Abstract

Formation of self-organized nanogratings in bulk glasses with femtosecond laser pulses is one of the most intriguing phenomena in the interactions of light with transparent materials. With the feature sizes far beyond the optical diffraction limit, these nanostructures have found widespread applications in nanophotonics and nanofluidics. The physics of the phenomenon is still far from being fully understood, largely because of the lack of a technique for noninvasively visualizing the formation of the nanogratings embedded within bulk glasses. Here, we access the snapshots of morphologies in the laser-affected regions in a porous glass that reveal the evolution of the formation of nanogratings with an increasing number of laser pulses. Combined with further theoretical analyses, our observation provides important clues that suggest that excitation of standing plasma waves at the interfaces between areas modified and unmodified by the femtosecond laser irradiation plays a crucial role in promoting the growth of periodic nanogratings. The proposed universal nanostructure growth mechanism involving laser-induced plasma wave formation at the interfaces of the seed structures may tie together many previous observations, meanwhile linking the in-volume nanograting formation to previously discovered mechanisms for surface nanoripple formation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Formation of in-volume nanogratings with sub-100-nm periods in glass by femtosecond laser irradiation

Yang Liao, Wangjun Pan, Yun Cui, Lingling Qiao, Yves Bellouard, Koji Sugioka, and Ya Cheng
Opt. Lett. 40(15) 3623-3626 (2015)

Formation of nanogratings in a transparent material with tunable ionization property by femtosecond laser irradiation

Fadhil A. Umran, Yang Liao, Mazin M. Elias, Koji Sugioka, Razvan Stoian, Guanghua Cheng, and Ya Cheng
Opt. Express 21(13) 15259-15267 (2013)

Polarization-independent etching of fused silica based on electrons dynamics control by shaped femtosecond pulse trains for microchannel fabrication

X. Yan, L. Jiang, X. Li, K. Zhang, B. Xia, P. Liu, L. Qu, and Y. Lu
Opt. Lett. 39(17) 5240-5243 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. R. Gattass, E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).
  4. P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Self-organized nano-gratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 136–138 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2, 99–104 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Liang, R. Vallée, S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 4389–4396 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci. 4, 182–191 (2013).
  25. M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. T. H. Elmer, “Porous and reconstructed glasses,” in Ceramics and Glasses, S. J. Schneider, ed., Vol. 4 of Engineered Materials Handbook (ASM International, 1992), pp. 427–432.
  27. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 55–57 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Huang, Z. Z. Xu, “Spontaneous scaling down of femtosecond laser-induced apertures towards the 10-nanometer level: the excitation of quasistatic surface plasmons,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 633–652 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. Miyaji, K. F. Zhang, J. Fujita, K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond-laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 198–201 (2012).
  30. C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  31. K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, “Generation of dense electron-hole plasmas in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643–2650 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Buschlinger, S. Nolte, U. Peschel, “Self-organized pattern formation in laser-induced multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 184306 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  34. F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express 19, 9035–9043 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, M. N. Libenson, V. S. Makin, V. V. Trubaev, “Surface electromagnetic waves in optics,” Opt. Eng. 31, 718–730 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  36. F. A. Umran, Y. Liao, M. M. Elias, K. Sugioka, R. Stoian, G. Cheng, Y. Cheng, “Formation of nanogratings in a transparent material with tunable ionization property by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 21, 15259–15267 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).

M. Huang, Z. Z. Xu, “Spontaneous scaling down of femtosecond laser-induced apertures towards the 10-nanometer level: the excitation of quasistatic surface plasmons,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 633–652 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Buschlinger, S. Nolte, U. Peschel, “Self-organized pattern formation in laser-induced multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 184306 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci. 4, 182–191 (2013).

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. A. Umran, Y. Liao, M. M. Elias, K. Sugioka, R. Stoian, G. Cheng, Y. Cheng, “Formation of nanogratings in a transparent material with tunable ionization property by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 21, 15259–15267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 4389–4396 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji, K. F. Zhang, J. Fujita, K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond-laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 198–201 (2012).

2011 (3)

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express 19, 9035–9043 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 136–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2, 99–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass, E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2000 (1)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, “Generation of dense electron-hole plasmas in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643–2650 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, M. N. Libenson, V. S. Makin, V. V. Trubaev, “Surface electromagnetic waves in optics,” Opt. Eng. 31, 718–730 (1992).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[Crossref]

Apalkov, V.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barth, J. V.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beresna, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bonch-Bruevich, A. M.

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, M. N. Libenson, V. S. Makin, V. V. Trubaev, “Surface electromagnetic waves in optics,” Opt. Eng. 31, 718–730 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bounhalli, M.

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bricchi, E.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brisset, F.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buschlinger, R.

R. Buschlinger, S. Nolte, U. Peschel, “Self-organized pattern formation in laser-induced multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 184306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, G.

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. A. Umran, Y. Liao, M. M. Elias, K. Sugioka, R. Stoian, G. Cheng, Y. Cheng, “Formation of nanogratings in a transparent material with tunable ionization property by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 21, 15259–15267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

Colombier, J. P.

Cook, K.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

D’Oliveira, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

Daguzan, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

Döring, S.

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elias, M. M.

Elmer, T. H.

T. H. Elmer, “Porous and reconstructed glasses,” in Ceramics and Glasses, S. J. Schneider, ed., Vol. 4 of Engineered Materials Handbook (ASM International, 1992), pp. 427–432.

Ernstorfer, R.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Faure, N.

Fujita, J.

G. Miyaji, K. F. Zhang, J. Fujita, K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond-laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 198–201 (2012).

Fujita, K.

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gamaly, E. G.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[Crossref]

Garrelie, F.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass, E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gecevicius, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gerster, D.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gertsvolf, M.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gertus, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guizard, S.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hashida, M.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, F.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, M.

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 136–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Self-organized nano-gratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hirlimann, C.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holzner, S.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, Z. Z. Xu, “Spontaneous scaling down of femtosecond laser-induced apertures towards the 10-nanometer level: the excitation of quasistatic surface plasmons,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 633–652 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inouye, H.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kanehira, S.

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kavokin, A. V.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2, 99–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Self-organized nano-gratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kazuyuki, H.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci. 4, 182–191 (2013).

Kienberger, R.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kley, E. B.

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Korbman, M.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lancry, M.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, F.

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. A. Umran, Y. Liao, M. M. Elias, K. Sugioka, R. Stoian, G. Cheng, Y. Cheng, “Formation of nanogratings in a transparent material with tunable ionization property by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 21, 15259–15267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Libenson, M. N.

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, M. N. Libenson, V. S. Makin, V. V. Trubaev, “Surface electromagnetic waves in optics,” Opt. Eng. 31, 718–730 (1992).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Makin, V. S.

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, M. N. Libenson, V. S. Makin, V. V. Trubaev, “Surface electromagnetic waves in optics,” Opt. Eng. 31, 718–730 (1992).
[Crossref]

Martin, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

Masuda, M.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass, E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meynadier, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mitsuyu, T.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci. 4, 182–191 (2013).

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 136–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miyaji, G.

G. Miyaji, K. F. Zhang, J. Fujita, K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond-laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 198–201 (2012).

Miyazaki, K.

G. Miyaji, K. F. Zhang, J. Fujita, K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond-laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 198–201 (2012).

Mizeikis, V.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mühlbrandt, S.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Namba, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

R. Buschlinger, S. Nolte, U. Peschel, “Self-organized pattern formation in laser-induced multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 184306 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okamuro, K.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paasch-Colberg, T.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

Perdrix, M.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

R. Buschlinger, S. Nolte, U. Peschel, “Self-organized pattern formation in laser-induced multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 184306 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petite, G.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pigeon, F.

Plech, A.

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Poulin, J.-C.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Poumellec, B.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qian, B.

Qiao, L.

Qiu, J.

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 136–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Self-organized nano-gratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rajeev, P. P.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rayner, D. M.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reichert, J.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reynaud, S.

Richter, S.

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rode, A. V.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakabe, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sakakura, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schiffrin, A.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schultze, M.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shihoyama, K.

Shimizu, M.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci. 4, 182–191 (2013).

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 136–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Self-organized nano-gratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Si, J.

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005).
[Crossref]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, “Generation of dense electron-hole plasmas in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643–2650 (2000).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Steinert, M.

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stoian, R.

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. A. Umran, Y. Liao, M. M. Elias, K. Sugioka, R. Stoian, G. Cheng, Y. Cheng, “Formation of nanogratings in a transparent material with tunable ionization property by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 21, 15259–15267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Svirko, Y. P.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2, 99–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taylor, R. S.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taylor, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tokita, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tonchev, S.

Toyoda, K.

Trubaev, V. V.

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, M. N. Libenson, V. S. Makin, V. V. Trubaev, “Surface electromagnetic waves in optics,” Opt. Eng. 31, 718–730 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Umran, F. A.

Vailionis, A.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

von der Linde, D.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, “Generation of dense electron-hole plasmas in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643–2650 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. Z.

M. Huang, Z. Z. Xu, “Spontaneous scaling down of femtosecond laser-induced apertures towards the 10-nanometer level: the excitation of quasistatic surface plasmons,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 633–652 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2, 99–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yen, R.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K. F.

G. Miyaji, K. F. Zhang, J. Fujita, K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond-laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 198–201 (2012).

Zhu, B.

Zimmermann, F.

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci. 4, 182–191 (2013).

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. (1)

G. Miyaji, K. F. Zhang, J. Fujita, K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond-laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 198–201 (2012).

J. Phys. B (1)

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 40, S273–S282 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (2)

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12, 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50  nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13, 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (4)

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nano-gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, Z. Z. Xu, “Spontaneous scaling down of femtosecond laser-induced apertures towards the 10-nanometer level: the excitation of quasistatic surface plasmons,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 633–652 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2, 99–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass, E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, M. N. Libenson, V. S. Makin, V. V. Trubaev, “Surface electromagnetic waves in optics,” Opt. Eng. 31, 718–730 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, “Generation of dense electron-hole plasmas in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643–2650 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Buschlinger, S. Nolte, U. Peschel, “Self-organized pattern formation in laser-induced multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 184306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, “Self-organized nano-gratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

T. H. Elmer, “Porous and reconstructed glasses,” in Ceramics and Glasses, S. J. Schneider, ed., Vol. 4 of Engineered Materials Handbook (ASM International, 1992), pp. 427–432.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustrations of femtosecond laser direct writing setups (a) without and (b) with slit-beam shaping. Insets: close-up views of the nanogratings induced in the written tracks. The laser incident direction ( k ), polarization direction ( E ), and the writing direction ( S ) are indicated in the figure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Evolution from a single nanovoid to a nanocrack. Scan velocities in (a)–(e) are 25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 1 mm/s, respectively. Scale bar: 1 μm. Position of the focal point is indicated by the dashed lines in each panel. The laser incident direction ( k ), polarization direction ( E ), and the writing direction ( S ) are indicated in the figure.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Cross-sectional morphologies of nanogratings written without slit-beam shaping. Scan velocities in (a)–(f) are 30, 25, 15, 5, 1, and 0.95 mm/s, respectively. Scale bar: 1 μm. The laser incident direction ( k ), polarization direction ( E ), and the writing direction ( S ) are indicated in the figure.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Cross-sectional morphologies of nanogratings written with slit-beam shaping. Scan velocities in (a)–(i) are 26, 8, 4.5, 1.25, 0.50, 0.35, 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 mm/s, respectively. Scale bar: 1 μm. The laser incident direction ( k ), polarization direction ( E ), and the writing direction ( S ) are indicated in the figure.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Distribution of intensity of light in the x z plane near (a) a spherical-shaped nanoplasma ( R = 20 nm ) and (b), (c) two elliptical shaped nanoplasmas of different sizes. The sizes of elliptical nanoplasmas are R y = 2 0 nm , R y = 4 0 nm , and R z = 4 0 nm in (b) and R x = 2 0 nm , R y = 25 0 nm , and R y = 25 0 nm in (c). The laser incident direction ( k ) and the polarization direction ( E ) are indicated in the figures.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Concept of excitation of a surface plasma (SP) wave at an interface in the porous glass and (b) the calculated period of the surface plasma wave as a function of electron density. Excitation of surface plasma waves requires Re ( ε ) < ε m .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε = ε m N e e 2 ε 0 m * m 1 ( ω 2 + i w / τ ) ,
k S P s = k 0 ε m ε ε m + ε ,
d = π Re ( k S P s ) .

Metrics