Abstract

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging of arbitrarily shaped or oriented objects may miss important features because PA waves propagate normal to structure boundaries and may miss the acoustic detectors when the detection view has a limited angular range. To overcome this long-standing problem, we present an ultrasonic thermal encoding approach that is universally applicable. We exploit the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter and encode a voxel using heat generated by a focused ultrasonic transducer. The PA amplitude from the encoded voxel is increased while those from the neighboring voxels are unchanged. Consequently, the amplitude-increased PA waves propagate in all directions due to the round cross section of the encoded region and thus can be received at any viewing angle on the cross-sectional plane. We built a mathematical model for the thermally encoded PA tomography, performed a numerical simulation, and experimentally validated the ultrasonic thermal encoding efficiency. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate full-view in vivo vascular imaging and compare it to the original linear-array PA tomography system, showing dramatically enhanced imaging of arbitrarily oriented blood vessels. Since ultrasonic heating can be focused deeply, this method can be applied to deep tissue imaging and is promising for full-view imaging of other features of biomedical interest, such as tumor margins.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. Z. Guo, L. Li, L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36, 4084–4088 (2009).
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  4. M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Wang, K. Maslov, W. Xing, A. Garcia-Uribe, L. V. Wang, “Video-rate functional photoacoustic microscopy at depths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106007 (2012).
  8. L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
  10. L. Wang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5759–5764 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
  12. B. Huang, J. Xia, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Improving limited-view photoacoustic tomography with an acoustic reflector,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 110505 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5188–5191 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. M. Meaney, T. Zhou, M. W. Fanning, S. D. Geimer, K. D. Paulsen, “Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: phantom results,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 24, 523–536 (2008).
  15. M. Pramanik, L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy in biological tissue,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3384–3387 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. E. Treeby, B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. E. Treeby, J. Jaros, A. P. Rendell, B. T. Cox, “Modeling nonlinear ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption using a k-space pseudospectral method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4324–4336 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. V. Wang, H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2012).
  26. A. Prost, A. Funke, M. Tanter, J.-F. Aubry, E. Bossy, “Photoacoustic-guided ultrasound therapy with a dual-mode ultrasound array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061205 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

L. Wang, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 174301 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasound-heated photoacoustic flowmetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy in biological tissue,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5759–5764 (2013).

R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. Xia, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Improving limited-view photoacoustic tomography with an acoustic reflector,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 110505 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, D. Peng, X. Ma, W. Guo, Z. Liu, D. Han, X. Yang, J. Tian, “Limited-view photoacoustic imaging based on an iterative adaptive weighted filtered backprojection approach,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3477–3483 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5188–5191 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

B. E. Treeby, J. Jaros, A. P. Rendell, B. T. Cox, “Modeling nonlinear ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption using a k-space pseudospectral method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4324–4336 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Prost, A. Funke, M. Tanter, J.-F. Aubry, E. Bossy, “Photoacoustic-guided ultrasound therapy with a dual-mode ultrasound array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061205 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, W. Xing, A. Garcia-Uribe, L. V. Wang, “Video-rate functional photoacoustic microscopy at depths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106007 (2012).

L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. E. Treeby, B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Pramanik, L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, L. Li, L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36, 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. M. Meaney, T. Zhou, M. W. Fanning, S. D. Geimer, K. D. Paulsen, “Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: phantom results,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 24, 523–536 (2008).

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171–179 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. V. Wang, X. Yang, “Boundary conditions in photoacoustic tomography and image reconstruction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014027 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31, 724–733 (2004).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3384–3387 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aguirre, A.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ambartsoumian, G.

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31, 724–733 (2004).
[Crossref]

Anastasio, M. A.

L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aubry, J.-F.

A. Prost, A. Funke, M. Tanter, J.-F. Aubry, E. Bossy, “Photoacoustic-guided ultrasound therapy with a dual-mode ultrasound array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bossy, E.

J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5188–5191 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Prost, A. Funke, M. Tanter, J.-F. Aubry, E. Bossy, “Photoacoustic-guided ultrasound therapy with a dual-mode ultrasound array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brecht, H.-P.

M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaigne, T.

Conjusteau, A.

M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cox, B. T.

B. E. Treeby, J. Jaros, A. P. Rendell, B. T. Cox, “Modeling nonlinear ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption using a k-space pseudospectral method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4324–4336 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. E. Treeby, B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
[Crossref]

Del Rio, S. P.

R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diebold, G. J.

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3384–3387 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ermilov, S. A.

M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fanning, M. W.

P. M. Meaney, T. Zhou, M. W. Fanning, S. D. Geimer, K. D. Paulsen, “Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: phantom results,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 24, 523–536 (2008).

Fronheiser, M.

M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Funke, A.

A. Prost, A. Funke, M. Tanter, J.-F. Aubry, E. Bossy, “Photoacoustic-guided ultrasound therapy with a dual-mode ultrasound array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gamelin, J.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Uribe, A.

L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, W. Xing, A. Garcia-Uribe, L. V. Wang, “Video-rate functional photoacoustic microscopy at depths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106007 (2012).

Gateau, J.

Geimer, S. D.

P. M. Meaney, T. Zhou, M. W. Fanning, S. D. Geimer, K. D. Paulsen, “Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: phantom results,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 24, 523–536 (2008).

Gigan, S.

Grootendorst, D. J.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, L. Li, L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36, 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, D.

Huang, B.

B. Huang, J. Xia, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Improving limited-view photoacoustic tomography with an acoustic reflector,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 110505 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jaros, J.

B. E. Treeby, J. Jaros, A. P. Rendell, B. T. Cox, “Modeling nonlinear ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption using a k-space pseudospectral method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4324–4336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jose, J.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Katz, O.

Ke, H.

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. I.

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3384–3387 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuchment, P.

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31, 724–733 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuzmiak, C. M.

R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lam, R. B.

R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Z. Guo, L. Li, L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36, 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Ma, X.

Manohar, S.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maslov, K.

L. Wang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5759–5764 (2013).

B. Huang, J. Xia, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Improving limited-view photoacoustic tomography with an acoustic reflector,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 110505 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, W. Xing, A. Garcia-Uribe, L. V. Wang, “Video-rate functional photoacoustic microscopy at depths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106007 (2012).

Maslov, K. I.

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasound-heated photoacoustic flowmetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy in biological tissue,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maurudis, A.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meaney, P. M.

P. M. Meaney, T. Zhou, M. W. Fanning, S. D. Geimer, K. D. Paulsen, “Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: phantom results,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 24, 523–536 (2008).

Nie, L.

L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oraevsky, A. A.

M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paulsen, K. D.

P. M. Meaney, T. Zhou, M. W. Fanning, S. D. Geimer, K. D. Paulsen, “Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: phantom results,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 24, 523–536 (2008).

Peng, D.

Pramanik, M.

M. Pramanik, L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
[Crossref]

Prost, A.

A. Prost, A. Funke, M. Tanter, J.-F. Aubry, E. Bossy, “Photoacoustic-guided ultrasound therapy with a dual-mode ultrasound array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rendell, A. P.

B. E. Treeby, J. Jaros, A. P. Rendell, B. T. Cox, “Modeling nonlinear ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption using a k-space pseudospectral method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4324–4336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ruers, T. J. M.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Steed, D.

R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steenbergen, W.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Su, R.

M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, T.

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3384–3387 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tanter, M.

A. Prost, A. Funke, M. Tanter, J.-F. Aubry, E. Bossy, “Photoacoustic-guided ultrasound therapy with a dual-mode ultrasound array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Treeby, B. E.

B. E. Treeby, J. Jaros, A. P. Rendell, B. T. Cox, “Modeling nonlinear ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption using a k-space pseudospectral method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4324–4336 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. E. Treeby, B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
[Crossref]

van Boven, H.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van der Hage, J.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 174301 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5759–5764 (2013).

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasound-heated photoacoustic flowmetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy in biological tissue,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, W. Xing, A. Garcia-Uribe, L. V. Wang, “Video-rate functional photoacoustic microscopy at depths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106007 (2012).

Wang, L. V.

L. Wang, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 174301 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy in biological tissue,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. Xia, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Improving limited-view photoacoustic tomography with an acoustic reflector,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 110505 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasound-heated photoacoustic flowmetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5759–5764 (2013).

L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, W. Xing, A. Garcia-Uribe, L. V. Wang, “Video-rate functional photoacoustic microscopy at depths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106007 (2012).

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, L. Li, L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36, 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Pramanik, L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171–179 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang, X. Yang, “Boundary conditions in photoacoustic tomography and image reconstruction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014027 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31, 724–733 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang, H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2012).

Wouters, M. W.

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.-I.

L. V. Wang, H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2012).

Xia, J.

B. Huang, J. Xia, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Improving limited-view photoacoustic tomography with an acoustic reflector,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 110505 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy in biological tissue,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xing, W.

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasound-heated photoacoustic flowmetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, W. Xing, A. Garcia-Uribe, L. V. Wang, “Video-rate functional photoacoustic microscopy at depths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106007 (2012).

Xu, M.

M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31, 724–733 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Yao, J.

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy in biological tissue,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasound-heated photoacoustic flowmetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

L. Wang, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 174301 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T.

P. M. Meaney, T. Zhou, M. W. Fanning, S. D. Geimer, K. D. Paulsen, “Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: phantom results,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 24, 523–536 (2008).

Zhu, Q.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171–179 (2008).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Hyperthermia (1)

P. M. Meaney, T. Zhou, M. W. Fanning, S. D. Geimer, K. D. Paulsen, “Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: phantom results,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 24, 523–536 (2008).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

B. E. Treeby, J. Jaros, A. P. Rendell, B. T. Cox, “Modeling nonlinear ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption using a k-space pseudospectral method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4324–4336 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (11)

A. Prost, A. Funke, M. Tanter, J.-F. Aubry, E. Bossy, “Photoacoustic-guided ultrasound therapy with a dual-mode ultrasound array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061205 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. Xia, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Improving limited-view photoacoustic tomography with an acoustic reflector,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 110505 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pramanik, L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 054024 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, L. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liu, H. Ke, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasound-heated photoacoustic flowmetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. E. Treeby, B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang, X. Yang, “Boundary conditions in photoacoustic tomography and image reconstruction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014027 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010509 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, W. Xing, A. Garcia-Uribe, L. V. Wang, “Video-rate functional photoacoustic microscopy at depths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106007 (2012).

L. Nie, X. Cai, K. Maslov, A. Garcia-Uribe, M. A. Anastasio, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 110506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. J. Grootendorst, J. Jose, M. W. Wouters, H. van Boven, J. Van der Hage, T. G. Van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, S. Manohar, T. J. M. Ruers, “First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44, 541–549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (3)

R. A. Kruger, C. M. Kuzmiak, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, D. Steed, “Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 113301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, L. Li, L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36, 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31, 724–733 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3384–3387 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy in biological tissue,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, C. Zhang, L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 174301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

L. Wang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5759–5764 (2013).

Other (1)

L. V. Wang, H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2012).

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: PDF (644 KB)     
» Media 2: MPEG (274 KB)     
» Media 3: MPEG (186 KB)     
» Media 4: MPEG (328 KB)     
» Media 5: MPEG (206 KB)     
» Supplement Media 6: MPG (128 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Numerical simulation of the virtually enabled full-view PA imaging using ultrasonic thermal encoding. (a) Schematic of the simulated imaging setup. The heating ultrasonic transducer is not shown. (b)–(e) Simulations of a vertical line object without and with point ultrasonic heating. (b) Initial pressure rise of the line object without ultrasonic heating Media 1. (c) Reconstructed PA image of the line object without ultrasonic heating Media 2. (d) Initial pressure rise of the line object with an ultrasonic heating spot Media 3. (e) Reconstructed PA image of the overlap between the ultrasonic heating spot and the line object Media 4.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of a full-view photoacoustic imaging system based on acoustic thermal tagging.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ultrasonic thermal encoding test. (a) PA amplitude change with 0.5 Hz modulated ultrasonic heating. (b) PA modulation amplitude versus ultrasonic heating power. Error bars represent standard errors. N = 8 .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) In vivo mouse vascular imaging without ultrasonic thermal encoding. Only horizontal or nearly horizontal blood vessel segments are visible. (b) In vivo vascular imaging with ultrasonic thermal encoding. More blood vessels are visible due to the enlarged view angle Media 5. (c) Overlay image showing coregistered original and thermally encoded PA images.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p 0 ( ρ⃗ ) = Γ 0 ( ρ⃗ ) η μ a ( ρ⃗ ) F ( ρ⃗ ) ,
Γ ( ρ⃗ , Δ T ) = Γ 0 ( ρ⃗ ) + Γ 0 ( ρ⃗ ) Δ T ( ρ⃗ ) ,
p 0 th ( ρ⃗ ) = Γ 0 ( ρ⃗ ) η μ a ( ρ⃗ ) F ( ρ⃗ ) + Γ 0 ( ρ⃗ ) Δ T ( ρ⃗ ) η μ a ( ρ⃗ ) F ( ρ⃗ ) .
p th ( ρ⃗ , t ) = Γ 0 ( ρ⃗ ) η F ( ρ⃗ ) 4 π v s 2 t [ 1 v s t μ a ( ρ⃗ ) δ ( t | ρ⃗ ρ⃗ | v s ) d ρ⃗ ] + Γ 0 ( ρ⃗ ) η F ( ρ⃗ ) 4 π v s 2 t [ 1 v s t Δ T ( ρ⃗ ) μ a ( ρ⃗ ) δ ( t | ρ⃗ ρ⃗ | v s ) d ρ⃗ ] ,
μ a ( r ) = μ a 0 U ( R r ) ,
U ( m ) = { 1 for m 0 0 for m < 0 .
p c ( τ ) = Γ 0 η μ a 0 F π ( 2 r ) 0.5 χ 0 ξ + 1 ( ξ + τ ) 0.5 [ 1 ( ξ + 1 ) 2 ] 0.5 d ξ ,
p ( τ , τ ) = p c ( τ ) + p s ( τ ) = p c ( τ ) + Γ 0 Δ T η μ a 0 F 2 ρ ( 1 τ ) [ Θ 0,1 ( τ ) + Θ 1,2 ( τ ) ] ,
Θ i , j ( m ) = { 1 for i m j 0 else .

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