Abstract

Hierarchical structures appear often in life and materials sciences, and their characterization profits greatly from imaging methods that allow seamless probing of various length scales without sacrificing image quality. X-ray tomography is particularly adept at probing 3D structures; however, zooming in on a region of interest results in a loss of quantitativeness of image contrast and suffers from artifacts unless a priori knowledge or assumptions about the sample are used. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid technique that exploits a micrometer-resolution overview to realize ab initio nanoscale interior tomography with quantitative contrast. In a study of avian eggshell, a model for bionanoporous materials, our approach reveals a complex arrangement of vesicles with sizes ranging from hundred nanometers to a few micrometers. We anticipate that such an approach can be widely adopted and benefited from at synchrotron and laboratory sources, for instance, where such zooming capabilities are already present or can be readily realized.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (6)

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Poeppel, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, “Characterization of carbon fibers using x-ray phase nanotomography,” Carbon 67, 98–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. F. Dam, T. R. Andersen, E. B. L. Pedersen, K. T. S. Thydén, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carlé, P. S. Jørgensen, J. Reinhardt, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, E. Bundgaard, F. C. Krebs, J. W. Andreasen, “Enabling flexible polymer tandem solar cells by 3D ptychographic imaging,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1400736 (2014).

J. C. da Silva, K. Mader, M. Holler, D. Haberthür, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, W.-C. Cheng, Y. Shu, J. Raabe, A. Menzel, J. A. van Bokhoven, “Assessment of the 3 D pore structure and individual components of preshaped catalyst bodies by x-ray imaging,” ChemCatChem 7, 413–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Høydalsvik, J. B. Fløystad, T. Zhao, M. Esmaeili, A. Diaz, J. W. Andreasen, R. H. Mathiesen, M. Rønning, D. W. Breiby, “In situ x-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241909 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, O. Bunk, “Hard x-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16  nm 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

M. Esmaeili, J. B. Floystad, A. Diaz, K. Hoydalsvik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, J. W. Andreasen, D. W. Breiby, “Ptychographic x-ray tomography of silk fiber hydration,” Macromolecules 46, 434–439 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, M. Guizar-Sicairos, G. Xiong, L. Shemilt, A. Diaz, J. Nutter, N. Burdet, S. Huo, J. Mancuso, A. Monteith, F. Vergeer, A. Burgess, I. Robinson, “Three-dimensional structure analysis and percolation properties of a barrier marine coating,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1177 (2013).

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2288 (2013).

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Krenkel, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, “Transport of intensity phase reconstruction to solve the twin image problem in holographic x-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 2220–2235 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Trtik, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, “Density mapping of hardened cement paste using ptychographic X-ray computed tomography,” Cement Concrete Composit. 36, 71–77 (2013).

2012 (7)

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE 7, e35691 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lauzier, Z. Qi, J. Zambelli, N. Bevins, G.-H. Chen, “Interior tomography in x-ray differential phase contrast CT imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, N117–N130 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Tanaka, M. Nagashima, K. Kido, Y. Hoshino, J. Kiyohara, C. Makifuchi, S. Nishino, S. Nagatsuka, A. Momose, “Cadaveric and in vivo human joint imaging based on differential phase contrast by x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 222–227 (2012).

D. J. Vine, D. Pelliccia, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, A. Berry, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “Simultaneous x-ray fluorescence and ptychographic microscopy of Cyclotella meneghiniana,” Opt. Express 20, 18287–18296 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. N. Wilke, M. Priebe, M. Bartels, K. Giewekemeyer, A. Diaz, P. Karvinen, T. Salditt, “Hard x-ray imaging of bacterial cells: nano-diffraction and ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express 20, 19232–19254 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104(R) (2012).

2011 (5)

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from x-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express 19, 21345–21357 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Kyrieleis, V. Titarenko, M. Ibison, T. Connolley, P. J. Withers, “Region-of-interest tomography using filtered backprojection: assessing the practical limits,” J. Microsc. 241, 69–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S.-C. Gleber, T. Salditt, A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 208101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Giewekemeyer, S. P. Krüger, S. Kalbfleisch, M. Bartels, C. Beta, T. Salditt, “X-ray propagation microscopy of biological cells using waveguides as a quasipoint source,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023804 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Maaß, M. Knaup, M. Kachelrieß, “New approaches to region of interest computed tomography,” Med. Phys. 38, 2868–2878 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

J. Yang, H. Yu, G. Wang, “High-order total variation minimization for interior tomography,” Inverse Probl. 26, 035013 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trik, K. Jefimovs, C. David, “Phase-contrast tomography at the nanoscale using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105 (2010).

G. Schulz, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, F. Beckmann, C. David, S. Rutishauser, E. Reznikova, B. Müller, “High-resolution tomographic imaging of a human cerebellum: comparison of absorption and grating-based phase contrast,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 1665–1676 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Marone, B. Münch, M. Stampanoni, “Fast reconstruction algorithm dealing with tomography artifacts,” Proc. SPIE 7804, 780410 (2010).

2009 (4)

T. Köhler, F. Noo, “Comment on ‘Region-of-interest tomography for grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 039801 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. T. Thurman, J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with signal bias,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1008–1014 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, G. Wang, “Compressed sensing based interior tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 2791–2805 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: a single photon counting pixel detector for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33, 156–158 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express 16, 7264–7278 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, O. Bunk, T. Donath, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “Region-of-interest tomography for grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 168101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 144104 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105 (2007).
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2006 (1)

S. Ji, Q. Gu, B. Xia, “Porosity dependence of mechanical properties of solid materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 41, 1757–1768 (2006).
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2004 (2)

Y. Nys, J. Gautron, J. M. Garcia-Ruiz, M. T. Hincke, “Avian eggshell mineralization: biochemical and functional characterization of matrix proteins,” C. R. Palevol. 3, 549–562 (2004).

H. M. L. Faulkner, J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
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2003 (2)

J. L. Arias, M. S. Fernández, “Biomimetic processes through the study of mineralized shells,” Mater. Charact. 50, 189–195 (2003).
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B. Zitová, J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21, 977–1000 (2003).

1999 (3)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912–2914 (1999).
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M. T. Hincke, J. Gautron, C. P. W. Tsang, M. D. McKee, Y. Nys, “Molecular cloning and ultrastructural localization of the core protein of an eggshell matrix proteoglycan, Ovocleidin-116,” J. Biol. Chem. 274, 32915–32923 (1999).
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1998 (1)

A. C. Fraser, M. M. Bain, S. E. Solomon, “Organic matrix morphology and distribution in the palisade layer of eggshells sampled at selected periods during lay,” Br. Poult. Sci. 39, 225–228 (1998).

1996 (3)

J. E. Dennis, S. Q. Xiao, M. Agarwal, D. J. Fink, A. H. Heuer, A. I. Caplan, “Microstructure of matrix and mineral components of eggshells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus),” J. Morphol. 228, 287–306 (1996).
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K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961–2964 (1996).
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S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature 384, 335–338 (1996).
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1988 (2)

G. W. Faris, R. L. Byer, “Three-dimensional beam-deflection optical tomography of a supersonic jet,” Appl. Opt. 27, 5202–5212 (1988).
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R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23, 713–720 (1988).
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1955 (1)

P. M. Johnston, C. L. Comar, “Distribution and contribution of calcium from the albumen, yolk and shell to the developing chick embryo,” Am. J. Physiol. 183, 365–370 (1955).

Abbey, B.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2288 (2013).

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
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Agarwal, M.

J. E. Dennis, S. Q. Xiao, M. Agarwal, D. J. Fink, A. H. Heuer, A. I. Caplan, “Microstructure of matrix and mineral components of eggshells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus),” J. Morphol. 228, 287–306 (1996).
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Andersen, T. R.

H. F. Dam, T. R. Andersen, E. B. L. Pedersen, K. T. S. Thydén, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carlé, P. S. Jørgensen, J. Reinhardt, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, E. Bundgaard, F. C. Krebs, J. W. Andreasen, “Enabling flexible polymer tandem solar cells by 3D ptychographic imaging,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1400736 (2014).

Andreasen, J. W.

H. F. Dam, T. R. Andersen, E. B. L. Pedersen, K. T. S. Thydén, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carlé, P. S. Jørgensen, J. Reinhardt, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, E. Bundgaard, F. C. Krebs, J. W. Andreasen, “Enabling flexible polymer tandem solar cells by 3D ptychographic imaging,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1400736 (2014).

K. Høydalsvik, J. B. Fløystad, T. Zhao, M. Esmaeili, A. Diaz, J. W. Andreasen, R. H. Mathiesen, M. Rønning, D. W. Breiby, “In situ x-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241909 (2014).
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M. Esmaeili, J. B. Floystad, A. Diaz, K. Hoydalsvik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, J. W. Andreasen, D. W. Breiby, “Ptychographic x-ray tomography of silk fiber hydration,” Macromolecules 46, 434–439 (2013).
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Arhatari, B. D.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2288 (2013).

Arias, J. L.

J. L. Arias, M. S. Fernández, “Biomimetic processes through the study of mineralized shells,” Mater. Charact. 50, 189–195 (2003).
[Crossref]

Asahina, S.

J. J. Boon, J. van der Horst, S. Asahina, “SEM studies of cross sectional cuts of biomineralized tissues from Gallus and Coturnix eggshells using an Argon ion milling CP-system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Biomineralization, Pucón, Chile, 2007, pp. 165–173.

Bain, M. M.

A. C. Fraser, M. M. Bain, S. E. Solomon, “Organic matrix morphology and distribution in the palisade layer of eggshells sampled at selected periods during lay,” Br. Poult. Sci. 39, 225–228 (1998).

Baines, S. B.

Balaur, E.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2288 (2013).

Barnea, Z.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961–2964 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bartels, M.

Baruchel, J.

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912–2914 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bech, M.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, O. Bunk, T. Donath, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “Region-of-interest tomography for grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 168101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beckers, M.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S.-C. Gleber, T. Salditt, A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 208101 (2011).
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Beckmann, F.

G. Schulz, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, F. Beckmann, C. David, S. Rutishauser, E. Reznikova, B. Müller, “High-resolution tomographic imaging of a human cerebellum: comparison of absorption and grating-based phase contrast,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 1665–1676 (2010).
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Bergamaschi, A.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: a single photon counting pixel detector for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
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Berry, A.

Beta, C.

K. Giewekemeyer, S. P. Krüger, S. Kalbfleisch, M. Bartels, C. Beta, T. Salditt, “X-ray propagation microscopy of biological cells using waveguides as a quasipoint source,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023804 (2011).
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Bevins, N.

P. T. Lauzier, Z. Qi, J. Zambelli, N. Bevins, G.-H. Chen, “Interior tomography in x-ray differential phase contrast CT imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, N117–N130 (2012).
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Boon, J. J.

J. J. Boon, J. van der Horst, S. Asahina, “SEM studies of cross sectional cuts of biomineralized tissues from Gallus and Coturnix eggshells using an Argon ion milling CP-system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Biomineralization, Pucón, Chile, 2007, pp. 165–173.

Bravin, A.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, O. Bunk, T. Donath, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “Region-of-interest tomography for grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 168101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref]

Breiby, D. W.

K. Høydalsvik, J. B. Fløystad, T. Zhao, M. Esmaeili, A. Diaz, J. W. Andreasen, R. H. Mathiesen, M. Rønning, D. W. Breiby, “In situ x-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241909 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Esmaeili, J. B. Floystad, A. Diaz, K. Hoydalsvik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, J. W. Andreasen, D. W. Breiby, “Ptychographic x-ray tomography of silk fiber hydration,” Macromolecules 46, 434–439 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brönnimann, C.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: a single photon counting pixel detector for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[Crossref]

Buffière, J.-Y.

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 144104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bundgaard, E.

H. F. Dam, T. R. Andersen, E. B. L. Pedersen, K. T. S. Thydén, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carlé, P. S. Jørgensen, J. Reinhardt, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, E. Bundgaard, F. C. Krebs, J. W. Andreasen, “Enabling flexible polymer tandem solar cells by 3D ptychographic imaging,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1400736 (2014).

Bunk, O.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, O. Bunk, “Hard x-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16  nm 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Poeppel, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, “Characterization of carbon fibers using x-ray phase nanotomography,” Carbon 67, 98–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Trtik, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, “Density mapping of hardened cement paste using ptychographic X-ray computed tomography,” Cement Concrete Composit. 36, 71–77 (2013).

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104(R) (2012).

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from x-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express 19, 21345–21357 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, O. Bunk, T. Donath, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “Region-of-interest tomography for grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 168101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burdet, N.

B. Chen, M. Guizar-Sicairos, G. Xiong, L. Shemilt, A. Diaz, J. Nutter, N. Burdet, S. Huo, J. Mancuso, A. Monteith, F. Vergeer, A. Burgess, I. Robinson, “Three-dimensional structure analysis and percolation properties of a barrier marine coating,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1177 (2013).

Burgess, A.

B. Chen, M. Guizar-Sicairos, G. Xiong, L. Shemilt, A. Diaz, J. Nutter, N. Burdet, S. Huo, J. Mancuso, A. Monteith, F. Vergeer, A. Burgess, I. Robinson, “Three-dimensional structure analysis and percolation properties of a barrier marine coating,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1177 (2013).

Byer, R. L.

Cabana, J.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Caplan, A. I.

J. E. Dennis, S. Q. Xiao, M. Agarwal, D. J. Fink, A. H. Heuer, A. I. Caplan, “Microstructure of matrix and mineral components of eggshells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus),” J. Morphol. 228, 287–306 (1996).
[Crossref]

Carlé, J. E.

H. F. Dam, T. R. Andersen, E. B. L. Pedersen, K. T. S. Thydén, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carlé, P. S. Jørgensen, J. Reinhardt, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, E. Bundgaard, F. C. Krebs, J. W. Andreasen, “Enabling flexible polymer tandem solar cells by 3D ptychographic imaging,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1400736 (2014).

Celestre, R.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chao, W.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2288 (2013).

B. Chen, M. Guizar-Sicairos, G. Xiong, L. Shemilt, A. Diaz, J. Nutter, N. Burdet, S. Huo, J. Mancuso, A. Monteith, F. Vergeer, A. Burgess, I. Robinson, “Three-dimensional structure analysis and percolation properties of a barrier marine coating,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1177 (2013).

Chen, G.-H.

P. T. Lauzier, Z. Qi, J. Zambelli, N. Bevins, G.-H. Chen, “Interior tomography in x-ray differential phase contrast CT imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, N117–N130 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W.-C.

J. C. da Silva, K. Mader, M. Holler, D. Haberthür, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, W.-C. Cheng, Y. Shu, J. Raabe, A. Menzel, J. A. van Bokhoven, “Assessment of the 3 D pore structure and individual components of preshaped catalyst bodies by x-ray imaging,” ChemCatChem 7, 413–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Clark, J. N.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cloetens, P.

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE 7, e35691 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, O. Bunk, T. Donath, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “Region-of-interest tomography for grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 168101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 144104 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912–2914 (1999).
[Crossref]

Comar, C. L.

P. M. Johnston, C. L. Comar, “Distribution and contribution of calcium from the albumen, yolk and shell to the developing chick embryo,” Am. J. Physiol. 183, 365–370 (1955).

Connolley, T.

A. Kyrieleis, V. Titarenko, M. Ibison, T. Connolley, P. J. Withers, “Region-of-interest tomography using filtered backprojection: assessing the practical limits,” J. Microsc. 241, 69–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cookson, D. F.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961–2964 (1996).
[Crossref]

da Silva, J. C.

J. C. da Silva, K. Mader, M. Holler, D. Haberthür, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, W.-C. Cheng, Y. Shu, J. Raabe, A. Menzel, J. A. van Bokhoven, “Assessment of the 3 D pore structure and individual components of preshaped catalyst bodies by x-ray imaging,” ChemCatChem 7, 413–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dam, H. F.

H. F. Dam, T. R. Andersen, E. B. L. Pedersen, K. T. S. Thydén, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carlé, P. S. Jørgensen, J. Reinhardt, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, E. Bundgaard, F. C. Krebs, J. W. Andreasen, “Enabling flexible polymer tandem solar cells by 3D ptychographic imaging,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1400736 (2014).

David, C.

G. Schulz, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, F. Beckmann, C. David, S. Rutishauser, E. Reznikova, B. Müller, “High-resolution tomographic imaging of a human cerebellum: comparison of absorption and grating-based phase contrast,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 1665–1676 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trik, K. Jefimovs, C. David, “Phase-contrast tomography at the nanoscale using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105 (2010).

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, O. Bunk, T. Donath, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “Region-of-interest tomography for grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 168101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Jonge, M.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dennis, J. E.

J. E. Dennis, S. Q. Xiao, M. Agarwal, D. J. Fink, A. H. Heuer, A. I. Caplan, “Microstructure of matrix and mineral components of eggshells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus),” J. Morphol. 228, 287–306 (1996).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

J. C. da Silva, K. Mader, M. Holler, D. Haberthür, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, W.-C. Cheng, Y. Shu, J. Raabe, A. Menzel, J. A. van Bokhoven, “Assessment of the 3 D pore structure and individual components of preshaped catalyst bodies by x-ray imaging,” ChemCatChem 7, 413–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Høydalsvik, J. B. Fløystad, T. Zhao, M. Esmaeili, A. Diaz, J. W. Andreasen, R. H. Mathiesen, M. Rønning, D. W. Breiby, “In situ x-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241909 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, O. Bunk, “Hard x-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16  nm 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref]

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P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912–2914 (1999).
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B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: a single photon counting pixel detector for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
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B. Chen, M. Guizar-Sicairos, G. Xiong, L. Shemilt, A. Diaz, J. Nutter, N. Burdet, S. Huo, J. Mancuso, A. Monteith, F. Vergeer, A. Burgess, I. Robinson, “Three-dimensional structure analysis and percolation properties of a barrier marine coating,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1177 (2013).

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J. C. da Silva, K. Mader, M. Holler, D. Haberthür, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, W.-C. Cheng, Y. Shu, J. Raabe, A. Menzel, J. A. van Bokhoven, “Assessment of the 3 D pore structure and individual components of preshaped catalyst bodies by x-ray imaging,” ChemCatChem 7, 413–416 (2014).
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A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104(R) (2012).

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
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Trtik, P.

P. Trtik, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, “Density mapping of hardened cement paste using ptychographic X-ray computed tomography,” Cement Concrete Composit. 36, 71–77 (2013).

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M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trik, K. Jefimovs, C. David, “Phase-contrast tomography at the nanoscale using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105 (2010).

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B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
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A. Kyrieleis, V. Titarenko, M. Ibison, T. Connolley, P. J. Withers, “Region-of-interest tomography using filtered backprojection: assessing the practical limits,” J. Microsc. 241, 69–82 (2011).
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J. Yang, H. Yu, G. Wang, “High-order total variation minimization for interior tomography,” Inverse Probl. 26, 035013 (2010).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
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J. Yang, H. Yu, G. Wang, “High-order total variation minimization for interior tomography,” Inverse Probl. 26, 035013 (2010).
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H. Yu, G. Wang, “Compressed sensing based interior tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 2791–2805 (2009).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
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G. Schulz, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, F. Beckmann, C. David, S. Rutishauser, E. Reznikova, B. Müller, “High-resolution tomographic imaging of a human cerebellum: comparison of absorption and grating-based phase contrast,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 1665–1676 (2010).
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B. Zitová, J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21, 977–1000 (2003).

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H. F. Dam, T. R. Andersen, E. B. L. Pedersen, K. T. S. Thydén, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carlé, P. S. Jørgensen, J. Reinhardt, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, E. Bundgaard, F. C. Krebs, J. W. Andreasen, “Enabling flexible polymer tandem solar cells by 3D ptychographic imaging,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1400736 (2014).

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Appl. Opt. (1)

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P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912–2914 (1999).
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K. Høydalsvik, J. B. Fløystad, T. Zhao, M. Esmaeili, A. Diaz, J. W. Andreasen, R. H. Mathiesen, M. Rønning, D. W. Breiby, “In situ x-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241909 (2014).
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Br. Poult. Sci. (1)

A. C. Fraser, M. M. Bain, S. E. Solomon, “Organic matrix morphology and distribution in the palisade layer of eggshells sampled at selected periods during lay,” Br. Poult. Sci. 39, 225–228 (1998).

C. R. Palevol. (1)

Y. Nys, J. Gautron, J. M. Garcia-Ruiz, M. T. Hincke, “Avian eggshell mineralization: biochemical and functional characterization of matrix proteins,” C. R. Palevol. 3, 549–562 (2004).

Carbon (1)

A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Poeppel, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, “Characterization of carbon fibers using x-ray phase nanotomography,” Carbon 67, 98–103 (2014).
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Cement Concrete Composit. (1)

P. Trtik, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, “Density mapping of hardened cement paste using ptychographic X-ray computed tomography,” Cement Concrete Composit. 36, 71–77 (2013).

ChemCatChem (1)

J. C. da Silva, K. Mader, M. Holler, D. Haberthür, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, W.-C. Cheng, Y. Shu, J. Raabe, A. Menzel, J. A. van Bokhoven, “Assessment of the 3 D pore structure and individual components of preshaped catalyst bodies by x-ray imaging,” ChemCatChem 7, 413–416 (2014).
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Image Vis. Comput. (1)

B. Zitová, J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21, 977–1000 (2003).

Inverse Probl. (1)

J. Yang, H. Yu, G. Wang, “High-order total variation minimization for interior tomography,” Inverse Probl. 26, 035013 (2010).
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J. Biol. Chem. (1)

M. T. Hincke, J. Gautron, C. P. W. Tsang, M. D. McKee, Y. Nys, “Molecular cloning and ultrastructural localization of the core protein of an eggshell matrix proteoglycan, Ovocleidin-116,” J. Biol. Chem. 274, 32915–32923 (1999).
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S. Ji, Q. Gu, B. Xia, “Porosity dependence of mechanical properties of solid materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 41, 1757–1768 (2006).
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A. Kyrieleis, V. Titarenko, M. Ibison, T. Connolley, P. J. Withers, “Region-of-interest tomography using filtered backprojection: assessing the practical limits,” J. Microsc. 241, 69–82 (2011).
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J. Morphol. (1)

J. E. Dennis, S. Q. Xiao, M. Agarwal, D. J. Fink, A. H. Heuer, A. I. Caplan, “Microstructure of matrix and mineral components of eggshells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus),” J. Morphol. 228, 287–306 (1996).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

G. Schulz, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, F. Beckmann, C. David, S. Rutishauser, E. Reznikova, B. Müller, “High-resolution tomographic imaging of a human cerebellum: comparison of absorption and grating-based phase contrast,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 1665–1676 (2010).
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Macromolecules (1)

M. Esmaeili, J. B. Floystad, A. Diaz, K. Hoydalsvik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, J. W. Andreasen, D. W. Breiby, “Ptychographic x-ray tomography of silk fiber hydration,” Macromolecules 46, 434–439 (2013).
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A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
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Nature (3)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
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New J. Phys. (1)

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: a single photon counting pixel detector for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

P. T. Lauzier, Z. Qi, J. Zambelli, N. Bevins, G.-H. Chen, “Interior tomography in x-ray differential phase contrast CT imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, N117–N130 (2012).
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Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Computed x-ray tomography of a section of avian eggshell, measured with sample rotation around the y axis. (a) Beam deflection tomography; regions of lower average density related to submicrometer porosity are rendered in blue. (b) Semitransparent rendering of (a) with highlighted regions of lower density. Intermittent high and low average-density fluctuations in the y direction are indications of a layered porous structure. Two gas exchange channels that traverse the sample and an isolated cavity are highlighted in cyan and red, respectively. (c) High-resolution quantitative interior ptychographic tomography within the palisades in the region of interest indicated with dashed lines in (a). The submicrometer porous structure and its arrangement in layers are clearly revealed (Media 1).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Comparison of interior tomographic reconstructions. (a) Quantitative conventional tomogram from beam deflection tomography. (b) Reconstruction from high-resolution interior projections using FBP with a smooth sinogram extension [39,40]. (c) Hybrid reconstruction combining high-resolution interior projections and the low-resolution tomogram to achieve quantitative interior measurement of electron density. (d)–(f) show a zoom to the interior FOV corresponding to (a)–(c), which is indicated by a blue dashed line. Line cuts in (g)–(i) are indicated by yellow lines in (d)–(f), respectively. The dark structure in the bottom of (d)–(f) is the cavity highlighted in red in Fig. 1(b) and also seen in Fig. 1(c).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Rendering of vesicle structure individually colored according to the size histogram in (c). (b) Orientation histogram for individual vesicles with respect to the axis of rotation, with their mean orientation vector denoted by a yellow arrow. The cyan arrow shows the mean orientation vector of the layers of vesicles. Solid ellipses represent the spread of the orientation vectors. (d) Histogram of electron density for a 1 μm section of the sample along the y axis.

Equations (2)

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E = min a n , m , θ x , y , θ W ( x , y ) × [ Φ θ ( x , y ) Φ ^ θ ( x , y ) n , m a n , m , θ p n , m ( x , y ) ] 2 ,
a n , m , θ = x , y W ( x , y ) [ Φ θ ( x , y ) Φ ^ θ ( x , y ) ] p n , m ( x , y ) x , y W ( x , y ) .

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