Abstract

Ultrafast lasers with high repetition rates are of considerable interest in applications such as optical fiber telecommunications, frequency metrology, high-speed optical sampling, and arbitrary waveform generation. For fiber lasers mode-locked at the cavity round-trip frequency, the pulse repetition rate is limited to tens or hundreds of megahertz by the meter-order cavity lengths. Here we report a soliton fiber laser passively mode-locked at a high harmonic (2GHz) of its fundamental frequency by means of optoacoustic interactions in the small solid glass core of a short length (60 cm) of photonic crystal fiber. Due to tight confinement of both light and vibrations, the optomechanical interaction is strongly enhanced. The long-lived acoustic vibration provides strong modulation of the refractive index in the photonic crystal fiber core, fixing the soliton spacing in the laser cavity and allowing stable mode-locking, with low pulse timing jitter, at gigahertz repetition rates.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Byun, M. Y. Sander, A. Motamedi, H. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, Appl. Opt. 49, 5577 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kang, A. Brenn, P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Phys. 5, 276 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Salhi, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 67, 013802 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, M. Horowitz, C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett. 25, 153 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, H. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 70 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

A. B. Grudinin, S. Gray, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 144 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 32, 1285 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. E. Fermann, Appl. Phys. B 58, 197 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, L. E. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1080 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. A. Haus, A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (4)

S. M. J. Kelly, Electron. Lett. 28, 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Yoshida, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 932 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. L. Dennis, I. N. Duling, Electron. Lett. 28, 1894 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, K. Noguchi, Electron. Lett. 28, 2095 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[Crossref]

Abedin, K. S.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

Ahmed, G.

M. Pang, X. Jiang, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, P. St. J. Russell, Advanced Photonic 2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTh4A.5.

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

Brenn, A.

M. S. Kang, A. Brenn, P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Phys. 5, 276 (2009).
[Crossref]

Byun, H.

Carruthers, T. F.

Chang, G.

Chen, H.

Collings, B. C.

Dainese, P.

Demokan, M. S.

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis, I. N. Duling, Electron. Lett. 28, 1894 (1992).
[Crossref]

Duling, I. N.

Ferguson, A. I.

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, Nat. Photonics 7, 868 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, Appl. Phys. B 58, 197 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, F. Haberl, M. H. Ober, A. J. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 16, 502 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers Technology and Applications (Dekker, 2003).

Ferrari, A.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fragnito, H. L.

Galvanauskas, A.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers Technology and Applications (Dekker, 2003).

Golovchenko, E. A.

Gopinath, J. T.

Gray, S.

Grein, M. E.

Grudinin, A. B.

Gupta, K. K.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, H. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 70 (2000).
[Crossref]

Haberl, F.

Haider, Z.

Hartl, I.

M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, Nat. Photonics 7, 868 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

K. S. Abedin, J. T. Gopinath, L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 27, 1758 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, L. E. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1080 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. A. Haus, A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hofer, M.

Horowitz, M.

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, L. A.

Jiang, X.

M. Pang, X. Jiang, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, P. St. J. Russell, Advanced Photonic 2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTh4A.5.

Jin, W.

Joly, N.

Joly, N. Y.

M. S. Kang, N. Y. Joly, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 38, 561 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pang, X. Jiang, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, P. St. J. Russell, Advanced Photonic 2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTh4A.5.

Jones, D. J.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kaertner, F. X.

Kang, M. S.

M. S. Kang, N. Y. Joly, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 38, 561 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kang, A. Brenn, P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Phys. 5, 276 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kawanishi, S.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, K. Noguchi, Electron. Lett. 28, 2095 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelly, Electron. Lett. 28, 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

Khelif, A.

Kimura, Y.

E. Yoshida, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 932 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

Knox, W. H.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Laude, V.

Leblond, H.

M. Salhi, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 67, 013802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

Liu, H.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, H. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 70 (2000).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

McFerran, J. J.

Mecozzi, A.

H. A. Haus, A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[Crossref]

Menyuk, C. R.

Motamedi, A.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 32, 1285 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Yoshida, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 932 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nazarkin, A.

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Phys. 5, 276 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, L. E. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1080 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nenadovic, L.

Newbury, N. R.

Noguchi, K.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, K. Noguchi, Electron. Lett. 28, 2095 (1992).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, H. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 70 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ober, M. H.

Onishchukov, G.

M. Pang, X. Jiang, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, P. St. J. Russell, Advanced Photonic 2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTh4A.5.

Pang, M.

M. Pang, X. Jiang, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, P. St. J. Russell, Advanced Photonic 2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTh4A.5.

Patterson, D. B.

Petrich, G. S.

Phillips, M. W.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

M. S. Kang, N. Y. Joly, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 38, 561 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Phys. 5, 276 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, A. Khelif, Opt. Express 14, 4141 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Pang, X. Jiang, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, P. St. J. Russell, Advanced Photonic 2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTh4A.5.

Russell, P. St.J.

M. S. Kang, A. Brenn, P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salhi, M.

M. Salhi, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 67, 013802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, F.

M. Salhi, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 67, 013802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sander, M. Y.

Saruwatari, M.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, K. Noguchi, Electron. Lett. 28, 2095 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schlager, J. B.

Schmidt, A. J.

Shen, H.

Stiller, B.

Sucha, G.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers Technology and Applications (Dekker, 2003).

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

Sylvestre, T.

Takara, H.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, K. Noguchi, Electron. Lett. 28, 2095 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 32, 1285 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, L. E. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1080 (1993).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Wong, G. K. L.

M. Pang, X. Jiang, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, P. St. J. Russell, Advanced Photonic 2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTh4A.5.

Xiao, L.

Xu, S.

Yamashita, S.

Yang, Z.

Yoshida, E.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 32, 1285 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Yoshida, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 932 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. L.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, Appl. Phys. B 58, 197 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Yoshida, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 932 (1992).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. L. Dennis, I. N. Duling, Electron. Lett. 28, 1894 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, K. Noguchi, Electron. Lett. 28, 2095 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. M. J. Kelly, Electron. Lett. 28, 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 32, 1285 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, H. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 70 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. A. Haus, A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, Nat. Photonics 7, 868 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Phys. 5, 276 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (11)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Salhi, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 67, 013802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. S. Kang, A. Brenn, P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

M. Pang, X. Jiang, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, P. St. J. Russell, Advanced Photonic 2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTh4A.5.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers Technology and Applications (Dekker, 2003).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup and SEM of the solid-core PCF. EDF, Er-doped fiber; LD, laser diode; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PC, polarization controller; HNLF, highly nonlinear fiber; DCF, dispersion compensating fiber; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; PD, photodetector; ESA, electrical spectrum analyzer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental results. (a) typical pulse train recorded over 30 min using an oscilloscope operating in the infinite persistence mode. (b) RF spectrum of the pulse train measured by the ESA. (c) left-hand axis: measured autocorrelation of the output pulses (blue circles), plotted against the delay time of the autocorrelator (bottom axis), and the hyperbolic secant fit (red solid line) of the measured data. Right-hand axis: measured optical spectrum of the laser, plotted against wavelength (top axis). Kelly sidebands are clearly visible.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured dependence of pulse parameters on intracavity pulse energy. Upper left-hand axis: deviation of pulse time-bandwidth product ( Δ TBP ) from 0.31 (black triangles), plotted against estimated pulse energy in laser cavity. Lower left-hand axis: measured FWHM pulse duration (black squares) fitted to Eq. (2) (full black line). Right-hand axis: measured 3 dB optical bandwidth of the pulses (blue circles) fitted to Eq. (2) using TBP = 0.31 (full blue line).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ε r ( z , t , r , θ ) = γ e ρ ρ 0 = γ e 2 | Q | E p ρ 01 ( r , θ ) e i ( Ω t q z Δ φ ) 4 π n eff c A eff ρ 0 4 δ 2 + Γ B 2 + c.c. ,
Δ φ = arccot ( 2 δ / Γ B ) , 0 Δ φ π ,
E P τ FWHM = 3.52 β 2 γ Kerr ,

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