Abstract

Authentication of persons and objects is a crucial aspect of security. We experimentally demonstrate quantum-secure authentication (QSA) of a classical multiple-scattering key. The key is authenticated by illuminating it with a light pulse containing fewer photons than spatial degrees of freedom and verifying the spatial shape of the reflected light. Quantum-physical principles forbid an attacker to fully characterize the incident light pulse. Therefore, he cannot emulate the key by digitally constructing the expected optical response, even if all information about the key is publicly known. QSA uses a key that cannot be copied due to technological limitations and is quantum-secure against digital emulation. Moreover, QSA does not depend on secrecy of stored data, does not depend on unproven mathematical assumptions, and is straightforward to implement with current technology.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
Related Articles
Practical quantum key distribution with polarization entangled photons

A. Poppe, A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, H. R. Böhm, T. Lorünser, O. Maurhardt, M. Peev, M. Suda, C. Kurtsiefer, H. Weinfurter, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger
Opt. Express 12(16) 3865-3871 (2004)

Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information

Yeojin Kim, Jung-Ho Ahn, and Hyeran Byun
Appl. Opt. 44(5) 735-741 (2005)

Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger
Opt. Express 19(11) 10387-10409 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Breidbard, S. Wiesner, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO (Plenum, 1982), pp. 267–275.
  4. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, in International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.
  5. B. Škorić, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 10, 1250001 (2012).
  6. V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Škorić, P. Tuyls, W. Ophey, in Applied Cryptography and Network Security (ACNS), Vol. 3531 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 407–422.
  8. P. Tuyls, B. Škorić, S. Stallinga, A. H. M. Akkermans, W. Ophey, in 9th Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, A. S. Patrick, M. Yung, eds., Vol. 3570 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 141–155.
  9. S. P. Walborn, D. S. Lemelle, M. P. Almeida, P. H. S. Ribeiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090501 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. D. Salakhutdinov, E. R. Eliel, W. Löffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 173604 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. K. Wootters, W. H. Zurek, Nature 299, 802 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, A. Zeilinger, The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer, 2000).
  16. P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. F. de Boer, M. C. W. van Rossum, M. P. van Albada, T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2567 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Škorić, A. P. Mosk, P. W. H. Pinkse, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 11, 1350041 (2013).
  19. D. Bruß, C. Macchiavello, Phys. Lett. A 253, 249 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. Škorić, “Security analysis of quantum-readout PUFs in the case of challenge-estimation attacks” (2013), http://eprint.iacr.org/2013/479 .
  21. D. Akbulut, T. J. Huisman, E. G. van Putten, W. L. Vos, A. P. Mosk, Opt. Express 19, 4017 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, R. Piestun, Opt. Express 20, 1733 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. I. M. Vellekoop, A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 32, 2309 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Škorić, A. P. Mosk, P. W. H. Pinkse, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 11, 1350041 (2013).

2012 (3)

V. D. Salakhutdinov, E. R. Eliel, W. Löffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 173604 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, R. Piestun, Opt. Express 20, 1733 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Škorić, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 10, 1250001 (2012).

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

S. P. Walborn, D. S. Lemelle, M. P. Almeida, P. H. S. Ribeiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090501 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. Bruß, C. Macchiavello, Phys. Lett. A 253, 249 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. F. de Boer, M. C. W. van Rossum, M. P. van Albada, T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2567 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

W. K. Wootters, W. H. Zurek, Nature 299, 802 (1982).
[Crossref]

Akbulut, D.

Akkermans, A. H. M.

P. Tuyls, B. Škorić, S. Stallinga, A. H. M. Akkermans, W. Ophey, in 9th Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, A. S. Patrick, M. Yung, eds., Vol. 3570 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 141–155.

Allwood, D. A.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Almeida, M. P.

S. P. Walborn, D. S. Lemelle, M. P. Almeida, P. H. S. Ribeiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, D.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, in International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Breidbard, S. Wiesner, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO (Plenum, 1982), pp. 267–275.

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, A. Zeilinger, The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer, 2000).

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Breidbard, S. Wiesner, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO (Plenum, 1982), pp. 267–275.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, in International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Breidbard, S.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Breidbard, S. Wiesner, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO (Plenum, 1982), pp. 267–275.

Bromberg, Y.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bruß, D.

D. Bruß, C. Macchiavello, Phys. Lett. A 253, 249 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bryan, M. T.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Buchanan, J. D. R.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cañas, G.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Conkey, D. B.

Cowburn, R. P.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

de Boer, J. F.

J. F. de Boer, M. C. W. van Rossum, M. P. van Albada, T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2567 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dušek, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ekert, A.

D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, A. Zeilinger, The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer, 2000).

Eliel, E. R.

V. D. Salakhutdinov, E. R. Eliel, W. Löffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 173604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Etcheverry, S.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fenton, K.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fischer, T.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gershenfeld, N.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gómez, E. S.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[Crossref]

Huisman, T. J.

Ismail, N.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jausovec, A.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lagendijk, A.

J. F. de Boer, M. C. W. van Rossum, M. P. van Albada, T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2567 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lahini, Y.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lemelle, D. S.

S. P. Walborn, D. S. Lemelle, M. P. Almeida, P. H. S. Ribeiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lima, G.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lobino, M.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Löffler, W.

V. D. Salakhutdinov, E. R. Eliel, W. Löffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 173604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lütkenhaus, N.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Macchiavello, C.

D. Bruß, C. Macchiavello, Phys. Lett. A 253, 249 (1999).
[Crossref]

Matsuda, N.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matthews, J. C. F.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maunz, P.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mosk, A. P.

Nieuwenhuizen, T. M.

J. F. de Boer, M. C. W. van Rossum, M. P. van Albada, T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2567 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nogueira, W. A. T.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ophey, W.

B. Škorić, P. Tuyls, W. Ophey, in Applied Cryptography and Network Security (ACNS), Vol. 3531 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 407–422.

P. Tuyls, B. Škorić, S. Stallinga, A. H. M. Akkermans, W. Ophey, in 9th Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, A. S. Patrick, M. Yung, eds., Vol. 3570 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 141–155.

Pappu, R.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peev, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peruzzo, A.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Petit, D.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Piestun, R.

Pinkse, P. W. H.

B. Škorić, A. P. Mosk, P. W. H. Pinkse, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 11, 1350041 (2013).

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[Crossref]

Politi, A.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poulios, K.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Recht, B.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rempe, G.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ribeiro, P. H. S.

S. P. Walborn, D. S. Lemelle, M. P. Almeida, P. H. S. Ribeiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saavedra, C.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

Salakhutdinov, V. D.

V. D. Salakhutdinov, E. R. Eliel, W. Löffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 173604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seem, P.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Škoric, B.

B. Škorić, A. P. Mosk, P. W. H. Pinkse, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 11, 1350041 (2013).

B. Škorić, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 10, 1250001 (2012).

B. Škorić, P. Tuyls, W. Ophey, in Applied Cryptography and Network Security (ACNS), Vol. 3531 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 407–422.

P. Tuyls, B. Škorić, S. Stallinga, A. H. M. Akkermans, W. Ophey, in 9th Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, A. S. Patrick, M. Yung, eds., Vol. 3570 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 141–155.

Stallinga, S.

P. Tuyls, B. Škorić, S. Stallinga, A. H. M. Akkermans, W. Ophey, in 9th Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, A. S. Patrick, M. Yung, eds., Vol. 3570 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 141–155.

Taylor, J.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. G.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tuyls, P.

B. Škorić, P. Tuyls, W. Ophey, in Applied Cryptography and Network Security (ACNS), Vol. 3531 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 407–422.

P. Tuyls, B. Škorić, S. Stallinga, A. H. M. Akkermans, W. Ophey, in 9th Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, A. S. Patrick, M. Yung, eds., Vol. 3570 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 141–155.

van Albada, M. P.

J. F. de Boer, M. C. W. van Rossum, M. P. van Albada, T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2567 (1994).
[Crossref]

van Putten, E. G.

van Rossum, M. C. W.

J. F. de Boer, M. C. W. van Rossum, M. P. van Albada, T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2567 (1994).
[Crossref]

Vellekoop, I. M.

Vos, W. L.

Walborn, S. P.

S. P. Walborn, D. S. Lemelle, M. P. Almeida, P. H. S. Ribeiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wiesner, S.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Breidbard, S. Wiesner, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO (Plenum, 1982), pp. 267–275.

Wootters, W. K.

W. K. Wootters, W. H. Zurek, Nature 299, 802 (1982).
[Crossref]

Wörhoff, K.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.-A.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[Crossref]

Xavier, G. B.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiong, G.

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, A. Zeilinger, The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer, 2000).

Zhou, X.-Q.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zurek, W. H.

W. K. Wootters, W. H. Zurek, Nature 299, 802 (1982).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Quantum. Inform. (2)

B. Škorić, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 10, 1250001 (2012).

B. Škorić, A. P. Mosk, P. W. H. Pinkse, Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 11, 1350041 (2013).

Nature (3)

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. K. Wootters, W. H. Zurek, Nature 299, 802 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. D. R. Buchanan, R. P. Cowburn, A. Jausovec, D. Petit, P. Seem, G. Xiong, D. Atkinson, K. Fenton, D. A. Allwood, M. T. Bryan, Nature 436, 475 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

D. Bruß, C. Macchiavello, Phys. Lett. A 253, 249 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. F. de Boer, M. C. W. van Rossum, M. P. van Albada, T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2567 (1994).
[Crossref]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[Crossref]

S. P. Walborn, D. S. Lemelle, M. P. Almeida, P. H. S. Ribeiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090501 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. D. Salakhutdinov, E. R. Eliel, W. Löffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 173604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, Science 329, 1500 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, A. Zeilinger, The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer, 2000).

B. Škorić, “Security analysis of quantum-readout PUFs in the case of challenge-estimation attacks” (2013), http://eprint.iacr.org/2013/479 .

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Breidbard, S. Wiesner, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO (Plenum, 1982), pp. 267–275.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, in International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

B. Škorić, P. Tuyls, W. Ophey, in Applied Cryptography and Network Security (ACNS), Vol. 3531 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 407–422.

P. Tuyls, B. Škorić, S. Stallinga, A. H. M. Akkermans, W. Ophey, in 9th Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, A. S. Patrick, M. Yung, eds., Vol. 3570 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 141–155.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Supplement 1: PDF (684 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Idea of QSA: (a) In classical authentication of an optical unclonable physical key, a challenge wavefront of sufficient complexity is sent to the key. The response wavefront is compared with those stored in a database (yellow pieces) to make a pass (green light) or fail (red light) decision. However, this verification can be spoofed by an emulation attack (b) in which the challenge wavefront is completely determined and the expected response is constructed by the adversary who knows the challenge–response behavior of the key. (c) In QSA, the challenge is a quantum state for which an emulation attack (d) fails because the adversary cannot actually determine the quantum state, and, hence, any attempt to generate the correct response wavefront fails.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Quantum-secure optical readout of a physical key. (a) Setup: a spatial light modulator (SLM1) creates the challenge by phase shaping a few-photon wavefront. In the experiment a 50×50 binary phase pattern is used with 0 and π phase delays. The challenge is sent to the ZnO key (scale bar is 4 μm) by a microscope objective (not shown). The response is coupled out by a polarizing beam splitter (PBS). The response is transformed back by SLM2 and then focused onto the analyzer plane. (b) Only if the key is the true unique key, the response has a bright spot in the center, holding 60% of the power in the image and allowing that fraction to pass a pinhole and land on a detector where photodetection clicks authenticate the key. (c) In case of a false key, the response in the analyzer plane is a random speckle pattern.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Quantum-secure readout of an unclonable physical key (PUF), using challenge pulses with 230±40photons distributed over 1100±200 modes. (a) Real-time examples for the true key (blue line) and a false key (red line, offset for clarity). (b) Measured number of photodetections in cases of the true key, a random key (imitated by sending random challenges to the same key), and for an optimal attack given S=4. The threshold is chosen such that the false positive and negative probabilities are approximately equally small assuming an optimal attack. (c) Acceptance and rejection probabilities in cases of the true key, a random key, and an optimal digital emulation attack. (d) Number of photodetections extrapolated to 10 repetitions; the false positive and false negative probabilities quickly decrease to order 0.01%.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SK/n,
F=FOK/(S+1),

Metrics