Abstract

Increasing our understanding of regional greenhouse gas transport, sources, and sinks requires accurate, precise, continuous measurements of small gas enhancements over long ranges. We demonstrate a coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy technique capable of achieving these goals. Spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260cm1 (1600–1670 nm) covering 700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and CO213, across a 2 km path. The spectra have sub-1-kHz frequency accuracy, no instrument lineshape, and a 0.0033cm1 point spacing. They are fit with different absorption models to yield dry-air mole fractions of greenhouse gases. These results are compared with a point sensor under well-mixed conditions to evaluate the accuracy of models critical to global satellite-based trace gas monitoring. Under heterogeneous conditions, time-resolved data demonstrate tracking of small variations in mole fractions, with a precision <1ppm for CO2 and <3ppb for CH4 in 5 min. Portable systems could enable regional monitoring.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (5)

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2688–2690 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

S. Boudreau, S. Levasseur, C. Perilla, S. Roy, J. Genest, “Chemical detection with hyperspectral lidar using dual frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 7411–7418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, T. Gardiner, D. T. Reid, “Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3148–3150 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Potvin, J. Genest, “Dual-comb spectroscopy using frequency-doubled combs around 775  nm,” Opt. Express 21, 30707–30715 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502, 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (9)

D. M. Hammerling, A. M. Michalak, C. O’Dell, S. R. Kawa, “Global CO2 distributions over land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, paper L08804 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Zolot, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43  THz,” Opt. Lett. 37, 638–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6–6.1  μm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Adler, S. A. Diddams, “High-power, hybrid Er:fiber/Tm:fiber frequency comb source in the 2  μm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1400–1402 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Roy, J.-D. Deschênes, S. Potvin, J. Genest, “Continuous real-time correction and averaging for frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 21932–21939 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of “clean air” and “polluted plumes”,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 97–116 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Wunch, G. C. Toon, J.-F. L. Blavier, R. A. Washenfelder, J. Notholt, B. J. Connor, D. W. T. Griffith, V. Sherlock, P. O. Wennberg, “The total carbon column observing network,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369, 2087–2112 (2011).
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2010 (2)

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
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2009 (6)

A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, G. C. Toon, “Influence of line mixing on the retrievals of atmospheric CO2 from spectra in the 1.6 and 2.1  μm regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 7303–7312 (2009).
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K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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2008 (2)

2007 (3)

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
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2005 (3)

C. Frankenberg, J. F. Meirink, M. van Weele, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Assessing methane emissions from global space-borne observations,” Science 308, 1010–1014 (2005).
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M. R. Raupach, P. J. Rayner, D. J. Barrett, R. S. DeFries, M. Heimann, D. S. Ojima, S. Quegan, C. C. Schmullius, “Model-data synthesis in terrestrial carbon observation: methods, data requirements and data uncertainty specifications,” Glob. Chang. Biol. 11, 378–397 (2005).

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, D. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 13, 9029–9038 (2005).
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2004 (2)

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1542–1544 (2004).
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S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004).
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A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
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L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
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E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
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A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boudreau, S.

Bousquet, P.

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

Brehm, M.

Breon, F.-M.

S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brewer, A.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Browell, E. V.

A. Ramanathan, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, W. E. Hasselbrack, E. V. Browell, J. B. Abshire, “Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 214102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bruegge, C. J.

J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bruhwiler, L. M. P.

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Cambaliza, M. O. L.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Canadell, J. G.

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carlsten, J. L.

Castaño, R.

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Caulton, D. R.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Chen, H.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
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Chevallier, F.

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

Childers, J. W.

G. M. Russwurm, J. W. Childers, “Open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006), pp. 1750–1773

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ciais, P.

P. Ciais, P. Rayner, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, M. Logan, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, “Atmospheric inversions for estimating CO2 fluxes: methods and perspectives,” Climatic Change 103, 69–92 (2010).

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Houweling, F.-M. Breon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
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L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Zolot, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43  THz,” Opt. Lett. 37, 638–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Conley, S.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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D. Wunch, G. C. Toon, J.-F. L. Blavier, R. A. Washenfelder, J. Notholt, B. J. Connor, D. W. T. Griffith, V. Sherlock, P. O. Wennberg, “The total carbon column observing network,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369, 2087–2112 (2011).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Conway, T. J.

C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
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J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906–921 (2008).
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V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2688–2690 (2014).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
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K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
[Crossref]

McKellar, A. R. W.

A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
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C. Frankenberg, J. F. Meirink, M. van Weele, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Assessing methane emissions from global space-borne observations,” Science 308, 1010–1014 (2005).
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C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward, “Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 831–836 (2009).
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Michael Hardesty, R.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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Michalak, A. M.

D. M. Hammerling, A. M. Michalak, C. O’Dell, S. R. Kawa, “Global CO2 distributions over land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, paper L08804 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Mikel, D. K.

D. K. MikelU. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Optical Remote Sensing for Measurement and Monitoring of Emissions Flux (n.d.), EPA Handbook, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air quality analysis division, Measurement technology group.

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Miles, N. L.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, B. R.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, C. E.

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Predoi-Cross, A. R. W. McKellar, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, R. R. Gamache, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, “Temperature dependences for air-broadened Lorentz half-width and pressure shift coefficients in the 30013 ← 00001 and 30012 ← 00001 bands of CO2 near 1600  nm,” Can. J. Phys. 87, 517–535 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6227.9  cm–1: constrained multispectrum analysis of intensities and line shapes in the 30013 ← 00001 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 52–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Miller, J. B.

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18925–18930 (2007).
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Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Montzka, S. A.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Natraj, V.

D. R. Thompson, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, D. Crisp, V. Malathy Devi, Y. Jiang, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, K. Sung, D. Wunch, R. Castaño, C. E. Miller, “Atmospheric validation of high accuracy CO2 absorption coefficients for the OCO-2 mission,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 2265–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nehrir, A. R.

Newberger, T.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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Newbury, N. R.

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
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L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
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A. M. Zolot, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43  THz,” Opt. Lett. 37, 638–640 (2012).
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E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
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Nicholls, M. E.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

Nicholson, J. W.

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Notholt, J.

D. Wunch, G. C. Toon, J.-F. L. Blavier, R. A. Washenfelder, J. Notholt, B. J. Connor, D. W. T. Griffith, V. Sherlock, P. O. Wennberg, “The total carbon column observing network,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369, 2087–2112 (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

O’Dell, C.

D. M. Hammerling, A. M. Michalak, C. O’Dell, S. R. Kawa, “Global CO2 distributions over land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, paper L08804 (2012).
[Crossref]

O’Dell, C. W.

J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, R. Pollock, C. J. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, C. E. Miller, “Preflight spectral calibration of the orbiting carbon observatory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 2793–2801 (2011).
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D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
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A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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Schuster, U.

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K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
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L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
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L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
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Steinbacher, M.

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Stirm, B. H.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
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K. L. Mays, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, K. R. Gurney, “Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7816–7823 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Swann, W. C.

L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Optical phase noise from atmospheric fluctuations and its impact on optical time-frequency transfer,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 023805 (2014).
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L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
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A. M. Zolot, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43  THz,” Opt. Lett. 37, 638–640 (2012).
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E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
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Sweeney, C.

D. R. Caulton, P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, “Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6237–6242 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
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A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based X-CO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007).

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A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, G. Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4393–4397 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Open-air path greenhouse gas sensing through dual-comb spectroscopy. (a) DCS concept: two combs with slightly different tooth spacing interfere on a detector, giving a third rf comb with a one-to-one mapping to the optical comb teeth. (The actual experiment spans 105 comb teeth.) (b) Experimental setup: two combs are amplified, pulse-compressed in large mode area (LMA) fiber, spectrally broadened in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), and filtered to generate light covering the spectral bands of interest. Two fibers carry the comb light to the rooftop, where the light is combined and launched in a 40mm beam (1/e2 diameter), and reflected from a 50 cm diameter plane mirror located 1 km distant. The return light is coupled to a multimode fiber and detected. The transmitted light power was limited to 1.5 mW so that the maximum received power was always below a conservative detector nonlinearity threshold of 50 μW average power (500 fJ pulse energy). (c) Location of the 2 km interrogation path (red line, ground projection represented by black line), the tower with the point sensor intake (inset), and elevation of the beam path (bottom inset). (d) Example transmitted intensity showing the smoothly varying comb intensity and abrupt dips due to absorption. (e) Expanded view of absorption features. The typical gas absorption lines have 40 teeth across each 4GHz wide line (top, several transitions from the 2ν3 level of the CH4 tetradecad; bottom, R20 transition of the 3001300001 band of CO2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Baseline-corrected absorbance from the transmission spectrum of Fig. 1(d). (a) The left spectrum mainly comprises CH4 and H2O lines, with some weaker CO2 lines, while the right spectrum shows the 3001300001 CO2 band, CO2 hot bands, and H2O, CO213, and HDO features. The data (red line), fit with HITRAN 2008 (blue line, indistinguishable from the data), and residuals (upper blue line) are shown. There are 40,000 data points, or comb teeth, spaced at 100 MHz across the spectral windows. (b) Expanded view of a few representative lines along with residuals for fits to the HITRAN 2008 model [44], the HITRAN 2012 model [43], the line-mixing and speed-dependent model of Ref. [14], and line-by-line Voigt fits to each line. Also shown are the fit residuals for a 5 min time average, identical to those used in the time-resolved data of Fig. 3. The noise per comb tooth (in absorbance units) for the 5 min averaged spectra is 2.0×103, 2.7×103, and 1.7×103 for the three windows shown, with the differences attributable to different spectral intensities. For the 170 min average, the noise decreases with the square root of time, as expected, to 3.5×104, 5.1×104, and 3.0×104, respectively. However, there are clear residuals near the spectral lines due to mismatch between the measured lineshapes and absorption models.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time-resolved mole fractions. (a) Time dependence of the dry-air mole fraction for CO2 (green), CH4 (light blue), and water (dark blue) retrieved from the DCS and the corresponding values from the tower-mounted point sensor (black line) at 5 min periods over three days. (b) Time dependence of CO2 and CH4 with an expanded y axis. Also shown are the time dependence of HDO (pink) and the retrieved path-averaged temperature (orange). All data are from the fit with the absorption model based on HITRAN 2008. The DCS CO2 mole fraction has been scaled to remove the 2.8% offset between the DCS and the tower-mounted sensor over the initial 3h period (shaded region) where the atmosphere was well-mixed and the measurement path was upwind from the NIST central utility plant.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Precision (Allan deviation) from data acquired during high-wind periods with a stable, well-mixed atmosphere. (a) CO2 precision (green) versus averaging time, τ, which follows 15τ/ppm, where τ is in seconds (gray line), or 0.86 ppm at 5 min. At longer times, actual atmospheric mole fraction variations cause a decrease in the slope. A modest increase of the launched power up to the eye-safe limit of 9.6 mW (or alternatively an increased receive aperture) would yield the improved precision of 3τ/ppm (dashed gray line). (b) CH4 precision (blue) follows a scaling of 40τ/ppb (gray line) or 2.3 ppb at 5 min. Again, modest power increases, or increased receive aperture, would yield the improved precision of 8τ/ppb (dashed gray line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Mole Fractions Retrieved from Fits of the Absorbance Spectrum of Fig. 2 with Four Absorption Models: HITRAN 2008 [44], HITRAN 2012 [43], Line-Mixing Speed-dependent Voigt (LM/SD) [14], and Toth et al. [48]a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of the Mole Fractions Obtained with the Dual-Comb Spectrometer and the Tower-Mounted Point Sensor under the Well-Mixed, Stable Atmospheric Conditions of Fig. 2a

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