Abstract

Correlated photon pairs are a fundamental building block of quantum photonic systems. While pair sources have previously been integrated on silicon chips built using customized photonics manufacturing processes, these often take advantage of only a small fraction of the established techniques for microelectronics fabrication and have yet to be integrated in a process that also supports electronics. Here we report the first demonstration of quantum-correlated photon pair generation in a device fabricated in an unmodified advanced (sub-100-nm) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, alongside millions of working transistors. The microring resonator photon pair source is formed in the transistor layer structure, with the resonator core formed by the silicon layer typically used for the transistor body. With ultralow CW on-chip pump powers ranging from 4.8 to 400 μW, we demonstrate pair generation rates between 165 Hz and 332 kHz using >80% efficient WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Coincidences-to-accidentals ratios consistently exceeding 40 were measured, with a maximum of 55. In the process of characterizing this source, we also accurately predict pair generation rates from the results of classical stimulated four-wave mixing measurements. This proof-of-principle device demonstrates the potential of commercial CMOS microelectronics as an advanced quantum photonics platform with the capability of large volumes and pristine process control, where state-of-the-art high-speed digital circuits could interact with quantum photonic circuits.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (8)

D. Grassani, S. Azzini, M. Liscidini, M. Galli, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. E. Sipe, and D. Bajoni, “Micrometer-scale integrated silicon source of time-energy entangled photons,” Optica 2, 88–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Suo, S. Dong, W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, “Generation of hyper-entanglement on polarization and energy-time based on a silicon micro-ring cavity,” Opt. Express 23, 3985–3995 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Wakabayashi, M. Fujiwara, K.-I. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, M. Sasaki, and T. Aoki, “Time-bin entangled photon pair generation from Si micro-ring resonator,” Opt. Express 23, 1103–1113 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 828–844 (2015).

X. Zeng, C. M. Gentry, and M. A. Popović, “Four-wave mixing in silicon coupled-cavity resonators with port-selective, orthogonal supermode excitation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2120–2123 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Vernon and J. E. Sipe, “Spontaneous four-wave mixing in lossy microring resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 053802 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. A. Rozema, C. Wang, D. H. Mahler, A. Hayat, A. M. Steinberg, J. E. Sipe, and M. Liscidini, “Characterizing an entangled-photon source with classical detectors and measurements,” Optica 2, 430–433 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, S. A. Srinivasan, J. S. Orcutt, and R. J. Ram, “Waveguide-coupled detector in zero-change complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 041104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

C. Reimer, L. Caspani, M. Clerici, M. Ferrera, M. Kues, M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Integrated frequency comb source of heralded single photons,” Opt. Express 22, 6535–6546 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, “Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng and M. A. Popović, “Design of triply-resonant micro-optical parametric oscillators based on Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 22, 15837–15867 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, D. Grassani, A. Simbula, M. Pant, M. Galli, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, D. Englund, D. Bajoni, and C. Galland, “Integrated source of spectrally filtered correlated photons for large-scale quantum photonic systems,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041047 (2014).

C. M. Gentry, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, “Tunable coupled-mode dispersion compensation and its application to on-chip resonant four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5689–5692 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, N. Matsuda, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Entangled photons from on-chip slow light,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3913 (2014).

2013 (11)

N. Matsuda, H. Takesue, K. Shimizu, Y. Tokura, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 21, 8596–8604 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. I. Izuka, M. Ezaki, R. Hadfield, G. D. Marshall, V. Z. Willer, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Kumar, J. R. Ong, J. Recchio, K. Srinivasan, and S. Mookherjea, “Spectrally multiplexed and tunable-wavelength photon pairs at 1.55  μm from a silicon coupled-resonator optical waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2969–2971 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, M. J. Steel, T. F. Krauss, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).

E. Engin, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, A. S. Clark, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbox, V. Zwiller, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Photon pair generation in silicon micro-ring resonator with reverse bias enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 27826–27834 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peters, J. B. Spring, D. Kundys, M. A. Broome, P. C. Humphreys, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, N. K. Langford, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1356 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1543–1546 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. T. Wade, K. Nammari, B. Moss, M. Georgas, C. Sun, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, “Depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator in zero-change advanced CMOS,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2657–2659 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. D. Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, and J. E. Sipe, “Parasitic nonlinearities in photon pair generation via integrated spontaneous four-wave mixing: critical problem or distraction?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201106 (2013).
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2012 (9)

L. G. Helt, M. Liscidini, and J. E. Sipe, “How does it scale? Comparing quantum and classical nonlinear optical processes in integrated devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 2199–2212 (2012).
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S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, L. C. Andreani, M. Sorel, M. J. Strain, L. G. Helt, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, and D. Bajoni, “From classical four-wave mixing to parametric fluorescence in silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3807–3809 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 115–143 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).

R. M. Camacho, “Entangled photon generation using four-wave mixing in azimuthally symmetric microresonators,” Opt. Express 20, 21977–21991 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, L. G. Helt, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, M. Galli, and D. Bajoni, “Ultra-low power generation of twin photons in a compact silicon ring resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 23100–23107 (2012).
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N. Matsuda, H. L. Jeannic, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, W. J. Munro, K. Shimizu, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and H. Takesue, “A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip,” Sci. Rep. 2, 817 (2012).

J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. M. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Sojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express 20, 12222–12232 (2012).
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2011 (4)

2010 (3)

L. G. Helt, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, and J. E. Sipe, “Spontaneous four-wave mixing in microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3006–3008 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 181–194 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vucković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Integrated quantum photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1673–1684 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Clemmen, K. P. Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. G. Baets, P. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Continuous wave photon pair generation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides and ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17, 16558–16570 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Dyer, B. Baek, and S. W. Nam, “High-brightness, low-noise, all-fiber photon pair source,” Opt. Express 17, 10290–10297 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K.-I. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S.-I. Itabasha, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2, 242–246 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15, 11934–11941 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Prevedel, P. Walther, F. Tiefenbacher, P. Böhi, R. Kaltenbaek, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward,” Nature 445, 65–69 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Absil, P. P.

Agha, I.

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Alibart, O.

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 115–143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

L. Alloatti, S. A. Srinivasan, J. S. Orcutt, and R. J. Ram, “Waveguide-coupled detector in zero-change complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 041104 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, R. Ram, and M. A. Popović, “A 45  nm SOI monolithic photonics chip-to-chip link with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” in 2015 Symposium on VLSI Circuits (IEEE, 2015), pp. C122–C123.

Andreani, L. C.

Aoki, T.

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic silicon photonics,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 21–30.

Assefa, S.

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atabaki, A.

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, R. Ram, and M. A. Popović, “A 45  nm SOI monolithic photonics chip-to-chip link with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” in 2015 Symposium on VLSI Circuits (IEEE, 2015), pp. C122–C123.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, “75% efficient wide bandwidth grating couplers in a 45  nm microelectronics CMOS process,” in 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 46–47.

Azzini, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

N. C. Harris, D. Grassani, A. Simbula, M. Pant, M. Galli, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, D. Englund, D. Bajoni, and C. Galland, “Integrated source of spectrally filtered correlated photons for large-scale quantum photonic systems,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041047 (2014).

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Dyer, B. Baek, and S. W. Nam, “High-brightness, low-noise, all-fiber photon pair source,” Opt. Express 17, 10290–10297 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baets, R. G.

Bafrali, R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 828–844 (2015).

Baghban, M. A.

Bajoni, D.

Barbieri, M.

B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peters, J. B. Spring, D. Kundys, M. A. Broome, P. C. Humphreys, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, N. K. Langford, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1356 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

M. A. Popović, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon microring-resonator add-drop filters,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper 1.2.3.

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic silicon photonics,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 21–30.

Bennink, R. S.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, “Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhushan, M.

I. V. Vernik, T. A. Ohki, M. B. Ketchen, and M. Bhushan, “Performance characterization of PD-SOI ring oscillators at cryogenic temperatures,” in 2010 IEEE International SOI Conference(IEEE, 2010).

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Böhi, P.

R. Prevedel, P. Walther, F. Tiefenbacher, P. Böhi, R. Kaltenbaek, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward,” Nature 445, 65–69 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. I. Izuka, M. Ezaki, R. Hadfield, G. D. Marshall, V. Z. Willer, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Engin, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, A. S. Clark, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbox, V. Zwiller, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Photon pair generation in silicon micro-ring resonator with reverse bias enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 27826–27834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Broome, M. A.

B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peters, J. B. Spring, D. Kundys, M. A. Broome, P. C. Humphreys, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, N. K. Langford, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1356 (2013).
[Crossref]

Camacho, R. M.

Canciamilla, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 181–194 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caspani, L.

Chan, J.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, T.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).

Chen, Y. H.

M. Georgas, B. R. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. H. Chen, K. Nammari, J. C. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated optical transmitter and receiver in a zero-change 45  nm SOI process,” in VLSI Circuits Symposium (IEEE, 2014), paper 247.

Chen, Y.-H.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 828–844 (2015).

Cho, P. S.

Chong, J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 828–844 (2015).

Chou, A.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, “Record RF performance of 45-nm SOI CMOS technology,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meetings, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Chu, S. T.

Clark, A. S.

E. Engin, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, A. S. Clark, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbox, V. Zwiller, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Photon pair generation in silicon micro-ring resonator with reverse bias enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 27826–27834 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. D. Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, M. J. Steel, T. F. Krauss, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).

C. Xiong, C. Monat, A. S. Clark, C. Grillet, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, J. G. Rarity, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3413–3415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clemmen, S.

Clerici, M.

Collins, M. J.

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, M. J. Steel, T. F. Krauss, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. D. Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

Combrié, S.

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. D. Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

Dahlem, M. S.

M. A. Popović, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon microring-resonator add-drop filters,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper 1.2.3.

Dauler, E. A.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, “Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Davanço, M.

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 181–194 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Micheli, M. P.

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 115–143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dixon, P. B.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, “Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, S.

Dorenbox, S. N.

Dyer, S.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. D. Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, M. J. Steel, T. F. Krauss, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).

C. Xiong, C. Monat, A. S. Clark, C. Grillet, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, J. G. Rarity, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3413–3415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Emplit, P.

Engin, E.

Englund, D.

N. C. Harris, D. Grassani, A. Simbula, M. Pant, M. Galli, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, D. Englund, D. Bajoni, and C. Galland, “Integrated source of spectrally filtered correlated photons for large-scale quantum photonic systems,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041047 (2014).

Ezaki, M.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. I. Izuka, M. Ezaki, R. Hadfield, G. D. Marshall, V. Z. Willer, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Engin, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, A. S. Clark, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbox, V. Zwiller, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Photon pair generation in silicon micro-ring resonator with reverse bias enhancement,” Opt. Express 21, 27826–27834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

Fathpour, S.

Ferrari, C.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 181–194 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferrera, M.

Foster, M. A.

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S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, “Record RF performance of 45-nm SOI CMOS technology,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meetings, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

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C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic silicon photonics,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 21–30.

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C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, R. Ram, and M. A. Popović, “A 45  nm SOI monolithic photonics chip-to-chip link with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” in 2015 Symposium on VLSI Circuits (IEEE, 2015), pp. C122–C123.

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M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, “75% efficient wide bandwidth grating couplers in a 45  nm microelectronics CMOS process,” in 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 46–47.

M. Georgas, B. R. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. H. Chen, K. Nammari, J. C. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated optical transmitter and receiver in a zero-change 45  nm SOI process,” in VLSI Circuits Symposium (IEEE, 2014), paper 247.

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J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. T. Wade, K. Nammari, B. Moss, M. Georgas, C. Sun, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, “Depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator in zero-change advanced CMOS,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2657–2659 (2013).
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M. T. Wade, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, “Energy-efficient active photonics in a zero-change, state-of-the-art CMOS process,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2E.7.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, “75% efficient wide bandwidth grating couplers in a 45  nm microelectronics CMOS process,” in 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 46–47.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic silicon photonics,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 21–30.

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J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. T. Wade, K. Nammari, B. Moss, M. Georgas, C. Sun, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, “Depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator in zero-change advanced CMOS,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2657–2659 (2013).
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M. Georgas, B. R. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. H. Chen, K. Nammari, J. C. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated optical transmitter and receiver in a zero-change 45  nm SOI process,” in VLSI Circuits Symposium (IEEE, 2014), paper 247.

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, R. Ram, and M. A. Popović, “A 45  nm SOI monolithic photonics chip-to-chip link with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” in 2015 Symposium on VLSI Circuits (IEEE, 2015), pp. C122–C123.

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H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
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F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15, 11934–11941 (2007).
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K.-I. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S.-I. Itabasha, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
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R. Prevedel, P. Walther, F. Tiefenbacher, P. Böhi, R. Kaltenbaek, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward,” Nature 445, 65–69 (2007).
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H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Integrated quantum photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1673–1684 (2009).
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IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 828–844 (2015).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

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H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).

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Nat. Photonics (5)

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. I. Izuka, M. Ezaki, R. Hadfield, G. D. Marshall, V. Z. Willer, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104–108 (2013).
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Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2, 242–246 (2008).
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J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vucković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 687–695 (2009).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
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M. Georgas, B. R. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. H. Chen, K. Nammari, J. C. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated optical transmitter and receiver in a zero-change 45  nm SOI process,” in VLSI Circuits Symposium (IEEE, 2014), paper 247.

See http://www.top500.org for Pos. 1: Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2), Guangzhou, China; Pos. 2: Titan, Oak Ridge National Lab, DOE, USA; Pos. 3: Sequoia, DOE, USA; Pos. 4: K computer, RIKEN, Japan; and Pos. 5: Mira, DOE, USA, June 2015, Top500.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic silicon photonics,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 21–30.

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M. A. Popović, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon microring-resonator add-drop filters,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper 1.2.3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical micrograph of the (a) top and (b) bottom of the CMOS chip with (c) zoom-in of the ring resonator pair source and grating couplers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of a typical transistor composed of a crystalline silicon (c-Si) body and a polysilicon gate, (b) cross section illustration of the microring resonator pair source showing how the sub-100-nm c-Si transistor body layer can be used to confine light after removal of the Si handle wafer. The fundamental resonator mode contours are superimposed in red to illustrate how the majority of the modal field extends into the cladding. (c) Simulated difference in FSR ΔνFSR at 1550 nm due to dispersion with the chosen design predicted to be a negligible 1.4 GHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Passive wavelength sweep of the three interacting resonances showing a difference in FSRs of 1.8 GHz and an intrinsic quality factor of 114,000, (b) measured stimulated four-wave mixing efficiency with fit to Eq. (1). Horizontal (vertical) error bars correspond to uncertainty in input (output) coupling. Deviation from theory at higher pump powers is a result of parasitic nonlinear and thermal effects.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simplified schematic of the pair generation measurement. The pump light is passed through two C-band (1530–1565 nm) separators and two telecom filters to eliminate noise from the laser. A fiber polarization controller (FPC) is used to optimize coupling efficiency. The signal and idler photons are then filtered individually and sent to high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs). A time interval analyzer is then used to count coincidences. The pump power is monitored by a classical photodetector to ensure the pump light is on resonance.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Coincidence rate of photon pairs at the detectors with (b) the estimated on-chip rate after subtracting out losses to the detectors. The solid line is the rate expected based on the stimulated four-wave mixing measurements in Fig. 3(b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Coincidences-to-accidentals ratio (CAR) for various pump powers where the coincidence peaks were fit to a Gaussian function (insets) and delay windows selected at (a) the full width at half-maximum and (b) ±3 standard deviations.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ηstim=Pp2ω2βfwm2(2rextrtot2)32rext(2πΔνFSR)2+rtot2.
βfwm=n2cnSi2Veff,
Icoinc=ηescPp2ω2βfwm2(2rextrtot2)24rext(2πΔνFSR)2+(2rtot)2,
Icoinc=ηesc2(2rextrtot2)1ηstim.

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