Abstract

Since their first demonstration in 1962, solar-powered lasers have attracted interest as a tool for generating and distributing renewable energy. Proposals have ranged from orbiting solar laser power stations beaming energy down to terrestrial photovoltaic receivers, to arrays of solar lasers in desert areas linked to population centers via optical fibers. However, despite several decades of research, solar-powered lasers have yet to reach the levels of efficiency or output beam quality that would make these applications feasible. Here we propose a new solar laser architecture, the solar-pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (SP-VECSEL), as a logical continuation of the proven mode-converting capabilities of diode-pumped VECSELs. In experiments using VECSEL gain samples pumped using sunlight, we demonstrate that no major drop in efficiency is observed beyond that associated with the quantum defect of the pump light, allowing us to predict that SP-VECSEL performance can substantially surpass that of existing solar lasers.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 44),” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 701–710 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

S. Mizuno, H. Ito, K. Hasegawa, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Laser emission from a solar-pumped fiber,” Opt. Express 20, 5891–5895 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, “Design of a high brightness solar-pumped laser by light-guides,” Opt. Commun. 285, 5327–5333 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

D. Graham-Rowe, “Solar-powered lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 64–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Khiar, M. Rahim, M. Fill, F. Felder, F. Hobrecker, H. Zogg, “Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151104 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4  W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
[Crossref]

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guina, O. G. Okhotnikov, M. D. Dawson, “Semiconductor disk lasers for the generation of visible and ultraviolet radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407–434 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. C. Tropper, S. Hoogland, “Extended cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 1–43 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

G. A. Landis, “New approaches for a solar-pumped GaAs laser,” Opt. Commun. 92, 261–265 (1992).
[Crossref]

I. M. Tsidulko, “Semiconductor laser pumped by solar radiation,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 463–466 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Cooke, “Sun-pumped lasers: revisiting an old problem with nonimaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7541–7546 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Weksler, J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

1961 (1)

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency on p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Hadi, Y.

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Almeida, J.

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Liang, J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, “Design of a high brightness solar-pumped laser by light-guides,” Opt. Commun. 285, 5327–5333 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Liang, J. Almeida, “Highly efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 26399–26405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Baasandash, C.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, B.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barbarin, Y.

Beere, H. E.

Behgol, B.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bett, A. W.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beutel, P.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Blanc, N.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Calvez, S.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guina, O. G. Okhotnikov, M. D. Dawson, “Semiconductor disk lasers for the generation of visible and ultraviolet radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407–434 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chatterjee, S.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chernikov, A.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cooke, D.

Daito, K.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guina, O. G. Okhotnikov, M. D. Dawson, “Semiconductor disk lasers for the generation of visible and ultraviolet radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407–434 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dimroth, F.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dobrich, A.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dobrusin, V.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Drazek, C.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 44),” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 701–710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 44),” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 701–710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Felder, F.

A. Khiar, M. Rahim, M. Fill, F. Felder, F. Hobrecker, H. Zogg, “Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fiedeler, U.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fill, M.

A. Khiar, M. Rahim, M. Fill, F. Felder, F. Hobrecker, H. Zogg, “Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151104 (2010).
[Crossref]

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T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
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Fujita, H.

T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
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T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 44),” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 701–710 (2014).
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J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
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Guina, M.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guina, O. G. Okhotnikov, M. D. Dawson, “Semiconductor disk lasers for the generation of visible and ultraviolet radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407–434 (2009).
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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
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T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
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Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
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Hannappel, T.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, K.

Hastie, J. E.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guina, O. G. Okhotnikov, M. D. Dawson, “Semiconductor disk lasers for the generation of visible and ultraviolet radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407–434 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heinen, B.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35  kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 44),” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 701–710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hobrecker, F.

A. Khiar, M. Rahim, M. Fill, F. Felder, F. Hobrecker, H. Zogg, “Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151104 (2010).
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A. C. Tropper, S. Hoogland, “Extended cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 1–43 (2006).
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T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

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T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

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T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
[Crossref]

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T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

Kagan, J.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
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T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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Keller, U.

Kelso, S. M.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754–767 (1986).
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Khiar, A.

A. Khiar, M. Rahim, M. Fill, F. Felder, F. Hobrecker, H. Zogg, “Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
[Crossref]

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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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Kunert, B.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35  kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
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G. A. Landis, “New approaches for a solar-pumped GaAs laser,” Opt. Commun. 92, 261–265 (1992).
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Lando, M.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
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D. Liang, J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
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J. Almeida, D. Liang, “Design of a high brightness solar-pumped laser by light-guides,” Opt. Commun. 285, 5327–5333 (2012).
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D. Liang, J. Almeida, “Highly efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 26399–26405 (2011).
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Linyekin, B.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Logan, R. A.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

Mabuti, A.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Mohamed, M. S.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mori, Y.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Motokoshi, S.

T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Murahara, M.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, K.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, Y.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ning, X.

O’Gallagher, J.

Ogata, Y.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

Ohkubo, T.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ohkubo, T. T.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oisha, T.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oishi, T.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, Y.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guina, O. G. Okhotnikov, M. D. Dawson, “Semiconductor disk lasers for the generation of visible and ultraviolet radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407–434 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oliva, E.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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Oyama, A.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency on p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
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A. Khiar, M. Rahim, M. Fill, F. Felder, F. Hobrecker, H. Zogg, “Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151104 (2010).
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Ritchie, D. A.

Rudin, B.

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T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
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T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
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T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
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Salvetat, T.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
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T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
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T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency on p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
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M. Weksler, J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
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Siefer, G.

F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
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M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
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K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35  kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
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B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
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Suzuki, T.

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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

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B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
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B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, W. Stolz, “106  W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

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F. Dimroth, M. Grave, P. Beutel, U. Fiedeler, C. Karcher, T. N. D. Tibbits, E. Oliva, G. Siefer, M. Schachtner, A. Wekkeli, A. W. Bett, R. Krause, M. Piccin, N. Blanc, C. Drazek, E. Guiot, B. Ghyselen, T. Salvetat, A. Tauzin, T. Signamarcheix, A. Dobrich, T. Hannappel, K. Schwarzburg, “Wafer bonded four-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs concentrator solar cells with 44.7% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 22, 277–282 (2014).
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M. Weksler, J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
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Winston, R.

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T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
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Yamanaka, C.

T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
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T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
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T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
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T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040  nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 661–663 (2010).
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T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, K. Imasaki, K. Fujioka, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Laser pulses amplified by Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic amplifier using lamp and solar light sources,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1358–1362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, K.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oisha, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, K. Yanagitani, “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
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T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
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Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. M. Tsidulko, “Semiconductor laser pumped by solar radiation,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 463–466 (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

http://www.sat.dundee.ac.uk/weather/ .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Layer structure of the VECSEL gain sample along with curves demonstrating the absorption lengths of the 808 and 532 nm pumps.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. VECSEL output powers when pumped at 808 nm (black squares) and 532 nm (red circles). The unbroken blue line shows the ratio of the internal efficiencies at the two pump wavelengths.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Quantum efficiencies of the gain sample when pumped at 808 and 532 nm measured by integrated PL. (b) Ratios of 532 to 808 nm quantum efficiencies derived from PL measurements (unbroken black line) and laser power curves (broken red line).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Integrated PL measurements pumped by sunlight through combinations of longpass and neutral density filters. (b) Calculated pump spectra for the different longpass filters.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Quantum efficiencies across the solar spectrum derived from the data shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Example of a system where a two-stage solar concentrator is used to pump a VECSEL. A primary mirror forms an image of the sun on the input face of a nonimaging concentrator, which further concentrates sunlight to the necessary pump intensity. The VECSEL cavity mode is normal to the gain sample surface and to the nonimaging concentrator input face.

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