Abstract

The generation of ultrashort pulses from quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has proved to be challenging. It has been suggested that the ultrafast electron dynamics of these devices is the limiting factor for mode locking and, hence, pulse formation. Even so, the clear mode locking of terahertz (THz) QCLs has been demonstrated recently, but the exact mechanism for pulse generation is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the dominant factor necessary for active pulse generation is in fact the synchronization between the propagating electronic modulation and the generated THz pulse in the QCL. By using the phase-resolved detection of the electric field in QCLs embedded in metal–metal waveguides, we demonstrate that active mode locking requires the phase velocity of the microwave round-trip modulation to equal the group velocity of the THz pulse. This allows the THz pulse to propagate in phase with the microwave modulation along the gain medium, permitting short-pulse generation. Mode locking was performed on QCLs employing phonon depopulation active regions, permitting the coherent detection of large gain bandwidths (500 GHz) and the generation of 11 ps pulses centered around 2.6 THz when the above “phase-matching” condition is satisfied. This work brings an enhanced understanding of QCL mode locking and will permit new concepts to be explored to generate shorter and more intense pulses from mid-infrared, as well as THz, QCLs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation

Pierre Gellie, Stefano Barbieri, Jean-François Lampin, Pascal Filloux, Christophe Manquest, Carlo Sirtori, Isabelle Sagnes, Suraj P. Khanna, Edmund H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, Harvey Beere, and David Ritchie
Opt. Express 18(20) 20799-20816 (2010)

Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers

Christine Y. Wang, Lyuba Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and Federico Capasso
Opt. Express 17(15) 12929-12943 (2009)

Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time

Yongrui Wang and Alexey Belyanin
Opt. Express 23(4) 4173-4185 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 200  K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20, 3866–3876 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Y. Wang, L. Kyznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kartner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, and H. Schneider, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 12929–12943 (2009).
  5. S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. E. Bowers, P. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. L. Portnoi, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, “Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc. 147, 251–278 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 159–167 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
  12. J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Wang and A. Belyanin, “Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time,” Opt. Express 23, 4173–4185 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. K. Wójcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang and A. Belyanin, “Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time,” Opt. Express 23, 4173–4185 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. K. Wójcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 159–167 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. L. Portnoi, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, “Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. E. Bowers, P. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Andronico, A.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

Austerer, M.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, E. A.

E. L. Portnoi, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, “Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ban, D.

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Belyanin, A.

Blanchard, R.

A. K. Wójcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

J. E. Bowers, P. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Breuil, N.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brewer, A.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

A. K. Wójcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cavalié, P.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. W. I.

Chen, L.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cockburn, J. W.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Corzine, S. W.

J. E. Bowers, P. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Darmo, J.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dean, P.

Dhillon, S.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S. S.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diehl, L.

Ding, L.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dupont, E.

Elsaesser, T.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fathololoumi, S.

Filloux, P.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

Freeman, J.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freeman, J. R.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaal, P.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

Gkortsas, V. M.

Grein, M. E.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 159–167 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ham, D.

Haus, H.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 159–167 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

Hugi, A.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, M. S. M.

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 159–167 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L. A.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 159–167 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jirauschek, C.

Jukam, N.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kartner, F. X.

Khanna, S.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S. P.

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krysa, A. B.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuehn, W.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kyznetsova, L.

Laframboise, S. R.

Lampin, J.-F.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

Leo, G.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

Li, L.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Linfield, E. H.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. C.

Madéo, J.

Maineult, W.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Malara, P.

A. K. Wójcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mangeney, J.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Manquest, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mansuripur, T. S.

A. K. Wójcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mar, A.

J. E. Bowers, P. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Marcadet, X.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marsh, J. H.

E. L. Portnoi, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, “Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mátyás, A.

Maussang, K.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maysonnave, J.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morton, P.

J. E. Bowers, P. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Müller, T.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oustinov, D.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Parz, W.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peytavit, E.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

Portnoi, E. L.

E. L. Portnoi, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, “Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ravaro, M.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reimann, K.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Roberts, J. S.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rösch, M.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rungsawang, R.

Sagnes, I.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scalari, G.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schneider, H.

Sirtori, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Steenson, D. P.

Strasser, G.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tignon, J.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Unterrainer, K.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Valavanis, A.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Villares, G.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

Wang, Y.

Wasilewski, Z. R.

Wilson, L. R.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woerner, M.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wójcik, A. K.

A. K. Wójcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump–probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. K. Wójcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal–metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1  W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc. (1)

E. L. Portnoi, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, “Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. E. Bowers, P. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 159–167 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9, 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell–Bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063817 (2013).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (1297 KB)      Supplemental document

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Light–current density–voltage characteristics of the 2.6 THz MM waveguide QCL based on an LO phonon depopulation active region at 25 K (red), 77 K (green), and 130 K (blue). Top inset: schematic diagram showing the QCL coordinate system XYZ. Bottom inset: transverse (XY) and longitudinal (XZ) mode simulations of the THz mode profile inside the MM waveguide QCL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Injection seeding of the MM waveguide QCL at 77 K. (a) Emitted electric field from the QCL as a function of time with a bias of 3 V on the seed antenna. (b) Expanded view of the emitted QCL electric field between 545 and 575 ps. (c) QCL output field amplitude at 431 ps as a function of the voltage applied on the THz photoconductive antenna. (d) FFT of the QCL output electric field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

QCL output electric field and the corresponding spectrum for microwave modulation frequencies of 12.465, 12.539, 12.617, and 12.691 GHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Active mode locking and phase analysis of the MM QCL at 77 K. (a) Output electric field for the seeded (red) and mode-locked (black) QCLs with an applied microwave modulation of 12.46 GHz for the latter. Inset: expanded view of the THz pulse intensity between 1470 and 1530 ps. (b) FFT of panel (a) for a seeded (red) and a mode-locked (black) QCL. (c) Phases of the eight mode-locked longitudinal modes (green triangles). Inset: QCL schematic showing the device integrated with a microwave waveguide for active mode locking and illustrating the input seed pulse and the seeded/mode-locked output.

Metrics