Abstract

Searches for Earth-like exoplanets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar absorption lines require 10cm/s precision in the measurement of stellar radial velocity (RV) over timescales of years. Current techniques have led to the discovery of short-period exoplanets that induce RV wobbles as small as 1m/s on their parent stars. It has been suggested that order-of-magnitude improved RV precision may be achievable using an astro-comb, a laser frequency comb optimized for astrophysical spectrograph wavelength calibration. Here we report the development of a broadband visible-wavelength astro-comb and its operation with the HARPS-N spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in the Canary Islands. This green astro-comb has >7000 narrow (<1MHz) spectral lines spaced by 16 GHz with relatively uniform line power from 500 to 620 nm. The line frequencies are locked to GPS, enabling us to realize HARPS-N wavelength calibration with RV measurement precision and stability <10cm/s.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).
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2012 (7)

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25  GHz near-IR laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, N. Langellier, A. Zibrov, D. F. Phillips, F. X. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry–Perot cavity pair for improved astro-comb accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3090–3092 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs,” Opt. Express 20, 24987–25013 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

2008 (3)

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, E. Williams, C. McCarthy, P. Dosanjh, S. S. Vogt, “Attaining Doppler precision of 3  m/s,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 500–509 (1996).
[Crossref]

Alibert, Y.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bender, C. F.

Benedick, A. J.

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “High-finesse dispersion-free cavities for broadband filtration of laser comb lines,” in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. TuF1.

Benz, W.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bertaux, J.-L.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bezawada, N.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Birge, J. R.

Botzer, B.

Bouchy, F.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Braje, D. A.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[Crossref]

Buchschacher, N.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Butler, R. P.

R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, E. Williams, C. McCarthy, P. Dosanjh, S. S. Vogt, “Attaining Doppler precision of 3  m/s,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 500–509 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cameron, A. C.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Chang, G.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, N. Langellier, A. Zibrov, D. F. Phillips, F. X. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry–Perot cavity pair for improved astro-comb accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3090–3092 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs,” Opt. Express 20, 24987–25013 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, “Fiber-optic Cherenkov radiation in the few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 19, 6635–6647 (2011).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “High-finesse dispersion-free cavities for broadband filtration of laser comb lines,” in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. TuF1.

Chen, L.-J.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, “Fiber-optic Cherenkov radiation in the few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 19, 6635–6647 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “High-finesse dispersion-free cavities for broadband filtration of laser comb lines,” in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. TuF1.

Correia, A. C. M.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cosentino, R.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Cramer, C.

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dekker, H.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25  GHz near-IR laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5  GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400  nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dosanjh, P.

R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, E. Williams, C. McCarthy, P. Dosanjh, S. S. Vogt, “Attaining Doppler precision of 3  m/s,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 500–509 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fendel, P.

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

Figueira, P.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fleury, M.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Fortier, T.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[Crossref]

Furesz, G.

Ghedina, A.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Glenday, A.

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “High-finesse dispersion-free cavities for broadband filtration of laser comb lines,” in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. TuF1.

Glenday, A. G.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, N. Langellier, A. Zibrov, D. F. Phillips, F. X. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry–Perot cavity pair for improved astro-comb accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3090–3092 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, M.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Guerra, J.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Henry, D.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Holzwarth, R.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hughes, I.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Kartner, F. X.

Kärtner, F. X.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, N. Langellier, A. Zibrov, D. F. Phillips, F. X. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry–Perot cavity pair for improved astro-comb accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3090–3092 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs,” Opt. Express 20, 24987–25013 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, “Fiber-optic Cherenkov radiation in the few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 19, 6635–6647 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “High-finesse dispersion-free cavities for broadband filtration of laser comb lines,” in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. TuF1.

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kirchner, M. S.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korzennik, S.

Langellier, N.

Laskar, J.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Latham, D. W.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Li, C.-H.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, N. Langellier, A. Zibrov, D. F. Phillips, F. X. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry–Perot cavity pair for improved astro-comb accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3090–3092 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs,” Opt. Express 20, 24987–25013 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “High-finesse dispersion-free cavities for broadband filtration of laser comb lines,” in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. TuF1.

Lo Curto, G.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lovis, C.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mahadevan, S.

Maire, C.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Manescau, A.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marcy, G. W.

R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, E. Williams, C. McCarthy, P. Dosanjh, S. S. Vogt, “Attaining Doppler precision of 3  m/s,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 500–509 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mayor, M.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, C.

R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, E. Williams, C. McCarthy, P. Dosanjh, S. S. Vogt, “Attaining Doppler precision of 3  m/s,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 500–509 (1996).
[Crossref]

Merline, W. J.

W. J. Merline, “Radial velocity information in solar-type spectra,” in Stellar Radial Velocities, A. G. D. Philip, D. W. Latham, eds. (L. Davis Press, 1985), pp. 87–98.

Molinari, E.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Mordasini, C.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Motalebi, F.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Osterman, S.

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25  GHz near-IR laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5  GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400  nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pasquini, L.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pepe, F.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. F.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs,” Opt. Express 20, 24987–25013 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, N. Langellier, A. Zibrov, D. F. Phillips, F. X. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry–Perot cavity pair for improved astro-comb accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3090–3092 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “High-finesse dispersion-free cavities for broadband filtration of laser comb lines,” in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. TuF1.

Queloz, D.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Quinlan, F.

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25  GHz near-IR laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5  GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400  nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ramsey, L.

Redman, S.

Santos, N. C.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sasselov, D.

Sasselov, D. D.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sigurdsson, S.

Sivan, J.-P.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sizmann, A.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Steinmetz, T.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, N. Langellier, A. Zibrov, D. F. Phillips, F. X. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry–Perot cavity pair for improved astro-comb accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3090–3092 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs,” Opt. Express 20, 24987–25013 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

Szentgyorgyi, A. H.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

Terrien, R.

Udem, T.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Udry, S.

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vogt, S. S.

R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, E. Williams, C. McCarthy, P. Dosanjh, S. S. Vogt, “Attaining Doppler precision of 3  m/s,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 500–509 (1996).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R. L.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs,” Opt. Express 20, 24987–25013 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, N. Langellier, A. Zibrov, D. F. Phillips, F. X. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry–Perot cavity pair for improved astro-comb accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3090–3092 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “High-finesse dispersion-free cavities for broadband filtration of laser comb lines,” in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. TuF1.

Webber, M.

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

Wilken, T.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, E.

R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, E. Williams, C. McCarthy, P. Dosanjh, S. S. Vogt, “Attaining Doppler precision of 3  m/s,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 500–509 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ycas, G.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5  GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400  nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ycas, G. G.

Zibrov, A.

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm/s,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

D. F. Phillips, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, C. Cramer, G. Furesz, G. Chang, A. J. Benedick, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1  m/s using a laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 13711–13726 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, “Fiber-optic Cherenkov radiation in the few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 19, 6635–6647 (2011).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25  GHz near-IR laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kartner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10  cm/s,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, F. X. Kärtner, “Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs,” Opt. Express 20, 24987–25013 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. G. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, M. Webber, C.-H. Li, G. Furesz, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, D. D. Sasselov, A. H. Szentgyorgyi, R. L. Walsworth, “High-resolution Fourier transform spectrograph for characterization of echelle spectrograph wavelength calibrators,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 844696 (2012).

R. Cosentino, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, S. Udry, N. Bezawada, N. Buchschacher, P. Figueira, M. Fleury, A. Ghedina, A. G. Glenday, M. Gonzalez, J. Guerra, D. Henry, I. Hughes, C. Maire, F. Motalebi, D. F. Phillips, “HARPS-N @ TNG, two year harvesting data: performances and results,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461V (2012).

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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5  GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400  nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
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Science (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Supplement 1: PDF (804 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of key components of the green astro-comb. Comb lines spanning an octave in the near infrared with 1 GHz spacing are generated by a titanium:sapphire (Ti:sapphire) laser, and stabilized to an atomic clock referenced to GPS. A tapered photonic crystal fiber (PCF) coherently shifts the comb lines to visible wavelengths. Two broadband Fabry–Perot cavities (FPC-1; FPC-2) then filter the comb light, passing every 16th spectral line. A Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is locked to the source comb and doubled to 532 nm, after which it is used to lock to the FPCs via a Pound–Drever–Hall (PDH) type scheme. (EOM, electro-optic modulator; NPBS, 50 50 nonpolarizing beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD, photodetector; SPF, short-pass filter.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Broadband spectrum of green astro-comb, as measured by the HARPS-N spectrograph, composed of > 7000 spectral lines from 500 to 620 nm. Example segment of green astro-comb spectrum measured by (b) HARPS-N and (c) high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) shows astro-comb lines spaced by 16 GHz ( 0.016 nm at 525 nm). Neither instrument resolves the < 1 MHz linewidth.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Dimensions of tapered photonic crystal fiber (PCF, not to scale). A solid-core PCF is tapered to the desired size over a few millimeters, which gives an adiabatic transition between the transverse modes of the large and small fiber cores. (b) Optical micrograph of tapered PCF with a sealed end. End sealing collapses the air holes guiding the light at the beginning and end of the fiber such that there is an adiabatic transition between free propagation in the uniform glass at each fiber end and guided propagation in the solid core of the holey fiber, which approximately halves the numerical aperture. (c) Input near-infrared spectrum to PCF from Ti:sapphire source comb and output green comb spectrum (both with 1 GHz line spacing), as measured on an optical spectrum analyzer. The green comb spectrum covers more than 50% of the bandwidth of the HARPS-N spectrograph (383–690 nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Suppression of undesired comb lines when filtered by (a), (c) one Fabry–Perot cavity (FPC) and (b), (d) two FPCs as measured with a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Examples of measured sideband suppression for (a) one and (b) two FPCs averaged across 25 consecutive astro-comb lines and across a wide range of representative wavelengths for (c) one and (d) two FPCs, in 10 nm bands centered at 520, 560, and 600 nm. See text and Supplement 1, Section S.2, for details.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Two-sample deviation of the measured spectral shift between the two HARPS-N fibers when both are illuminated by green astro-comb light, with one-sigma error bars. Differences between exposures are derived from cross correlations with the sum of all exposures. Dashed line is the expected photon shot noise limit.

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