Abstract

Chiral structures possessing differential optical responses to light circular polarization are very common in biological and organic compounds. Attaining chiroptical effects is of great biochemical importance, yet requires complicated structures. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrometers measuring the differential absorption between left- (LCP) and right-circular (RCP) polarizations involve complex hardware to switch laser polarization and manage data acquisition sequentially. Here, we present compact and power-efficient metasurface-based chiroptical spectroscopy solutions based on gap–plasmon metasurfaces (GPMSs). First, a minimalistic design of a real-time CD spectrometer is obtained by using the photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE) in a single GPMS, which spatially separates LCP and RCP spectra. It is the smallest CD spectrometer to our knowledge. Another GPMS-based device built with the same approach rotates light polarization by 45° through adding a phase shift between LCP and RCP. Thus, PSHE in GPMS can provide efficient solutions to vital applications including biosensing, DNA structural analysis, and stereochemistry.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (2)

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2009 (5)

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2008 (1)

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2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Prosvirnin and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. E 71, 037603 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

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2002 (1)

1995 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R.-W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

W. C. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 42, 1283 (1971).
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1942 (1)

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano. Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 6328 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
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A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).
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Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, J. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berova, N.

N. Berova, K. Nakanishi, and R. Woody, Circular Dichroism: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2000).

Biener, G.

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. E. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 1141 (2002).
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Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano. Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 335, 427 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bomzon, Z. E.

Bosman, M.

M. Bosman, L. Zhang, H. Duan, S. F. Tan, C. A. Nijhuis, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, Sci. Rep. 4, 5537 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 13, 829 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bretner, I.

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 11, 2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, B.

Cao, X.

T. B. Freedman, X. Cao, R. K. Dukor, and L. A. Nafie, Chirality 15, 743 (2003).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. Lin, J. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 6328 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano. Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, Nano Lett. 14, 225 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, Nano Lett. 12, 6223 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

E. Plum, X.-X. Liu, V. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. Tsai, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiang, I. D.

W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, Nano Lett. 14, 225 (2014).
[Crossref]

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P. B. Johnson and R.-W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, M. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 32, 856 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Duan, H.

M. Bosman, L. Zhang, H. Duan, S. F. Tan, C. A. Nijhuis, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, Sci. Rep. 4, 5537 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dukor, R. K.

T. B. Freedman, X. Cao, R. K. Dukor, and L. A. Nafie, Chirality 15, 743 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eggimann, T.

Emani, N. K.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 335, 427 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eriksen, R. L.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 13, 829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, X.-X. Liu, V. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. Tsai, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, T.

Freedman, T. B.

T. B. Freedman, X. Cao, R. K. Dukor, and L. A. Nafie, Chirality 15, 743 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 6328 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano. Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano. Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 6328 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gorodetski, Y.

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 11, 2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, Phys. Rev. Appl. 2, 044011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, Nano Lett. 12, 6223 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hasman, E.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Science 340, 724 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 11, 2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. E. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 1141 (2002).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1102 (2015),
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, Nat. Mater. 11, 426 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, Nano Lett. 12, 6223 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 37, 4940 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W.-L.

W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, Nano Lett. 14, 225 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-W.

W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, Nano Lett. 14, 225 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R.-W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Johnson, W. C.

W. C. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 42, 1283 (1971).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. C.

Juan, T.-K.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, Nano Lett. 12, 6223 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, M.

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 6328 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano. Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Illustration of the metasurface used as a CD spectrometer using the photonic spin Hall effect. The spin components of the incident broadband source are reflected in opposite directions, and each wavelength component is reflected at a different angle. As a result, LCP and RCP spectra are obtained simultaneously. Colors are used for illustration and do not represent the wavelength values used in this work.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of a unit cell of a gap-plasmon-based antenna structure consisting of gold/alumina/gold structure. Silicon substrate carries the metasurface and plays no role in the operation. (b) Top view of the unit cell, with nanoantenna dimensions Lx=280nm and Ly=230nm. (c) Top view of the unit cell, with the nanoantenna tilted at an angle α. (d) Simulation results of circular copolarized reflection power (red) and cross-polarized reflected power (blue). (e) FE SEM image of the metasurface, with dashed rectangle to demonstrate one period of the structure.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematics of the experimental setup for testing the metasurface. A tunable monochromatic source, a polarizer, and a retarder are used to obtain circularly polarized incident beams for different wavelengths. Measurements are taken using a rotating arm device which allows rotation of detector to collect the reflected ray as a function of reflection angle θr. (b) Experimental results of reflected power for LCP and RCP incident beams at different wavelengths as a function of reflected angle showing discrimination of LCP and RCP spectra.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Inset: PA φ between the E-field and the horizontal (x) axis. (a) Schematics of one period of the metasurface consisting of two rows, where each row splits the incident beam by reflecting LCP (orange) and RCP (purple) into opposite sides. Alternating rows reflect opposite spins on the same side due to opposite gradient of antenna orientations. Displacement of alternating rows by a quarter period causes RCP phase delay with respect to LCP in both sides of reflections by π/2. (b) Schematics of the whole metasurface, which performs optical rotation to the reflected beams by 45° due to induced phase shift between different spin components. (c) FE SEM of the metasurface with dashed lines representing one period. (d) Reflected power from the metasurface for the left reflected beam as a function of wavelength and reflection angle θr, showing that for each wavelength, maximum intensity occurs at sinθr=λ/P.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Polarization state results for incident PA values of φi=0°,45°,90°,45°. For each case, the ratio of the power at both the required polarization state and its orthogonal state with respect to the total power are plotted. Almost all the power is in the polarization state, confirming the relation φ0=φi+45°, and almost no power is at the orthogonal state. For each wavelength, polarization measurement was obtained at the angle of maximum reflected power of sinθr=λ/P.

Equations (6)

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R(α)circular=[12(rxry)ei2α12(rx+ry)12(rx+ry)12(rxry)ei2α].
Eref=12(rxry)ei2α(10)+12(rx+ry)(01),
Eref=12(rxry)ei2α(01)+12(rx+ry)(10).
sinθr={λ/P,forRCPλ/P,forLCP.
E=E0(x^cosφ+y^sinφ)=E02(r^eiφ+l^eiφ),
φ0=φi+45°.

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