, “Calculations of electron inelastic mean free paths. IX. Data for 41 elemental solids over the 50  eV to 30  keV range,” Surf. Interface Anal. 43, 689–713 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

C. Lemell, B. Solleder, K. Tökési, J. Burgdörfer, “Simulation of attosecond streaking of electrons emitted from a tungsten surface,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 062901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Uphues, M. Schultze, M. F. Kling, M. Uiberacker, S. Hendel, U. Heinzmann, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, “Ion-charge-state chronoscopy of cascaded atomic Auger decay,” New J. Phys. 10, 025009 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuŝka, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Tanuma, T. Shiratori, T. Kimura, K. Goto, S. Ichimura, C. J. Powell, “Experimental determination of electron inelastic mean free paths in 13 elemental solids in the 50 to 5000  eV energy range by elastic-peak electron spectroscopy,” Surf. Interface Anal. 37, 833–845 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonics generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 14, 935–943 (1997).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

A. Nakamura, S. Yamada, “Fundamental absorption edge of evaporated amorphous WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. 24, 55–59 (1981).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. A. Shirley, “High resolution X-ray photoemission spectrum of the valence bands of gold,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 4709–4714 (1972).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonics generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, I.

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

Antonsson, E.

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

Apalkov, V.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arrell, C.

F. Frank, C. Arrell, T. Witting, W. A. Okell, J. McKenna, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, D. Austin, H. Teng, I. A. Walmsley, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Technology for attosecond science,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 071101 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Skopalová, D. Y. Lei, T. Witting, C. Arrell, F. Frank, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, “Numerical simulation of attosecond nanoplasmonic streaking,” New J. Phys. 13, 083003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arrell, C. A.

T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B 45, 074014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonics generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Austin, D.

W. A. Okell, T. Witting, D. Fabris, D. Austin, M. Bocoum, F. Frank, A. Ricci, A. Jullien, D. Walke, J. P. Marangos, R. Lopez-Martens, J. W. G. Tisch, “Carrier-envelope phase stability of hollow-fibers used for high-energy few-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3918–3921 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Frank, C. Arrell, T. Witting, W. A. Okell, J. McKenna, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, D. Austin, H. Teng, I. A. Walmsley, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Technology for attosecond science,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 071101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonics generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuŝka, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barth, J. V.

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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Supplement 1: PDF (2404 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Surface streaking experimental setup. NIR and XUV pulses are focused onto the sample with a variable time delay. Photoemitted electrons are detected with a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. The inset shows the geometry of the incident beam with respect to the sample. The pulses are focused onto the sample with an incidence angle of 20 ° . The laser polarization lies approximately along the TOF axis. The incident beam is also rotated in a horizontal plane by 6 ° .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Unstreaked valence band photoelectron (PE) spectrum of WO 3 , showing raw data (solid black), Fourier filtered spectrum (red), secondary electron background (dashed black), and background-subtracted and filtered spectrum (blue). (b) Fourier filtered and background-subtracted streaking trace from WO 3 . The delay-dependent central energy of the valence band is shown by the black curve. (c) Retrieved photoelectron wavepacket intensity (red) and phase (black) from FROG-CRAB PCGPA algorithm. The shaded area shows the incident XUV pulse. The retrieved wavepacket has a duration of 359 25 + 42  as. (d) Band-pass filtered electric field retrieved from WO 3 streaking trace (black curve), and unfiltered data points. Retrieved fields from eight separate gas phase streaking measurements [23] are also shown (red curves). The peak electric field from each gas phase streak has been scaled to the peak field from WO 3 to aid comparison.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Unstreaked valence band PE spectrum of Au. (b) Fourier filtered and background-subtracted streaking trace from Au. (c) Photoelectron wavepacket from FROG-CRAB PCGPA algorithm and incident XUV pulse. The retrieved wavepacket has a duration of 319 37 + 43  as. (d) Retrieved electric fields from Au, and from gas phase streaking measurements. The legends are the same as in Fig. 2.

Equations (2)

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E 1 v g = m e 8 E 3 ,
A = m e 2 E init Δ E e cos θ A ^ ,

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