Abstract

Spin to orbital angular momentum (OAM) conversion using a device known as a q-plate has gained recent attention as a convenient means of creating OAM beams. We show that the dispersive properties of a q=1/2 plate, specifically its group index difference Δng for ordinary and extraordinary polarization light, can be tuned for achieving single-aperture, alignment-tolerant stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy with versatile control over the color combinations as well as laser bandwidths. Point spread function measurements reveal the ability to achieve single-aperture STED illumination systems with high throughput (transmission >89%) and purity (donut beam extinction ratios as high as |18.75|dB, i.e., 1% residual light in the dark center of the donut beam) for a variety of color combinations covering the entire visible spectrum, hence addressing several of the fluorescent dyes of interest in STED microscopy. In addition, we demonstrate dual-color STED illumination that would enable multiplexed imaging modalities as well as schemes that could use wide bandwidths up to 19 nm (and hence ultrashort pulses down to 50fs). Switching between any of these color settings only involves changing the bias of the q-plate that does not alter the alignment of the system, hence potentially facilitating alignment-free, spectrally diverse multiplexed nanoscale imaging.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

12 November 2015: A correction was made to the funding section.

References

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2015 (2)

2014 (1)

F. Gorlitz, P. Hoyer, H. Falk, L. Kastrup, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 147, 57 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, J. Opt. 12, 115707 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Reuss, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Express 18, 1049 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2006 (2)

K. I. Willig, R. R. Kellner, R. Medda, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 3, 721 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1994 (1)

Auksorius, E.

L. Yan, E. Auksorius, N. Bozinovic, G. J. Tearney, and S. Ramachandran, CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu3N.2.

Boyd, R. W.

Bozinovic, N.

L. Yan, E. Auksorius, N. Bozinovic, G. J. Tearney, and S. Ramachandran, CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu3N.2.

Bückers, J.

Chigrinov, V.

Du, T.

Engelhardt, J.

F. Gorlitz, P. Hoyer, H. Falk, L. Kastrup, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 147, 57 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Reuss, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Express 18, 1049 (2010).
[Crossref]

Falk, H.

F. Gorlitz, P. Hoyer, H. Falk, L. Kastrup, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 147, 57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Golowich, S. E.

Gorlitz, F.

F. Gorlitz, P. Hoyer, H. Falk, L. Kastrup, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 147, 57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gregg, P.

Hao, X.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, J. Opt. 12, 115707 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hein, B.

K. I. Willig, R. R. Kellner, R. Medda, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 3, 721 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hell, S. W.

F. Gorlitz, P. Hoyer, H. Falk, L. Kastrup, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 147, 57 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Reuss, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Express 18, 1049 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Wildanger, J. Bückers, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, and L. Kastrup, Opt. Express 17, 16100 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. I. Willig, R. R. Kellner, R. Medda, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 3, 721 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett. 19, 780 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hoyer, P.

F. Gorlitz, P. Hoyer, H. Falk, L. Kastrup, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 147, 57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jakobs, S.

K. I. Willig, R. R. Kellner, R. Medda, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 3, 721 (2006).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

P. Gregg, M. Mirhosseini, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, R. W. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 40, 1729 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kastrup, L.

F. Gorlitz, P. Hoyer, H. Falk, L. Kastrup, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 147, 57 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Wildanger, J. Bückers, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, and L. Kastrup, Opt. Express 17, 16100 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kellner, R. R.

K. I. Willig, R. R. Kellner, R. Medda, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 3, 721 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

Kuang, C.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, J. Opt. 12, 115707 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, J. Opt. 12, 115707 (2010).
[Crossref]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

Medda, R.

K. I. Willig, R. R. Kellner, R. Medda, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 3, 721 (2006).
[Crossref]

Michaelis, J.

Mirhosseini, M.

Moffitt, J. R.

Murauski, A.

Nagali, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Osseforth, C.

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Piccirillo, B.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

Reuss, M.

Rubano, A.

Santamato, E.

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Opt. Express 19, 4085 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

Tearney, G. J.

L. Yan, E. Auksorius, N. Bozinovic, G. J. Tearney, and S. Ramachandran, CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu3N.2.

Wang, T.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, J. Opt. 12, 115707 (2010).
[Crossref]

Westphal, V.

Wichmann, J.

Wildanger, D.

Willig, K. I.

K. I. Willig, R. R. Kellner, R. Medda, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 3, 721 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

L. Yan, E. Auksorius, N. Bozinovic, G. J. Tearney, and S. Ramachandran, CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu3N.2.

Yan, M. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, J. Opt. 12, 115707 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

K. I. Willig, R. R. Kellner, R. Medda, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 3, 721 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Prog. Electromagn. Res. (1)

F. Gorlitz, P. Hoyer, H. Falk, L. Kastrup, J. Engelhardt, and S. W. Hell, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 147, 57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

L. Yan, E. Auksorius, N. Bozinovic, G. J. Tearney, and S. Ramachandran, CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu3N.2.

http://nanobiophotonics.mpibpc.mpg.de/old/dyes/ .

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Free-space images of two beams of different wavelengths passing through a q=1/2 plate at different voltage biases.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Extinction ratio as a function of wavelength, with bias of 1.180 V. OAM (red) and Gaussian (green) mode images are also shown. The green dashed vertical lines mark out the wavelength range over which a Gaussian beam PSF can be obtained. Inset: extinction ratio of the donut PSF as a function of wavelength. Red arrows indicate the 13dB bandwidth (BW).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) OAM full-conversion wavelength (and frequency) as a function of the q-plate bias; (b) full-conversion period in frequency as a function of the q-plate bias.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup. Pol-Con: fiber polarization controller; RC: reflective collimator; FG: function generator; CAM: CMOS camera; BS: beam splitter; L: lens; MMF: multimode fiber; APD: avalanche photodiode; HW: λ/2 plate. See Supplement 1, Section 3 for additional experimental details.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PSFs for (a) 532 nm Gaussian and 647 nm STED beams with bias=1.180V; (d) and (g) 488 nm and 514 nm Gaussian and 592 nm STED beams with bias=1.280V, in lateral and axial planes. The corresponding free-space mode images are shown in (b) and (e), and the central line cut profiles of lateral PSFs are shown in (c) and (f), respectively. Scale bar: 200 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. STED Wavelength Combinations and Dyes [16]

Equations (4)

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M(φ)=R(α)(100eiΔδ)R(α),
Eout=Mσ^±=12[(1+eiΔδ)σ^±+(1eiΔδ)σ^e±i(2qφ+2α0)]
IGau12|1+eiΔδ|2=cos2Δδ2.
Δδ(V,ω)=Δkd=d[1cΔng(V,ω0)Δω+12!ΔkΔω2O(Δωn)],

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