Abstract

Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) have recently garnered much attention because they possess the potential for broadband manipulation of the photonic density of states and subwavelength light confinement. These exceptional properties arise due to the excitation of electromagnetic states with high momentum (high-k modes). However, a major hindrance to practical applications of HMMs is the difficulty in coupling light out of these modes because they become evanescent at the surface of the metamaterial. Here we report the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of simultaneous spontaneous emission enhancement and outcoupling of high-k modes in an active HMM using a high-index-contrast bullseye grating. Quantum dots embedded inside the metamaterial are used for local excitation of high-k modes. This demonstration could pave the way for the development of photonic devices such as single-photon sources, ultrafast LEDs, and true nanoscale lasers.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181105 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, V. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. B 75, 241402 (2007).
  5. J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Lett. 35, 1863 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 48 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. V. Sreekanth, K. H. Krishna, A. De Luca, G. Strangi, Sci. Rep. 4, 6340 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. D. Newman, C. L. Cortes, Z. Jacob, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 766 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. S. Potemkin, A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023848 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, W. Yang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 379 (2012).
  14. G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

2014 (3)

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 48 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. V. Sreekanth, K. H. Krishna, A. De Luca, G. Strangi, Sci. Rep. 4, 6340 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

2013 (1)

2012 (5)

J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, W. Yang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 379 (2012).

A. S. Potemkin, A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023848 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2007 (1)

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, V. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. B 75, 241402 (2007).

Andreani, L. C.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, Opt. Express 18, 16064 (2010).
[Crossref]

Avrutsky, I.

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, V. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. B 75, 241402 (2007).

Barnakov, Y. A.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Lett. 35, 1863 (2010).
[Crossref]

Belov, P. A.

A. S. Potemkin, A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023848 (2012).
[Crossref]

Black, P.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bonner, C. E.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Lett. 35, 1863 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Cortes, C. L.

De Luca, A.

K. V. Sreekanth, K. H. Krishna, A. De Luca, G. Strangi, Sci. Rep. 4, 6340 (2014).
[Crossref]

Drachev, V. P.

Dryden, D.

Elser, J.

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, V. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. B 75, 241402 (2007).

Fullerton, E. E.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Galli, M.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, Opt. Express 18, 16064 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gerace, D.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, Opt. Express 18, 16064 (2010).
[Crossref]

Irudayaraj, J. M. K.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

Jacob, Z.

Kan, J. J.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. S. Potemkin, A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023848 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, Opt. Express 18, 16064 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kretzschmar, I.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krishna, K. H.

K. V. Sreekanth, K. H. Krishna, A. De Luca, G. Strangi, Sci. Rep. 4, 6340 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, H. N. S.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Liu, J.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

Liu, Z.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo Savio, R.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, D.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mayy, M.

Menon, V. M.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Naik, G. V.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

J. Kim, V. P. Drachev, Z. Jacob, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 20, 8100 (2012).
[Crossref]

Narimanov, E.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Narimanov, E. E.

Nataraj, G.

Newman, W. D.

Noginov, M. A.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Lett. 35, 1863 (2010).
[Crossref]

O’Faolain, L.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, Opt. Express 18, 16064 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poddubny, A. N.

A. S. Potemkin, A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023848 (2012).
[Crossref]

Podolskiy, V.

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, V. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. B 75, 241402 (2007).

Portalupi, S. L.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, Opt. Express 18, 16064 (2010).
[Crossref]

Potemkin, A. S.

A. S. Potemkin, A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023848 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reardon, C.

Saber, S. M.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

Saha, B.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

Salakhutdinov, I.

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, V. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. B 75, 241402 (2007).

Sands, T. D.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

Shakoor, A.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sreekanth, K. V.

K. V. Sreekanth, K. H. Krishna, A. De Luca, G. Strangi, Sci. Rep. 4, 6340 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stach, E. A.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

Strangi, G.

K. V. Sreekanth, K. H. Krishna, A. De Luca, G. Strangi, Sci. Rep. 4, 6340 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tumkur, T.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Zhu, G.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Lett. 35, 1863 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, M. Galli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. S. Potemkin, A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023848 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, V. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. B 75, 241402 (2007).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546 (2014).

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. V. Sreekanth, K. H. Krishna, A. De Luca, G. Strangi, Sci. Rep. 4, 6340 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Supplement 1: PDF (1724 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the HMM composed of Ag / Al 2 O 3 . (b) Cross-sectional TEM image showing smooth continuous films of Ag (dark) and Al 2 O 3 (bright). (c) Permittivity of the structure as calculated from Effective Medium Theory based on experimentally determined dielectric constants and metal fill fraction. Dotted line corresponds to the emission spectrum of the QDs. Inset, hyperbolic IFC of an ideal HMM overlaid on the spherical IFC of air. (d) Lifetime distribution of QDs on glass, 1P, 4P, and inside a 7P nonpatterned HMM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Simulation of the electric field generated by a vertical dipole placed inside the 7P HMM. Black arrow represents the dipole. (b) Outcoupled power in an angle range of 45 ° to 45° as a function of grating period and height. (c) Top, outcoupling of the evanescent field by an optimized Ge grating with half period 125 nm and height of 60 nm. Bottom, nonpatterned HMM shown on the same scale. (d) Far-field emission of dipole ensemble (arb. units) for optimized grating and nonpatterned HMM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM image of Δ = 150 nm bullseye grating. Left array of gratings with different periods.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Confocal microscope image of PL emission from bullseye gratings with half periods Δ = 125 , 150, 170, and 200 nm on 7P HMM. The measurements were carried out over a scan area of 10 μm × 40 μm . Details of the measurement technique can be found in Section 5 of Supplement 1. (b) Experimentally measured ratio between the intensity at the center of the grating to that of nonpatterned background for 7P and 1P for different grating periods. Solid lines are the calculated ratios from simulations. Inset, fluorescence lifetime map of Δ = 125 nm .

Equations (1)

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k x 2 + k y 2 ε + k z 2 ε = ω 2 c 2 .

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