Abstract

Optical frequency combs based on erbium-doped fiber lasers are attractive tools in precision metrology due to their inherent compactness and stability. Here we study a femtosecond Er:fiber comb that passively eliminates the carrier–envelope phase slip by difference frequency generation. Quantum statistics inside the all-fiber soliton oscillator governs its free-running performance. Active stabilization of the repetition rate supports a subhertz optical linewidth and does not necessitate additional intracavity elements. Direct locking to an optical atomic frequency standard enables generation of a 100 MHz microwave signal with a stability of 3.4 mHz maintained over 15 min.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51–B62 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5, 186–188 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: nonlinear pulse shortening and self-referencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express 11, 594–600 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1516–1518 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29, 250–252 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2948–2950 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 4–7 (2002).
  13. G. Krauss, D. Fehrenbacher, D. Brida, C. Riek, A. Sell, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-passive phase locking of a compact Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 540–542 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation,” Opt. Express 17, 1070–1077 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Kumkar, G. Krauss, M. Wunram, D. Fehrenbacher, U. Demirbas, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond coherent seeding of a broadband Tm:fiber amplifier by an Er:fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37, 554–556 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Brida, G. Krauss, A. Sell, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband Er:fiber lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 409–428 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, N. Langellier, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, G. Furesz, A. A. Zibrov, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Operation of a broadband visible-wavelength astro-comb with a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph,” Optica 2, 250–254 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Wunram, P. Storz, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrastable fiber amplifier delivering 145-fs pulses with 6-μJ energy at 10-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 40, 823–826 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Nakamura, I. Ito, and Y. Kobayashi, “Offset-free broadband Yb:fiber optical frequency comb for optical clocks,” Opt. Express 23, 19376–19381 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, P. Thomann, G. Di Domenico, and S. Schilt, “Experimental validation of a simple approximation to determine the linewidth of a laser from its frequency noise spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 51, 4582–4588 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  23. N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756–1770 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, “Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 321–324 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. P. Gordon and H. A. Haus, “Random walk of coherently amplified solitons in optical fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 11, 665–667 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noise of mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 153–162 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983–996 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Elimination of pump-induced frequency jitter on fiber-laser frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1997–1999 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, and K. C. Cossel, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy: technology and applications,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175–205 (2010).
  31. A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, “Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references,” Opt. Lett. 30, 667–669 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3707–3709 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. A. Cox, W. P. Putnam, A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse synthesis in the single-cycle regime from independent mode-locked lasers using attosecond-precision feedback,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3579–3581 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103–133 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  35. T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  36. K. Moutzouris, F. Sotier, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Highly efficient second, third and fourth harmonic generation from a two-branch femtosecond erbium fiber source,” Opt. Express 14, 1905–1912 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  37. D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  38. D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. A. Orozco, “Lifetime measurements of the 5d states of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, G. Krauss, A. Sell, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband Er:fiber lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 409–428 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, and K. C. Cossel, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy: technology and applications,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175–205 (2010).

R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noise of mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 153–162 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. A. Orozco, “Lifetime measurements of the 5d states of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29, 250–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, “Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 321–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 4–7 (2002).

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1982 (2)

M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, and K. C. Cossel, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy: technology and applications,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175–205 (2010).

K. Moutzouris, F. Sotier, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Highly efficient second, third and fourth harmonic generation from a two-branch femtosecond erbium fiber source,” Opt. Express 14, 1905–1912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Argence, B.

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Assion, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 4–7 (2002).

Bartels, A.

Bergquist, J. C.

Boudot, R.

Bourgeois, P. Y.

Brida, D.

Bucalovic, N.

Chang, G.

Chen, L.-J.

Coddington, I.

Cossel, K. C.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, and K. C. Cossel, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy: technology and applications,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175–205 (2010).

Cox, J. A.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2948–2950 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Demirbas, U.

Di Domenico, G.

Diddams, S. A.

Dolgovskiy, V.

Duncan, B. C.

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[Crossref]

Elliott, D. S.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

Fallnich, C.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, “Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 321–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fehrenbacher, D.

Frei, H.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fuji, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 4–7 (2002).

Furesz, G.

Glenday, A. G.

Gordon, J. P.

Gould, P. L.

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[Crossref]

Grebing, C.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grove, T. T.

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hati, A.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. P. Gordon and H. A. Haus, “Random walk of coherently amplified solitons in optical fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 11, 665–667 (1986).
[Crossref]

Haverkamp, N.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, “Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 321–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hirai, A.

Hollberg, L.

Holman, K. W.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hong, F.-L.

Hou, D.

D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huber, R.

Hudson, D. D.

Hundertmark, H.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, “Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 321–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ina, H.

Inaba, H.

Ito, I.

Iwakuni, K.

Jang, H.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jang, Y.-S.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2948–2950 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. J.

Jørgensen, C. G.

Kang, K.-I.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kersalé, Y.

Kim, S.-W.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-J.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

Kobayashi, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 4–7 (2002).

Kobayashi, Y.

Koke, S.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krauss, G.

Kumkar, S.

Langellier, N.

Le Coq, Y.

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref]

Le Targat, R.

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-H.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leitenstorfer, A.

M. Wunram, P. Storz, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrastable fiber amplifier delivering 145-fs pulses with 6-μJ energy at 10-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 40, 823–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, G. Krauss, A. Sell, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband Er:fiber lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 409–428 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, W. P. Putnam, A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse synthesis in the single-cycle regime from independent mode-locked lasers using attosecond-precision feedback,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3579–3581 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kumkar, G. Krauss, M. Wunram, D. Fehrenbacher, U. Demirbas, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond coherent seeding of a broadband Tm:fiber amplifier by an Er:fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37, 554–556 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Krauss, D. Fehrenbacher, D. Brida, C. Riek, A. Sell, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-passive phase locking of a compact Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 540–542 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation,” Opt. Express 17, 1070–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris, F. Sotier, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Highly efficient second, third and fourth harmonic generation from a two-branch femtosecond erbium fiber source,” Opt. Express 14, 1905–1912 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: nonlinear pulse shortening and self-referencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express 11, 594–600 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, C.-H.

Lim, C.-W.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lours, M.

Luiten, A. N.

Maleki, S.

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, H.

McFerran, J. J.

Mecozzi, A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

Millo, J.

Minoshima, K.

Moutzouris, K.

Nakamura, T.

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nicolodi, D.

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oates, C. W.

Onae, A.

Orozco, L. A.

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. A. Orozco, “Lifetime measurements of the 5d states of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oskay, W. H.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noise of mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 153–162 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pérez Galván, A.

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. A. Orozco, “Lifetime measurements of the 5d states of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. F.

Putnam, W. P.

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103–133 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ren, Q.

D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Riek, C.

Rieker, G. B.

Roy, R.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Villicana, V.

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[Crossref]

Santarelli, G.

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sasselov, D.

Scheu, R.

Schilt, S.

Schori, C.

Sell, A.

Sheng, D.

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. A. Orozco, “Lifetime measurements of the 5d states of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, L. C.

Smith, S. J.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sotier, F.

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Storz, P.

Sugiura, T.

Swann, W. C.

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Takada, H.

Takeda, M.

Tauser, F.

Telle, H. R.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, “Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 321–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thomann, P.

Thorpe, M. J.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, and K. C. Cossel, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy: technology and applications,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175–205 (2010).

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R. L.

Washburn, B. R.

Wilpers, G.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wunram, M.

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

Yoshida, M.

Zhang, S.

D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zibrov, A. A.

Zinth, W.

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, and K. C. Cossel, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy: technology and applications,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175–205 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, “Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 321–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Hou, J. Wu, S. Zhang, Q. Ren, Z. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111104 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

D. Brida, G. Krauss, A. Sell, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband Er:fiber lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 409–428 (2014).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103–133 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10-18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8, 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5, 186–188 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (11)

M. Wunram, P. Storz, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrastable fiber amplifier delivering 145-fs pulses with 6-μJ energy at 10-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 40, 823–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Gordon and H. A. Haus, “Random walk of coherently amplified solitons in optical fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 11, 665–667 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Elimination of pump-induced frequency jitter on fiber-laser frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1997–1999 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, “Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references,” Opt. Lett. 30, 667–669 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, W. P. Putnam, A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse synthesis in the single-cycle regime from independent mode-locked lasers using attosecond-precision feedback,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3579–3581 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kumkar, G. Krauss, M. Wunram, D. Fehrenbacher, U. Demirbas, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond coherent seeding of a broadband Tm:fiber amplifier by an Er:fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37, 554–556 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Krauss, D. Fehrenbacher, D. Brida, C. Riek, A. Sell, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-passive phase locking of a compact Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 540–542 (2011).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1516–1518 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29, 250–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2948–2950 (2005).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. A. Orozco, “Lifetime measurements of the 5d states of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 4–7 (2002).

Phys. Scr. (1)

T. T. Grove, V. Sanchez-Villicana, B. C. Duncan, S. Maleki, and P. L. Gould, “Two-photon two-color diode laser spectroscopy of the Rb 5D5/2 state,” Phys. Scr. 52, 271–276 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 05134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the phase-stable Er:fiber system. An optical pulse train at a 100 MHz repetition rate is generated in an all-fiber oscillator (SAM, saturable absorber mirror; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer) and amplified in a polarization-maintaining Er:fiber amplifier (fs EDFA 1). It enters a free-space section (right) where it is first compressed by a silicon prism sequence and then frequency broadened in a dispersion-managed highly nonlinear fiber (HNF) to a coherent supercontinuum spanning more than one octave. Compactness and stability are optimized by a special SF10 prism compressor that simultaneously controls short pulse duration and temporal overlap between a dispersive wave and the solitonic part of the continuum. A razor blade removes residual pump light at 1550 nm. Difference frequency mixing in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal (PPLN; length=2mm) results in a frequency comb without carrier–envelope offset (CEO). Active linewidth narrowing is accomplished by locking the beat signal between the amplified phase-stable comb and a single-frequency laser at 193 THz to a radio frequency. The pump current is exploited as an actuator to control the feedback signal at low frequencies. An extracavity electro-optic modulator (EOM) eliminates residual phase jitter at high frequencies. Absolute stability of the system is ensured by locking the repetition rate of the offset-free comb to an atomic two-photon transition in a Rb85 cell. Orange lines depict electronic connections carrying error (solid) and feedback (dashed) signals used in active stabilization loops. The setup contains spherical mirrors SM1, SM2, and SM3 with focal lengths of 20, 7.5, and 2.5 cm, respectively, and a collimating lens L1 with f=1.8cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured linewidth (open circles) and parabolic fit (blue line) versus optical frequency of the supercontinuum output from the highly nonlinear fiber. Inset: Characteristic beat note of the phase-stable comb with a single-line reference at 1556 nm recorded at a resolution bandwidth of 1 kHz at 12 ms sweep time. (b) Frequency noise spectra of the beats of the reference with the oscillator (blue) and the phase-stable comb (red) in comparison to the reference performance (green, data from manufacturer). Note the characteristic flat spectrum of the comb, indicating white frequency noise (see dashed line). A small deviation above 300 kHz is explained by the performance of the reference.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Output spectrum of the oscillator for pump currents from 370 to 910 mA. Due to the soliton condition, the bandwidth increases from 12 to 18 nm with an increase in the pump current. (b) Decrease in the linewidth of the phase-stable pulse train at a wavelength of 1550 nm with an increase in the pump current due to the commensurate reduction in Gordon–Haus jitter. Inset: Output spectrum of the oscillator at a pump current (Ip) of 715 mA highlights an excellent sech2 shape (note the logarithmic ordinate scale).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Characterization of the actuator performance for locking of the phase-stable comb on a CW laser: (a) RF spectra, (b) frequency noise, (c) integrated phase jitter. PID settings are constant for all measurements. Color coding: free-running (black), only pump current control (blue), only EOM (red), and a combination of pump current and electro-optic modulator with a final phase jitter of 1.6 rad (green).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Resolution-limited RF spectrum of an actively narrowed beat between the phase-stable comb and CW reference laser. RBW and video bandwidth (VBW) are set to 1 Hz for both measurements. The span is 60 Hz and 1 MHz (inset). Note the logarithmic scale of both ordinates.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Setup for Doppler-free locking to the S1/25D5/25 two-photon optical transition of the Rb85 atom. The passively phase-stable comb is frequency doubled to a wavelength of 778 nm with a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal (PPLN, length 1 mm, poling period 19.4 μm) and the beam diameter extended to 1.8 mm (1/e2) prior to the focusing element. The center frequency at 778 nm (green) is blocked, and the beam is spectrally separated in a grating-based pulse shaper. The long (red) and short (blue) wavelength parts (see inset for measured spectra) are then overlapped spatiotemporally in a vapor cell filled with Rb85. Fluorescence at a wavelength of 420 nm is emitted after excitation of the two-photon transition and collected with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), providing the error signal for the active locking operation.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Normalized two-photon fluorescence signal from Rb85 detected with NIR-blind PMT is depicted as a function of the modulation frequency of the diode pump current. A roll-off bandwidth of 70 kHz is measured. (b) Deviation of the repetition rate (Δfrep) from the mean value when locked to the two-photon transition via the diode pump current (gate time of 300 ms). The standard deviation of 3.4 mHz (dotted level) is equivalent to a fractional stability of 3.4×1011 of frep=101,382,728.712Hz.

Metrics