Abstract

We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. I. Aguirre, E. Reguera, A. Stein, “Colloidal photonic crystal pigments with low angle dependence,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 3257–3262 (2010).
  3. C. E. Finlayson, J. J. Baumberg, “Polymer opals as novel photonic materials,” Polym. Int. 62, 1403–1407 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Koay, I. B. Burgess, T. M. Kay, B. A. Nerger, M. Miles-Rossouw, T. Shirman, T. L. Vu, G. England, K. R. Phillips, S. Utech, N. Vogel, M. Kolle, J. Aizenberg, “Hierarchical structural control of visual properties in self-assembled photonic-plasmonic pigments,” Opt. Express 22, 27750–27768 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Yip, S.-P. Ng, K.-H. Wong, “Brilliant whiteness surfaces from electrospun nanofiber webs,” Text. Res. J. 79, 771–779 (2009).
  7. L. Yisen, C. Yi, L. Zhiyuan, H. Xing, L. Yi, “Structural coloring of aluminum,” Electrochem. Commun. 13, 1336–1339 (2011).
  8. M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).
  14. N. Schneider, C. Zeiger, A. Kolew, M. Schneider, J. Leuthold, H. Hölscher, M. Worgull, “Nanothermoforming of hierarchical optical components utilizing shape memory polymers as active molds,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1895–1902 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Andkjær, V. E. Johansen, K. S. Friis, O. Sigmund, “Inverse design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 164–174 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. S. Friis, O. Sigmund, “Robust topology design of periodic grating surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 2935–2943 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. V. E. Johansen, J. Andkjær, O. Sigmund, “Design of structurally colored surfaces based on scalar diffraction theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 207–217 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1997).
  21. P. Vukusic, D. G. Stavenga, “Physical methods for investigating structural colours in biological systems,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, S133–S148 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. E. Harvey, C. L. Vernold, “Transfer function characterization of scattering surfaces: Revisited,” Proc. SPIE 3141, 113–127 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2014 (6)

2013 (3)

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, P. Vukusic, “Bio-inspired band-gap tunable elastic optical multilayer fibers,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2239–2245 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. E. Finlayson, J. J. Baumberg, “Polymer opals as novel photonic materials,” Polym. Int. 62, 1403–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hedge, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Friis, O. Sigmund, “Robust topology design of periodic grating surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 2935–2943 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Yisen, C. Yi, L. Zhiyuan, H. Xing, L. Yi, “Structural coloring of aluminum,” Electrochem. Commun. 13, 1336–1339 (2011).

2010 (2)

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. I. Aguirre, E. Reguera, A. Stein, “Colloidal photonic crystal pigments with low angle dependence,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 3257–3262 (2010).

2009 (3)

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yip, S.-P. Ng, K.-H. Wong, “Brilliant whiteness surfaces from electrospun nanofiber webs,” Text. Res. J. 79, 771–779 (2009).

P. Vukusic, D. G. Stavenga, “Physical methods for investigating structural colours in biological systems,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, S133–S148 (2009).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. E. Harvey, C. L. Vernold, “Transfer function characterization of scattering surfaces: Revisited,” Proc. SPIE 3141, 113–127 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aguirre, C. I.

C. I. Aguirre, E. Reguera, A. Stein, “Colloidal photonic crystal pigments with low angle dependence,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 3257–3262 (2010).

Aizenberg, J.

Akai-Kasaya, M.

A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Andkjær, J.

Aryal, M.

M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, P. Vukusic, “Bio-inspired band-gap tunable elastic optical multilayer fibers,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2239–2245 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. E. Finlayson, J. J. Baumberg, “Polymer opals as novel photonic materials,” Polym. Int. 62, 1403–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burgess, I. B.

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, A. B.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Chuo, Y.

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clausen, J. S.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Duan, H.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hedge, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

England, G.

Finlayson, C. E.

C. E. Finlayson, J. J. Baumberg, “Polymer opals as novel photonic materials,” Polym. Int. 62, 1403–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Friis, K. S.

Gadisa, A.

M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grajower, M.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Grayli, S. V.

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harvey, J. E.

J. E. Harvey, C. L. Vernold, “Transfer function characterization of scattering surfaces: Revisited,” Proc. SPIE 3141, 113–127 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hedge, R. S.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hedge, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hohertz, D.

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Højlund-Nielsen, E.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Hölscher, H.

Huang, F.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Johansen, V. E.

Juodkazis, S.

A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kaminska, B.

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kavanagh, K.

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kay, T. M.

Ko, D.-H.

M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koay, N.

Koh, S. C. W.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hedge, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kolew, A.

Kolle, M.

N. Koay, I. B. Burgess, T. M. Kay, B. A. Nerger, M. Miles-Rossouw, T. Shirman, T. L. Vu, G. England, K. R. Phillips, S. Utech, N. Vogel, M. Kolle, J. Aizenberg, “Hierarchical structural control of visual properties in self-assembled photonic-plasmonic pigments,” Opt. Express 22, 27750–27768 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, P. Vukusic, “Bio-inspired band-gap tunable elastic optical multilayer fibers,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2239–2245 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kreysing, M.

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, P. Vukusic, “Bio-inspired band-gap tunable elastic optical multilayer fibers,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2239–2245 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, A.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Kumar, K.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hedge, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuwahara, Y.

A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Landrock, C.

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lethbridge, A.

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, P. Vukusic, “Bio-inspired band-gap tunable elastic optical multilayer fibers,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2239–2245 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

Levy, U.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Lopez, R.

M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mahajan, S.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miles-Rossouw, M.

Miyamura, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mizeikis, V.

A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mortensen, N. A.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Murase, J.

A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nerger, B. A.

Ng, S.-P.

J. Yip, S.-P. Ng, K.-H. Wong, “Brilliant whiteness surfaces from electrospun nanofiber webs,” Text. Res. J. 79, 771–779 (2009).

Omrane, B.

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1997).

Phillips, K. R.

Reguera, E.

C. I. Aguirre, E. Reguera, A. Stein, “Colloidal photonic crystal pigments with low angle dependence,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 3257–3262 (2010).

Saito, A.

A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Salgard-Cunha, P. M.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Samulski, E. T.

M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scherer, M. R. J.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schneider, M.

Schneider, N.

Shirman, T.

Sigmund, O.

Stavenga, D. G.

P. Vukusic, D. G. Stavenga, “Physical methods for investigating structural colours in biological systems,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, S133–S148 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stein, A.

C. I. Aguirre, E. Reguera, A. Stein, “Colloidal photonic crystal pigments with low angle dependence,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 3257–3262 (2010).

Steiner, U.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taha, H.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Tumbleston, J. R.

M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
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M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, P. Vukusic, “Bio-inspired band-gap tunable elastic optical multilayer fibers,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2239–2245 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Vukusic, D. G. Stavenga, “Physical methods for investigating structural colours in biological systems,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, S133–S148 (2009).
[Crossref]

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K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hedge, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. Yip, S.-P. Ng, K.-H. Wong, “Brilliant whiteness surfaces from electrospun nanofiber webs,” Text. Res. J. 79, 771–779 (2009).

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L. Yisen, C. Yi, L. Zhiyuan, H. Xing, L. Yi, “Structural coloring of aluminum,” Electrochem. Commun. 13, 1336–1339 (2011).

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K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hedge, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

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L. Yisen, C. Yi, L. Zhiyuan, H. Xing, L. Yi, “Structural coloring of aluminum,” Electrochem. Commun. 13, 1336–1339 (2011).

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L. Yisen, C. Yi, L. Zhiyuan, H. Xing, L. Yi, “Structural coloring of aluminum,” Electrochem. Commun. 13, 1336–1339 (2011).

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J. Yip, S.-P. Ng, K.-H. Wong, “Brilliant whiteness surfaces from electrospun nanofiber webs,” Text. Res. J. 79, 771–779 (2009).

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L. Yisen, C. Yi, L. Zhiyuan, H. Xing, L. Yi, “Structural coloring of aluminum,” Electrochem. Commun. 13, 1336–1339 (2011).

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A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Kolle, A. Lethbridge, M. Kreysing, J. J. Baumberg, J. Aizenberg, P. Vukusic, “Bio-inspired band-gap tunable elastic optical multilayer fibers,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2239–2245 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

C. I. Aguirre, E. Reguera, A. Stein, “Colloidal photonic crystal pigments with low angle dependence,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 3257–3262 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electrochem. Commun. (1)

L. Yisen, C. Yi, L. Zhiyuan, H. Xing, L. Yi, “Structural coloring of aluminum,” Electrochem. Commun. 13, 1336–1339 (2011).

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. Saito, M. Yonezawa, J. Murase, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Numerical analysis on the optical role of nano-randomness on the Morpho butterfly’s scale,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2785–2792 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

P. Vukusic, D. G. Stavenga, “Physical methods for investigating structural colours in biological systems,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, S133–S148 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Aryal, D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, A. Gadisa, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Large area nanofabrication of butterfly wing’s three dimensional ultrastructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 061802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. Chuo, C. Landrock, B. Omrane, D. Hohertz, S. V. Grayli, K. Kavanagh, B. Kaminska, “Rapid fabrication of nano-structured quartz stamps,” Nanotechnology 24, 055304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hedge, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Polym. Int. (1)

C. E. Finlayson, J. J. Baumberg, “Polymer opals as novel photonic materials,” Polym. Int. 62, 1403–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass-production, and control of the Morpho-butterfly’s blue,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 720506 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. E. Harvey, C. L. Vernold, “Transfer function characterization of scattering surfaces: Revisited,” Proc. SPIE 3141, 113–127 (1997).
[Crossref]

Text. Res. J. (1)

J. Yip, S.-P. Ng, K.-H. Wong, “Brilliant whiteness surfaces from electrospun nanofiber webs,” Text. Res. J. 79, 771–779 (2009).

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1997).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) A general structural color problem: find a design that gives a prescribed reflection—e.g., a blue distribution—for incoming white light. (b) Due to many orders of magnitude difference in the analysis (ranging from a centimeter-sized surface to submicrometer electromagnetic waves) the analysis has to be divided into subparts, which is done here by assuming periodic repetition of the same structure. (c) Since a pure periodic structure gives rise to unwanted diffraction effects, this has to be avoided by also designing a way of “randomizing” the unit structure—here it is done by height translations. (d) To verify the approach in (a)–(c), a test structure is produced to see how measurements fit analysis.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Design workflow used to create a structurally colored surface—in this case by using DUV and dry etching. (a) First a unit structure is defined and analyzed, while (b) at the same time the effect of the scaled array factor (SAF) is calculated and taken into account. (c) This design is then verified using a full FEM model, (d) which then gives the dimensions from which to produce a sample. (e) Last, the result is verified.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SEM images of the produced structural color sample. (a) The structure overview shows the unit half-pitch grating with the random grating visible inside the half-pitch grating as undulations to the otherwise regular pattern. (b) Close-up of the unit grating structure at the edge of the random structure showing a step height change. The lateral dimensions of the unit grating does not change between steps. (c) Close-up of the random grating. The random grating is indeed random in its lateral dimension.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Surface profile of the silicon structure extracted from AFM measurements.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Setup for reflectance characterization of the produced sample. The sample (or calibration reference) is lit by a focused white-light source from a 1000 μm fiber and collected by a 200 μm fiber connected to a USB2000 Ocean Optics spectrometer.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Results of each design step in obtaining a structurally colored surface: (a) the response of the chosen unit structure and (b) the influence of randomization (SAF). (c) The product of these two then yields an approximate response. (d) A full wave FEM simulation verifies the result before production, and (e) measurements on a produced sample are compared with the predicted result. All spectra are given in radiance (which here means intensity divided by cosine to the angle of reflection). All simulated data has been Gaussian blurred using an image filter as a simple way of incorporating the effect of the finite-sized detector in the measurement setup. Note that some values in the contour plot are cropped in order to get a better color representation.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. An annotated version of the numerical verification presented in Fig. 6(d) explaining where the effects visible on the plot originate from.

Equations (1)

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L = L u 1 M m = 1 M | 1 N n = 1 N e i k ( n x sin θ + Δ z n m ( cos θ + 1 ) ) | 2 SAF ,

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