Abstract

We demonstrate a nanoscale broadband silicon plasmonic Schottky detector with high responsivity and improved signal to noise ratio operating in the sub-bandgap regime. Responsivity is enhanced by the use of pyramidally shaped plasmonic concentrators. Owing to the large cross-section of the pyramid, light is collected from a large area which corresponds to its base, concentrated toward the nano apex of the pyramid, absorbed in the metal, and generates hot electrons. Using the internal photoemission process, these electrons cross over the Schottky barrier and are collected as a photocurrent. The combination of using silicon technology together with the high collection efficiency and nanoscale confinement makes the silicon pyramids ideal for playing a central role in the construction of improved photodetectors. Furthermore, owing to the small active area, the dark current is significantly reduced as compared with flat detectors, and thus an improved signal to noise ratio is obtained. Our measurements show high responsivities over a broad spectral regime, with a record high of about 30 mA/W at the wavelength of 1064 nm, while keeping the dark current as low as 100nA. Finally, such detectors can also be constructed in the form of a pixel array, and thus can be used as focal plane detector arrays.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Silicon-plasmonic internal-photoemission detector for 40  Gbit/s data reception

S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, T. Harter, K. Köhnle, A. Muslija, P. Vincze, S. Wolf, P. Jakobs, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and M. Kohl
Optica 3(7) 741-747 (2016)

Waveguide based compact silicon Schottky photodetector with enhanced responsivity in the telecom spectral band

Ilya Goykhman, Boris Desiatov, Jacob Khurgin, Joseph Shappir, and Uriel Levy
Opt. Express 20(27) 28594-28602 (2012)

High-responsivity sub-bandgap hot-hole plasmonic Schottky detectors

Mohammad Alavirad, Anthony Olivieri, Langis Roy, and Pierre Berini
Opt. Express 24(20) 22544-22554 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, Opt. Express 14, 8154 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Chen, M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 7901 (2009).
  3. S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, P. S. Davids, Opt. Express 19, 24897 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Chen, M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 7901 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Yu, D. Korn, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, K. Komorowska, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, P. Absil, D. Hillerkuss, L. Alloatti, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, Opt. Lett. 37, 4681 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091105 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Chen, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, T. Baba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 031114 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, P. Berini, Opt. Lett. 35, 529 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Scales, P. Berini, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 633 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Akbari, P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 14, 1374 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061109 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 11, 2219 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Opt. Express 20, 28594 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).
  23. M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. Li, J. Valentine, Nano Lett. 14, 3510 (2014).
  26. K.-T. Lin, H.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Lai, C.-C. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 3288 (2014).
  27. A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Shappir, J. B. Khurgin, U. Levy, “Model for quantum efficiency of guided mode plasmonic enhanced silicon schottky detectors,” arXiv: 1401.2624 (2014).
  29. X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. A. O. Govorov, H. Zhang, Y. K. Gun’ko, J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 16616 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 7606 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091105 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 14, 1374 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Valentine, Nano Lett. 14, 3510 (2014).

K.-T. Lin, H.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Lai, C.-C. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 3288 (2014).

H. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 7606 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. O. Govorov, H. Zhang, Y. K. Gun’ko, J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 16616 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, T. Baba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, P. S. Davids, Opt. Express 19, 24897 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 11, 2219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, P. Berini, Opt. Lett. 35, 529 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Scales, P. Berini, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 633 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 7901 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 7901 (2009).

A. Akbari, P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Aihara, T.

T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akbari, A.

A. Akbari, P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alabastri, A.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

Asghari, M.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, T. Baba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bai, P.

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

C. Scales, P. Berini, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 633 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, P. Berini, Opt. Lett. 35, 529 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Akbari, P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Breukelaar, I.

Brongersma, M. L.

H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 14, 1374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. V.

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Casalino, M.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chalabi, H.

H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 14, 1374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-L.

K.-T. Lin, H.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Lai, C.-C. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 3288 (2014).

Chen, L.

Chu, H. S.

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coppola, G.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davids, P. S.

Day, I. E.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
[Crossref]

DeRose, C. T.

Desiatov, B.

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091105 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Opt. Express 20, 28594 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 11, 2219 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Shappir, J. B. Khurgin, U. Levy, “Model for quantum efficiency of guided mode plasmonic enhanced silicon schottky detectors,” arXiv: 1401.2624 (2014).

Di Fabrizio, E.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

Drake, J.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fisher, M.

Francardi, M.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, M.

T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukuhara, M.

T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gioffrè, M.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giugni, A.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, X.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Govorov, A. O.

H. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 7606 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. O. Govorov, H. Zhang, Y. K. Gun’ko, J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 16616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goykhman, I.

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091105 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Opt. Express 20, 28594 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 11, 2219 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Shappir, J. B. Khurgin, U. Levy, “Model for quantum efficiency of guided mode plasmonic enhanced silicon schottky detectors,” arXiv: 1401.2624 (2014).

Gun’ko, Y. K.

A. O. Govorov, H. Zhang, Y. K. Gun’ko, J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 16616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hayakawa, R.

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, T. Baba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

Iodice, M.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ishikura, N.

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, T. Baba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jessop, P. E.

Jung, C. H.

Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khurgin, J.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Opt. Express 20, 28594 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 11, 2219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khurgin, J. B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Shappir, J. B. Khurgin, U. Levy, “Model for quantum efficiency of guided mode plasmonic enhanced silicon schottky detectors,” arXiv: 1401.2624 (2014).

King, N. S.

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knight, M. W.

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[Crossref]

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
[Crossref]

Komorowska, K.

Korn, D.

Kwong, D. L.

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.-S.

K.-T. Lin, H.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Lai, C.-C. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 3288 (2014).

Lee, Y. K.

Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

Leuthold, J.

Levy, U.

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091105 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Opt. Express 20, 28594 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 11, 2219 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Shappir, J. B. Khurgin, U. Levy, “Model for quantum efficiency of guided mode plasmonic enhanced silicon schottky detectors,” arXiv: 1401.2624 (2014).

Li, W.

W. Li, J. Valentine, Nano Lett. 14, 3510 (2014).

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lin, K.-T.

K.-T. Lin, H.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Lai, C.-C. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 3288 (2014).

Lipson, M.

Lo, G. Q.

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

H. Chen, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Malerba, M.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moon, J. S.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, K.

T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H. C.

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, T. Baba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, B.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nötzel, R.

Pantouvaki, M.

Park, J.

Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rendina, I.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Saffioti, N.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Scales, C.

C. Scales, P. Berini, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 633 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, P. Berini, Opt. Lett. 35, 529 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schoen, D.

H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 14, 1374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seo, H.

Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shappir, J.

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091105 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Opt. Express 20, 28594 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 11, 2219 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Shappir, J. B. Khurgin, U. Levy, “Model for quantum efficiency of guided mode plasmonic enhanced silicon schottky detectors,” arXiv: 1401.2624 (2014).

Shieh, C.-L.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sirleto, L.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smit, M.

Sobhani, A.

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sobhani, H.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[Crossref]

Somorjai, G. A.

Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Starbuck, A. L.

Stockman, M. I.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toma, A.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tong, M.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Torre, B.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
[Crossref]

Urban, A. S.

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

Valentine, J.

W. Li, J. Valentine, Nano Lett. 14, 3510 (2014).

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Verheyen, P.

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

Watts, M. R.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, K.

T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.-C.

K.-T. Lin, H.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Lai, C.-C. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 3288 (2014).

Yu, G.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Yu, Y. L.

T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zaccaria, R. P.

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 7606 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. O. Govorov, H. Zhang, Y. K. Gun’ko, J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 16616 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, B.

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, B. Y.

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091105 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, T. Baba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Akbari, P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, M. Iodice, N. Saffioti, M. Gioffrè, I. Rendina, G. Coppola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241112 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Aihara, K. Nakagawa, M. Fukuhara, Y. L. Yu, K. Yamaguchi, M. Fukuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043111 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061109 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Scales, P. Berini, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 633 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

A. O. Govorov, H. Zhang, Y. K. Gun’ko, J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 16616 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 7606 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 11, 2219 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, A. S. Urban, A. Sobhani, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 13, 1687 (2013).

W. Li, J. Valentine, Nano Lett. 14, 3510 (2014).

H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 14, 1374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Y. Park, Nano Lett. 11, 4251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

K.-T. Lin, H.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Lai, C.-C. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 3288 (2014).

A. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, Y. Wang, B. Zheng, N. S. King, L. V. Brown, Z. Fang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Nat. Commun. 4, 1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. Giugni, B. Torre, A. Toma, M. Francardi, M. Malerba, A. Alabastri, R. P. Zaccaria, M. I. Stockman, E. Di Fabrizio, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (2)

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Shappir, J. B. Khurgin, U. Levy, “Model for quantum efficiency of guided mode plasmonic enhanced silicon schottky detectors,” arXiv: 1401.2624 (2014).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: PDF (1646 KB)     
» Supplement Media 2: MPG (7428 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of our device. Light is incident from the backside of the silicon wafer and propagates toward the active pixel area, where it is concentrated by the silicon pyramid toward the apex.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SEM micrograph of a typical fabricated device. (a) Formation of the nanoapex in the silicon pyramid. (b) SEM micrograph of a final fabricated device.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Calculated average electromagnetic intensity within the device at the wavelength of 1300 nm. (b) Calculated distribution of the generated hot electrons in the device. (See Media 1.)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. I-V measurements of the pyramid Schottky device at constant optical power for three different wavelengths. For comparison, dark measurements are also presented. The inset shows the photocurrent versus optical power data and linear fit for 1550 nm wavelength.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) I-V measurements of the pyramid and the flat device. (b), (d) Calculated normalized average electromagnetic field intensities superimposed on the silicon in the 3d models. (c), (e) SEM micrographs of the fabricated devices. Scale bar is 500 nm.

Metrics