Abstract

We demonstrate that monochromatic infrared laser pulses can generate polychromatic light in noncentrosymmetric crystals simultaneously covering the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared domains. The spatial shape of the beam and its energy can influence this multicolor frequency conversion, unveiling complex and interesting dynamics. We performed our experiments in a bulk crystal of periodically poled lithium niobate, working close to the optimal condition for second-harmonic generation. We used an input laser beam wide enough that, at very low intensities, the diffraction leaves its diameter unchanged along the propagation in the crystal. At high intensities instead, as we show in this work, such a spatially wide laser beam can be reshaped into a beam of much smaller diameter and guiding multispectral components. We also show how this outcome may permit exploitation of other parameters, like the crystal temperature, for tuning the spectrum of the generated multicolor light.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (5)

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Z. H. He, J. A. Nees, B. Hou, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas, “Ionization-induced self-compression of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263904 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Majus, G. Tamosauskas, I. Grazuleviciute, N. Garejev, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Nature of spatiotemporal light bullets in bulk Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193901 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, M. Levenius, and K. Gallo, “Broadband parametric processes in χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3457–3460 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Zero focusing via competing nonlinearities in beta-barium-borate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Bree, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243903 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Fuji and Y. Nomura, “Generation of phase-stable sub-cycle mid-infrared pulses from filamentation in nitrogen,” Appl. Sci. 3, 122–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, “Ultrafast and octave-spanning optical nonlinearities from strongly phase-mismatched quadratic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Generation of octave-spanning spectra inside reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2478–2480 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. Dreischuh, R. Fischer, S. Ha, J. Bolger, L. Bui, W. Krolikowski, B. J. Eggleton, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear spectral-spatial control and localization of supercontinuum radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 123901 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman active crystal driven by two-color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

F. Baronio, C. De Angelis, P. Pioger, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Reflection of quadratic solitons at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 986–988 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Zeng, J. Wu, H. Xu, K. Wu, and E. Wu, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation in a quadratically nonlinear medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143903 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

A. V. Buryak, P. Di Trapani, D. V. Skryabin, and S. Trillo, “Optical solitons due to quadratic nonlinearities: from basic physics to futuristic applications,” Phys. Rep. 370, 63–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Pioger, V. Couderc, L. Lefort, A. Barthélémy, F. Baronio, C. De Angelis, Y. Min, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, “Spatial trapping of short pulses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2182–2184 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, A. Barthélémy, C. De Angelis, and F. Gringoli, “Trapping of a weak probe through coupling with a two-color quadratic spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 203, 421–425 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, C. Simos, and A. Barthélémy, “Experiments in quadratic spatial soliton generation and steering in a noncollinear geometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 905–907 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

S. Trillo and P. Ferro, “Modulational instability in second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 4438–4440 (1995).
[Crossref]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, “Observation of two-dimensional spatial solitary waves in quadratic medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036–5039 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. L. Bortz, M. Fujimura, and M. M. Fejer, “Increased acceptance bandwidth for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 30, 34–35 (1994).
[Crossref]

Austin, M. W.

D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. Dreischuh, R. Fischer, S. Ha, J. Bolger, L. Bui, W. Krolikowski, B. J. Eggleton, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear spectral-spatial control and localization of supercontinuum radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 123901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bache, M.

B. B. Zhou, H. R. Guo, and M. Bache, “Energetic mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation by self-defocusing soliton-induced dispersive waves in a bulk quadratic nonlinear crystal,” Opt. Express 23, 6924–6936 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, “Ultrafast and octave-spanning optical nonlinearities from strongly phase-mismatched quadratic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baronio, F.

K. Krupa, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Zero focusing via competing nonlinearities in beta-barium-borate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, M. Levenius, and K. Gallo, “Broadband parametric processes in χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3457–3460 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and C. De Angelis, “Nonlinear envelope equation for broadband optical pulses in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053841 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and C. De Angelis, “Ultra-broadband optical phenomena in quadratic nonlinear media,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 600–610 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Baronio, C. De Angelis, P. Pioger, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Reflection of quadratic solitons at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 986–988 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Pioger, V. Couderc, L. Lefort, A. Barthélémy, F. Baronio, C. De Angelis, Y. Min, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, “Spatial trapping of short pulses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2182–2184 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Broadband light generation in PPLN crystal and its interplay with spatial nonlinear effects,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTu2A.2.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Complex spatial and spectral evolutions in cascaded second-order nonlinear process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTh2A.107.

Barthélémy, A.

Bellanca, G.

Birkholz, S.

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Bree, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bolger, J.

D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. Dreischuh, R. Fischer, S. Ha, J. Bolger, L. Bui, W. Krolikowski, B. J. Eggleton, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear spectral-spatial control and localization of supercontinuum radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 123901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bortz, M. L.

M. L. Bortz, M. Fujimura, and M. M. Fejer, “Increased acceptance bandwidth for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 30, 34–35 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bourliaguet, B.

Bramati, A.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bree, C.

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Bree, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bui, L.

D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. Dreischuh, R. Fischer, S. Ha, J. Bolger, L. Bui, W. Krolikowski, B. J. Eggleton, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear spectral-spatial control and localization of supercontinuum radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 123901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Buryak, A. V.

A. V. Buryak, P. Di Trapani, D. V. Skryabin, and S. Trillo, “Optical solitons due to quadratic nonlinearities: from basic physics to futuristic applications,” Phys. Rep. 370, 63–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, and S. Trillo, “Parametric spatial solitary waves due to type II second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3110–3118 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. Q.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Chinaglia, W.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chong, A.

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, “Ultrafast and octave-spanning optical nonlinearities from strongly phase-mismatched quadratic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Conforti, M.

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, M. Levenius, and K. Gallo, “Broadband parametric processes in χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3457–3460 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Zero focusing via competing nonlinearities in beta-barium-borate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and C. De Angelis, “Nonlinear envelope equation for broadband optical pulses in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053841 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and C. De Angelis, “Ultra-broadband optical phenomena in quadratic nonlinear media,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 600–610 (2010).
[Crossref]

Conti, C.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

D. Majus, G. Tamosauskas, I. Grazuleviciute, N. Garejev, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Nature of spatiotemporal light bullets in bulk Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Couderc, V.

K. Krupa, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Zero focusing via competing nonlinearities in beta-barium-borate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Baronio, C. De Angelis, P. Pioger, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Reflection of quadratic solitons at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 986–988 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, A. Barthélémy, C. De Angelis, and F. Gringoli, “Trapping of a weak probe through coupling with a two-color quadratic spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 203, 421–425 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Pioger, V. Couderc, L. Lefort, A. Barthélémy, F. Baronio, C. De Angelis, Y. Min, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, “Spatial trapping of short pulses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2182–2184 (2002).
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V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, C. Simos, and A. Barthélémy, “Experiments in quadratic spatial soliton generation and steering in a noncollinear geometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 905–907 (2001).
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K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Complex spatial and spectral evolutions in cascaded second-order nonlinear process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTh2A.107.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Broadband light generation in PPLN crystal and its interplay with spatial nonlinear effects,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTu2A.2.

K. Krupa, R. Fona, A. Tonello, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, “Self-increased acceptance bandwidth of second harmonic generation for high-energy light sources,” in International Workshop on Spatiotemporal Complexity in Nonlinear Optics (SCNO), Como, Italy, August31, 2015, paper 3843079.

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V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, A. Barthélémy, C. De Angelis, and F. Gringoli, “Trapping of a weak probe through coupling with a two-color quadratic spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 203, 421–425 (2002).
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B. Bourliaguet, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, D. C. Hanna, and C. De Angelis, “Observation of quadratic spatial solitons in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1410–1412 (1999).
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A. V. Buryak, P. Di Trapani, D. V. Skryabin, and S. Trillo, “Optical solitons due to quadratic nonlinearities: from basic physics to futuristic applications,” Phys. Rep. 370, 63–235 (2002).
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P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
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K. Krupa, R. Fona, A. Tonello, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, “Self-increased acceptance bandwidth of second harmonic generation for high-energy light sources,” in International Workshop on Spatiotemporal Complexity in Nonlinear Optics (SCNO), Como, Italy, August31, 2015, paper 3843079.

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V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, A. Barthélémy, C. De Angelis, and F. Gringoli, “Trapping of a weak probe through coupling with a two-color quadratic spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 203, 421–425 (2002).
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D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. Dreischuh, R. Fischer, S. Ha, J. Bolger, L. Bui, W. Krolikowski, B. J. Eggleton, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear spectral-spatial control and localization of supercontinuum radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 123901 (2007).
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Z. H. He, J. A. Nees, B. Hou, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas, “Ionization-induced self-compression of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263904 (2014).
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Z. H. He, J. A. Nees, B. Hou, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas, “Ionization-induced self-compression of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263904 (2014).
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C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
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S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1451–1453 (2002).
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P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
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K. Krupa, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Zero focusing via competing nonlinearities in beta-barium-borate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Complex spatial and spectral evolutions in cascaded second-order nonlinear process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTh2A.107.

K. Krupa, R. Fona, A. Tonello, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, “Self-increased acceptance bandwidth of second harmonic generation for high-energy light sources,” in International Workshop on Spatiotemporal Complexity in Nonlinear Optics (SCNO), Como, Italy, August31, 2015, paper 3843079.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Broadband light generation in PPLN crystal and its interplay with spatial nonlinear effects,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTu2A.2.

Krushelnick, K.

Z. H. He, J. A. Nees, B. Hou, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas, “Ionization-induced self-compression of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263904 (2014).
[Crossref]

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K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Broadband light generation in PPLN crystal and its interplay with spatial nonlinear effects,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTu2A.2.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Complex spatial and spectral evolutions in cascaded second-order nonlinear process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTh2A.107.

K. Krupa, R. Fona, A. Tonello, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, “Self-increased acceptance bandwidth of second harmonic generation for high-energy light sources,” in International Workshop on Spatiotemporal Complexity in Nonlinear Optics (SCNO), Como, Italy, August31, 2015, paper 3843079.

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B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

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B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

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V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, A. Barthélémy, C. De Angelis, and F. Gringoli, “Trapping of a weak probe through coupling with a two-color quadratic spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 203, 421–425 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, C. Simos, and A. Barthélémy, “Experiments in quadratic spatial soliton generation and steering in a noncollinear geometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 905–907 (2001).
[Crossref]

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D. Majus, G. Tamosauskas, I. Grazuleviciute, N. Garejev, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Nature of spatiotemporal light bullets in bulk Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193901 (2014).
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B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

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Majus, D.

D. Majus, G. Tamosauskas, I. Grazuleviciute, N. Garejev, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Nature of spatiotemporal light bullets in bulk Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193901 (2014).
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X. Qi, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, A. Mitchell, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polychromatic solitons and symmetry breaking in curved waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1371–1373 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. Dreischuh, R. Fischer, S. Ha, J. Bolger, L. Bui, W. Krolikowski, B. J. Eggleton, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear spectral-spatial control and localization of supercontinuum radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 123901 (2007).
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F. Wise and J. Moses, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing of femtosecond pulses with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities,” in Self-Focusing: Past and Present, R. W. Boyd, S. L. Lukishova, and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer, 2009), pp. 481–506.

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Narayana Rao, D.

Nees, J. A.

Z. H. He, J. A. Nees, B. Hou, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas, “Ionization-induced self-compression of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263904 (2014).
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Nibbering, E. T. J.

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Bree, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243903 (2013).
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T. Fuji and Y. Nomura, “Generation of phase-stable sub-cycle mid-infrared pulses from filamentation in nitrogen,” Appl. Sci. 3, 122–138 (2013).
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Pioger, P.

Piskarskas, A.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

Quiring, V.

Ren, M. L.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Ross, G. W.

Shalaby, B. M.

K. Krupa, R. Fona, A. Tonello, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, “Self-increased acceptance bandwidth of second harmonic generation for high-energy light sources,” in International Workshop on Spatiotemporal Complexity in Nonlinear Optics (SCNO), Como, Italy, August31, 2015, paper 3843079.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Complex spatial and spectral evolutions in cascaded second-order nonlinear process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTh2A.107.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Broadband light generation in PPLN crystal and its interplay with spatial nonlinear effects,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTu2A.2.

Sheng, Y.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Shvedov, V.

Simos, C.

Skryabin, D. V.

A. V. Buryak, P. Di Trapani, D. V. Skryabin, and S. Trillo, “Optical solitons due to quadratic nonlinearities: from basic physics to futuristic applications,” Phys. Rep. 370, 63–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

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S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Bree, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243903 (2013).
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Sohler, W.

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Sree Harsha, S.

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W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, “Observation of two-dimensional spatial solitary waves in quadratic medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036–5039 (1995).
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S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Bree, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243903 (2013).
[Crossref]

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X. Qi, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, A. Mitchell, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polychromatic solitons and symmetry breaking in curved waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1371–1373 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. Dreischuh, R. Fischer, S. Ha, J. Bolger, L. Bui, W. Krolikowski, B. J. Eggleton, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear spectral-spatial control and localization of supercontinuum radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 123901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sylvestre, T.

Tamosauskas, G.

D. Majus, G. Tamosauskas, I. Grazuleviciute, N. Garejev, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Nature of spatiotemporal light bullets in bulk Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomas, A. G. R.

Z. H. He, J. A. Nees, B. Hou, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas, “Ionization-induced self-compression of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263904 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tokmakoff, A.

Tonello, A.

K. Krupa, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Zero focusing via competing nonlinearities in beta-barium-borate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Broadband light generation in PPLN crystal and its interplay with spatial nonlinear effects,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTu2A.2.

K. Krupa, R. Fona, A. Tonello, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, “Self-increased acceptance bandwidth of second harmonic generation for high-energy light sources,” in International Workshop on Spatiotemporal Complexity in Nonlinear Optics (SCNO), Como, Italy, August31, 2015, paper 3843079.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Complex spatial and spectral evolutions in cascaded second-order nonlinear process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTh2A.107.

Torner, L.

B. A. Malomed, D. Mihalache, F. Wise, and L. Torner, “Spatiotemporal optical solitons,” J. Opt. B 7, R53–R72 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, “Observation of two-dimensional spatial solitary waves in quadratic medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036–5039 (1995).
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Torruellas, W. E.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, “Observation of two-dimensional spatial solitary waves in quadratic medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036–5039 (1995).
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Trillo, S.

K. Krupa, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Zero focusing via competing nonlinearities in beta-barium-borate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. V. Buryak, P. Di Trapani, D. V. Skryabin, and S. Trillo, “Optical solitons due to quadratic nonlinearities: from basic physics to futuristic applications,” Phys. Rep. 370, 63–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
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A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, and S. Trillo, “Parametric spatial solitary waves due to type II second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3110–3118 (1997).
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S. Trillo and P. Ferro, “Modulational instability in second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 4438–4440 (1995).
[Crossref]

Trull, J.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[Crossref]

Valiulis, G.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, “Observation of two-dimensional spatial solitary waves in quadratic medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036–5039 (1995).
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K. Krupa, R. Fona, A. Tonello, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, “Self-increased acceptance bandwidth of second harmonic generation for high-energy light sources,” in International Workshop on Spatiotemporal Complexity in Nonlinear Optics (SCNO), Como, Italy, August31, 2015, paper 3843079.

Wang, Z.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, “Observation of two-dimensional spatial solitary waves in quadratic medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036–5039 (1995).
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Wise, F.

B. A. Malomed, D. Mihalache, F. Wise, and L. Torner, “Spatiotemporal optical solitons,” J. Opt. B 7, R53–R72 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Wise and J. Moses, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing of femtosecond pulses with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities,” in Self-Focusing: Past and Present, R. W. Boyd, S. L. Lukishova, and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer, 2009), pp. 481–506.

Wise, F. W.

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, “Ultrafast and octave-spanning optical nonlinearities from strongly phase-mismatched quadratic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, E.

H. Zeng, J. Wu, H. Xu, K. Wu, and E. Wu, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation in a quadratically nonlinear medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143903 (2004).
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Wu, J.

H. Zeng, J. Wu, H. Xu, K. Wu, and E. Wu, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation in a quadratically nonlinear medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

H. Zeng, J. Wu, H. Xu, K. Wu, and E. Wu, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation in a quadratically nonlinear medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

H. Zeng, J. Wu, H. Xu, K. Wu, and E. Wu, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation in a quadratically nonlinear medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, J. Wu, H. Xu, K. Wu, and E. Wu, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation in a quadratically nonlinear medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Zhang, G.

Zhi, M.

Zhou, B. B.

B. B. Zhou, H. R. Guo, and M. Bache, “Energetic mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation by self-defocusing soliton-induced dispersive waves in a bulk quadratic nonlinear crystal,” Opt. Express 23, 6924–6936 (2015).
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B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, “Ultrafast and octave-spanning optical nonlinearities from strongly phase-mismatched quadratic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
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Appl. Sci. (1)

T. Fuji and Y. Nomura, “Generation of phase-stable sub-cycle mid-infrared pulses from filamentation in nitrogen,” Appl. Sci. 3, 122–138 (2013).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

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IEEE Photon. J. (1)

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J. Opt. B (1)

B. A. Malomed, D. Mihalache, F. Wise, and L. Torner, “Spatiotemporal optical solitons,” J. Opt. B 7, R53–R72 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Opt. Commun. (1)

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M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman active crystal driven by two-color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007).
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V. Couderc, E. Lopez Lago, C. Simos, and A. Barthélémy, “Experiments in quadratic spatial soliton generation and steering in a noncollinear geometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 905–907 (2001).
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P. Pioger, V. Couderc, L. Lefort, A. Barthélémy, F. Baronio, C. De Angelis, Y. Min, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, “Spatial trapping of short pulses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2182–2184 (2002).
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M. Conforti, F. Baronio, M. Levenius, and K. Gallo, “Broadband parametric processes in χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3457–3460 (2014).
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[Crossref]

X. Qi, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, A. Mitchell, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polychromatic solitons and symmetry breaking in curved waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1371–1373 (2010).
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K. Krupa, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Zero focusing via competing nonlinearities in beta-barium-borate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 39, 925–928 (2014).
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Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Buryak, P. Di Trapani, D. V. Skryabin, and S. Trillo, “Optical solitons due to quadratic nonlinearities: from basic physics to futuristic applications,” Phys. Rep. 370, 63–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

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S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Bree, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243903 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zeng, J. Wu, H. Xu, K. Wu, and E. Wu, “Colored conical emission by means of second-harmonic generation in a quadratically nonlinear medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143903 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. Dreischuh, R. Fischer, S. Ha, J. Bolger, L. Bui, W. Krolikowski, B. J. Eggleton, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear spectral-spatial control and localization of supercontinuum radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 123901 (2007).
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[Crossref]

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, “Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, “Ultrafast and octave-spanning optical nonlinearities from strongly phase-mismatched quadratic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
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Other (5)

D. N. Nikogosyan, Nonlinear Optical Crystals: A Complete Survey (Springer, 2005).

K. Krupa, R. Fona, A. Tonello, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, “Self-increased acceptance bandwidth of second harmonic generation for high-energy light sources,” in International Workshop on Spatiotemporal Complexity in Nonlinear Optics (SCNO), Como, Italy, August31, 2015, paper 3843079.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Broadband light generation in PPLN crystal and its interplay with spatial nonlinear effects,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper NTu2A.2.

K. Krupa, A. Labruyère, B. M. Shalaby, A. Tonello, F. Baronio, and V. Couderc, “Complex spatial and spectral evolutions in cascaded second-order nonlinear process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTh2A.107.

F. Wise and J. Moses, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing of femtosecond pulses with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities,” in Self-Focusing: Past and Present, R. W. Boyd, S. L. Lukishova, and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer, 2009), pp. 481–506.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup: 30 ps 20 Hz Nd:YAG laser pump at 1064 nm; HWP, half-wave plates; Pol, polarizer; two lenses with focal length f1=120mm (Lens 1) and f2=35mm (Lens 2); PPLN, nonlinear crystal of periodically poled lithium niobate. The measuring devices are CCD camera with output magnification G=4, and two spectrum analyzers, one for the UV–VIS and one for the IR spectral region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental threshold of pump intensity (ITh) for broadband generation upon crystal temperature (or phase mismatch ΔkL), which discriminates two nonlinear propagation regimes: Regime I of low narrowband conversion for IP<ITh and Regime II of strong broadband conversion for IP>ITh. IP: pulse peak intensity of the pump.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental spatial reshaping of the fundamental beam after propagation in a 15 mm long PPLN: (d) output beam diameter (FWHM of intensity) upon crystal temperature (and ΔkL) in Regime I (blue curve) and Regime II (red curve). The top panels show sections of the spatial beam profiles in Regime II (at IP=2GW/cm2) and at three crystal temperatures: (a) TPPLN=40°C (ΔkL=+9π), (b) TPPLN=53°C (ΔkL=3π), and (c) TPPLN=60°C (ΔkL=9π), compared to the initial beam profile (dashed curves). IP: pulse peak intensity of the pump.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Numerical evolutions of (a)–(c) spatial and (d) spectral beam shapes at 1064 nm after propagation in a 15 mm long PPLN at 53°C (i.e., ΔkL=3π) for [(a) and black curve in (d)] IP=0.05GW/cm2, [(b) and blue curve in (d)] IP=0.1GW/cm2, and [(c) and red curve in (d)] IP=1GW/cm2; spatial beam profiles are compared with their initial shapes [dashed curves in panels (a)–(c)]. IP: pulse peak intensity of the pump.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Broadband spectra generated in UV–VIS (left) and IR (right) regions in a 15 mm long PPLN at 53°C (i.e., ΔkL=3π), and in Regime II of broadband conversion: (a), (b) experimental results for IP=10GW/cm2, (c), (d) numerical results for IP=1GW/cm2. IP: pulse peak intensity of the pump. Inset: photographic image of the output VIS spectrum dispersed by a diffraction grating.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Numerical spectral evolution upon propagation length in PPLN crystal at 53°C (i.e., ΔkL=3π) and for IP=1GW/cm2: (a) at L=0.4mm, (b) at L=3mm, (c) at L=4.5mm, and (d) at L=5.5mm. Subscripts L and R represent the anti-Stokes and Stokes waves, respectively. IP: pulse peak intensity of the pump.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Experimental spectra generated in UV–VIS (top) and IR (bottom) regions in a 15 mm long PPLN for different crystal temperature (i.e., for different ΔkL): (a), (c) TPPLN=25°C (ΔkL=+22π), self-focusing side, and (b), (d) TPPLN=160°C (ΔkL=115π), self-defocusing side. Photographic images of the output VIS spectrum dispersed by a diffraction grating at TPPLN=25°C [above panel (a)] and at TPPLN=160°C [above panel (c)]. The pulse peak intensity of the pump is IP=10GW/cm2 (Regime II of broadband conversion).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Experimental output beam diameter (FWHM of intensity) after propagation in a 15 mm long PPLN upon crystal temperature (and ΔkL) measured for various wavelengths. The pulse peak intensity of the pump is IP=2ITh (Regime II of broadband conversion), where ITh is the threshold of pump intensity for broadband generation.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Experimental output beam diameter (FWHM of intensity) after propagation in a 15 mm long PPLN at 53°C (i.e., ΔkL=3π) upon input pump intensity measured for various wavelengths.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Spatial and spectral beam reshaping in Regime II at TPPLN=53°C (i.e., ΔkL=3π): (a) measured 2D spatial beam shapes and corresponding beam profiles versus y (x=0 section) upon various wavelengths and normalized to their maximal value; FH profile is compared with its initial shape (black dashed curve), and (b) simulated 1D spatial beam profiles for the relevant wavelengths. The crystal length is L=15mm and the pulse peak intensity of the pump is IP=2ITh=1GW/cm2 (Regime II of broadband conversion); the spatial input shape of the FH is also reported for ease of comparison (*). ITh, threshold of pump intensity for broadband generation; LD, diffraction length.

Equations (1)

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dE˜(kx,ω)dz+ikzE˜(kx,ω)=ideff(z)ω2kzc2F[E(x,t)2].

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