Abstract

Ultrabroadband millimeter-wave and subterahertz waveforms offer significant potential, from ultrahigh-speed communications to high-resolution radar. Electronic generation of broadband arbitrary waveforms at these frequencies suffers from limited digital-to-analog converter speed and high timing jitter. Photonic-assisted techniques, such as those based on optical shaping and frequency-to-time mapping, can overcome these difficulties. Nevertheless, previous photonic arbitrary waveform generation demonstrations are confined to microwave and low millimeter-wave frequencies due to limited optical-to-electrical conversion bandwidth. Here, by utilizing cutting-edge photodetector technology, we report the first generation, wireless transmission, and measurement of substantially complex and highly stable arbitrary waveforms in the W-band (75–110 GHz). These waveforms exhibit high time-bandwidth products up to 600, arbitrarily extendable repetition periods, and phase-noise performance substantially better than state-of-the-art electronic arbitrary waveform generators. The utility of the generated waveforms is demonstrated in multi-target ranging, where a depth resolution of 3.9 mm, unprecedented in the W-band, is achieved over more than 5 m.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (3)

2013 (11)

A. Dezfooliyan, A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of high fidelity microwave arbitrary waveforms using near field frequency to time mapping,” Opt. Express 21, 22974–22987 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. C. Campbell, S. A. Diddams, “Exploiting shot noise correlations in the photodetection of ultrashort optical pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 290–293 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Neill, B. J. Harris, A. L. Steber, K. O. Douglass, D. F. Plusquellic, B. H. Pate, “Segmented chirped-pulse Fourier transform submillimeter spectroscopy for broadband gas analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 19743–19749 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. P. Colombo, Y. Zhou, K. Prozument, S. L. Coy, R. W. Field, “Chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectroscopy: spectrum, dynamics, and manipulation of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions,” J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014301 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. M. Sheen, J. L. Fernandes, J. R. Tedeschi, D. L. McMakin, A. M. Jones, W. M. Lechelt, R. H. Severtsen, “Wide-bandwidth, wide-beamwidth, high-resolution, millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” Proc. SPIE 8715, 871509 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7, 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Nagatsuma, S. Horiguchi, Y. Minamikata, Y. Yoshimizu, S. Hisatake, S. Kuwano, N. Yoshimoto, J. Terada, H. Takahashi, “Terahertz wireless communications based on photonics technologies,” Opt. Express 21, 23736–23747 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. F. Tseng, J. M. Wun, W. Chen, S. W. Peng, J. W. Shi, C. K. Sun, “High-depth-resolution 3-dimensional radar-imaging system based on a few-cycle W-band photonic millimeter-wave pulse generator,” Opt. Express 21, 14109–14119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, V. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, “Fully programmable two-dimensional pulse shaper for broadband line-by-line amplitude and phase control,” Opt. Express 21, 28029–28039 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Wun, C. C. Wei, J. H. Chen, C. S. Goh, S. Y. Set, J. W. Shi, “Photonic chirped radio-frequency generator with ultra-fast sweeping rate and ultra-wide sweeping range,” Opt. Express 21, 11475–11481 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. B. Gao, C. Lei, M. H. Chen, F. J. Xing, H. W. Chen, S. Z. Xie, “A simple photonic generation of linearly chirped microwave pulse with large time-bandwidth product and high compression ratio,” Opt. Express 21, 23107–23115 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. W. Shi, F. M. Kuo, N. W. Chen, S. Y. Set, C. B. Huang, J. E. Bowers, “Photonic generation and wireless transmission of linearly/nonlinearly continuously tunable chirped millimeter-wave waveforms with high time-bandwidth product at W-band,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 215–223 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. W. Chen, J. W. Shi, H. J. Tsai, J. M. Wun, F. M. Kuo, J. Hesler, T. W. Crowe, J. E. Bowers, “Design and demonstration of ultra-fast W-band photonic transmitter-mixer and detectors for 25 Gbits/sec error-free wireless linking,” Opt. Express 20, 21223–21234 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Li, Z. Dong, J. J. Yu, N. Chi, Y. F. Shao, G. K. Chang, “Fiber-wireless transmission system of 108  Gb/s data over 80  km fiber and 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless links at 100  GHz W-band frequency,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5106–5108 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Shi, F. M. Kuo, J. E. Bowers, “Design and analysis of ultra-high-speed near-ballistic uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes under a 50-omega load for high-power performance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 533–535 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

N.-W. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, F.-M. Kuo, J.-W. Shi, “High-speed-band integrated photonic transmitter for radio-over-fiber applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 59, 978–986 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, “Dispersion requirements in coherent frequency-to-time mapping,” Opt. Express 19, 24718–24729 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, “Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: a tutorial review,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3669–3692 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. W. Shi, C. B. Huang, C. L. Pan, “Millimeter-wave photonic wireless links for very high data rate communication,” NPG Asia Mater. 3, 41–48 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. A. Samoska, “An overview of solid-state integrated circuit amplifiers in the submillimeter-wave and THz regime,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 9–24 (2011).

2010 (5)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, A. Talukder, A. V. Panangadan, C. S. Peay, I. Mehdia, P. H. Siegel, “Fast, high-resolution terahertz radar imaging at 25 meters,” Proc. SPIE 7671, 76710Y (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Federici, L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. T. Cundiff, A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. J. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, M. H. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4, 117–122 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Stohr, S. Babiel, P. J. Cannard, B. Charbonnier, F. van Dijk, S. Fedderwitz, D. Moodie, L. Pavlovic, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, D. Rogers, V. Rymanov, A. Seeds, A. G. Steffan, A. Umbach, M. Weiss, “Millimeter-wave photonic components for broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3071–3082 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

H. Essen, M. Hägelen, A. Wahlen, K. Schulz, K. Jäger, M. Hebel, “ISAR imaging of helicopters using millimeter wave radars,” Int. J. Microwave Wireless Technol. 1, 171–178 (2009).

J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, “In-vitro tomography and non-destructive imaging at depth of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms,” Eur. J. Pharmaceutics Biopharmaceutics 71, 2–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hansen, “Standoff detection using millimeter and submillimeter wave spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1691–1704 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1, 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Beling, H. G. Bach, G. G. Mekonnen, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, “High-speed miniaturized photodiode and parallel-fed traveling-wave photodetectors based on InP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 15–21 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15, 226–228 (2005).

2004 (1)

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709–727 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, “Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86C, 1226–1229 (2003).

2002 (2)

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, “Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1345–1347 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Nashashibi, K. Sarabandi, P. Frantzis, R. D. De Roo, F. T. Ulaby, “An ultrafast wide-band millimeter-wave (MMW) polarimetric radar for remote sensing applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1777–1786 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

L. Cohen, “Time-frequency distributions—a review,” Proc. IEEE 77, 941–981 (1989).
[Crossref]

Afsar, M. N.

L. Chao, M. N. Afsar, K. A. Korolev, “Millimeter wave dielectric spectroscopy and breast cancer imaging,” in 7th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 572–575.

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7, 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7, 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babiel, S.

A. Stohr, S. Babiel, P. J. Cannard, B. Charbonnier, F. van Dijk, S. Fedderwitz, D. Moodie, L. Pavlovic, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, D. Rogers, V. Rymanov, A. Seeds, A. G. Steffan, A. Umbach, M. Weiss, “Millimeter-wave photonic components for broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3071–3082 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bach, H. G.

A. Beling, H. G. Bach, G. G. Mekonnen, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, “High-speed miniaturized photodiode and parallel-fed traveling-wave photodetectors based on InP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 15–21 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beling, A.

A. Beling, H. G. Bach, G. G. Mekonnen, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, “High-speed miniaturized photodiode and parallel-fed traveling-wave photodetectors based on InP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 15–21 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boes, F.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7, 977–981 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. W-band experimental setup. (a) Waveform generation, transmission, and measurement, including schematics of PTM chip before and after flip-chip bonding. NBUTC-PD, near-ballistic uni-traveling-carrier photodetector; Tx, transmitter antenna; Rx, receiver antenna; LNA, low-noise amplifier. (b) Close-up of O-E conversion block, followed by Tx feed. (c) Transmitter block. (d) Receiver block.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Interferometric W-band RF-AWG. (a) Setup schematic. ML, mode-locked; VDL, variable delay line; PZT, piezo-electric transducer. (b) Downconverted measurements using various local oscillator (LO) frequencies. (c), (d) Reconstructed W-band waveform and spectrogram of ultrawideband linear down-chirp. (e) Reconstructed frequency-hopped Costas sequence (plotted in baseband) and corresponding instantaneous frequency. (f) Computed auto-ambiguity function of the waveform in (e).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Repetition period expanded W-band RF-AWG. (a) Setup schematic. (b) 60 ns measurement of downconverted W-band chirp pulse-train without PN modulation. (c) 60 ns measurement of downconverted W-band chirp pulse-train with length-15 PN modulation (red and blue indicating flipped polarity). (d) Autocorrelation of unmodulated waveforms. (e) Autocorrelation of length-15 PN modulated waveforms. (f) Autocorrelation of length-1023 PN modulated waveforms.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Cross correlations between a reference chirped waveform and 4000 consecutive linear down-chirp waveforms (in blue) and autocorrelation of the reference down-chirp waveform (in red).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Phase-noise comparison of 80 GHz continuous waveform (generated using photonic-assisted interferometric RF-AWG and downconverted with an LO at 2 × 39 GHz = 78 GHz ), expected (projected) 78 GHz local oscillator phase-noise, and a 5 GHz signal from an electrical arbitrary waveform generator ideally multiplied to 80 GHz.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Ultrahigh-resolution W-band ranging experiments. (a) Setup schematic. Ball A with radius 4 cm. Flat sheets B1 and B2 are 10 × 10 cm . Flat sheet C is 10 × 15 cm . (b) Long-range W-band ranging with unmodulated sensing waveforms. (c) Long-range W-band ranging with length-15 PN-modulated sensing waveforms. (d) Magnified view from 24–26 ns of (c). (e) Achieved finest range resolution (single measurement). (f)–(h) Ultrafine W-band ranging experimental results with 10 , 6 , and 4 mm target separation (multiple measurements).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of Prominent MMW and Sub-THz Ranging System

Equations (1)

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i RF ( t ) | H ( t ψ 2 ) | · cos ( t τ ψ 2 H ( t ψ 2 ) + φ 0 ) .

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