Abstract

Fiber lasers are a highly regarded solid-state laser concept due to their high efficiency, beam quality, and easy thermal management. Unfortunately, the performance of high-power fiber-laser systems is challenged by the onset of detrimental nonlinear effects. Their impact can be reduced dramatically by employing fibers with larger mode-field areas. Even though this is an efficient way to mitigate nonlinear effects, maintaining effective single-mode operation, and with it high beam quality, becomes increasingly difficult as the core is enlarged. In this paper the demands and challenges for the design of a very-large-mode-area (VLMA) fiber are discussed. The benefits of using higher-order mode delocalization as the working principle of active double-clad VLMA fibers are described. Finally, a new low-symmetry large-pitch fiber, which is expected to improve the performance of state-of-the-art fiber-laser systems by increasing higher-order mode delocalization, is proposed and thoroughly analyzed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (2)

X. Ma, C. Zhu, I.-N. Hu, A. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, “Single-mode chirally-coupled-core fibers with larger than 50  μm diameter cores,” Opt. Express 22, 9206–9219 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Coscelli, C. Molardi, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, “Symmetry-free Tm-doped photonic crystal fiber with enhanced mode area,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400207 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (6)

2011 (7)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

J. Limpert, F. Röser, D. Schimpf, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 159–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, H. A. McKay, L. Fu, M. Ohta, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, “Ytterbium-doped all glass leakage channel fibers with highly fluorine-doped silica pump cladding,” Opt. Express 17, 8962–8969 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. R. Marciante, “Gain filtering for single-spatial-mode operation of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 30–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

B. G. Ward, “Finite element analysis of photonic crystal rods with inhomogeneous anisotropic refractive index tensor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 150–156 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. C. Brown, H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

L. Zenteno, “High-power double-clad fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435–1446 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. R. Armitage, “Three-level fiber laser amplifier: a theoretical model,” Appl. Opt 27, 4831–4836 (1988).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

P. R. McIsaac, “Symmetry-induced modal characteristics of uniform waveguides—I: summary of results,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 23, 421–429 (1975).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

E. Snitzer, “Proposed fiber cavities for optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 36–39 (1961).
[Crossref]

1929 (1)

J. von Neumann, E. P. Wigner, “Über das Verhalten von Eigenwerten bei adiabatischen Prozessen,” Phys. Z. 30, 467–470 (1929).

Alkeskjold, T. T.

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, J. Weirich, M. M. Johansen, C. B. Olausson, O. Lumholt, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, C. Jakobsen, “Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 2, 369–381 (2013).

Armitage, J. R.

J. R. Armitage, “Three-level fiber laser amplifier: a theoretical model,” Appl. Opt 27, 4831–4836 (1988).
[Crossref]

Baskiotis, C.

Baumgartl, M.

Benoit, A.

Birks, T. A.

Blondy, J.-M.

Booth, T.

Broeng, J.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown, H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bubnov, M. M.

Carstens, H.

Coscelli, E.

E. Coscelli, C. Molardi, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, “Symmetry-free Tm-doped photonic crystal fiber with enhanced mode area,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cucinotta, A.

E. Coscelli, C. Molardi, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, “Symmetry-free Tm-doped photonic crystal fiber with enhanced mode area,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dajani, I.

Dauliat, R.

DeSantolo, A.

Dianov, E. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

DiMarcello, F. V.

Dong, L.

Eidam, T.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–5 (2012).

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8  GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19, 255–260 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 689–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ermeneux, S.

Fermann, M. E.

Février, S.

Fini, J. M.

Fu, L.

Galvanauskas, A.

Gaponov, D.

Ghalmi, S.

Ghatak, A.

A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).

Goldberg, L.

Guryanov, A. N.

Hädrich, S.

Headley, C.

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown, H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hu, I.-N.

Jain, D.

Jakobsen, C.

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, J. Weirich, M. M. Johansen, C. B. Olausson, O. Lumholt, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, C. Jakobsen, “Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 2, 369–381 (2013).

J. Limpert, A. Liem, M. Reich, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, “Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 12, 1313–1319 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jamier, R.

Jansen, F.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–5 (2012).

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “26  mJ, 130  W Q-switched fiber-laser system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1073–1075 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High-power very large mode-area thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4546–4548 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8  GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19, 255–260 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 689–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 13578–13589 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Non-hexagonal large-pitch fibers for enhanced mode discrimination,” Opt. Express 19, 12081–12086 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 26834–26842 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jauregui, C.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–5 (2012).

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “26  mJ, 130  W Q-switched fiber-laser system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1073–1075 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High-power very large mode-area thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4546–4548 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Non-hexagonal large-pitch fibers for enhanced mode discrimination,” Opt. Express 19, 12081–12086 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 689–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8  GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19, 255–260 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 13578–13589 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 26834–26842 (2010).
[Crossref]

Johansen, M. M.

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, J. Weirich, M. M. Johansen, C. B. Olausson, O. Lumholt, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, C. Jakobsen, “Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 2, 369–381 (2013).

Kaplan, A.

Khopin, V. F.

Kim, K.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Knight, J. C.

Koplow, J. P.

Laurila, M.

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, J. Weirich, M. M. Johansen, C. B. Olausson, O. Lumholt, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, C. Jakobsen, “Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 2, 369–381 (2013).

Lederer, F.

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, “Suppression of higher order modes in a multimode fiber amplifier using efficient gain-loss-management (GLM),” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. Fermann, L. Marshall, eds., Vol. 68 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper MB20.

Liem, A.

Likhachev, M. E.

Limpert, J.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–5 (2012).

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High-power very large mode-area thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4546–4548 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “26  mJ, 130  W Q-switched fiber-laser system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1073–1075 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 689–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8  GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19, 255–260 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 13578–13589 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Non-hexagonal large-pitch fibers for enhanced mode discrimination,” Opt. Express 19, 12081–12086 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 26834–26842 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, F. Röser, D. Schimpf, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 159–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2715–2720 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, A. Liem, M. Reich, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, “Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 12, 1313–1319 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, “Large-pitch fibers: pushing very large mode areas to highest powers,” in International Conference on Fibre Optics and Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper T2A.1.

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, “Suppression of higher order modes in a multimode fiber amplifier using efficient gain-loss-management (GLM),” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. Fermann, L. Marshall, eds., Vol. 68 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper MB20.

Liu, X.

Lumholt, O.

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, J. Weirich, M. M. Johansen, C. B. Olausson, O. Lumholt, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, C. Jakobsen, “Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 2, 369–381 (2013).

Ma, X.

Maack, M. D.

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, J. Weirich, M. M. Johansen, C. B. Olausson, O. Lumholt, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, C. Jakobsen, “Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 2, 369–381 (2013).

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J. R. Marciante, “Gain filtering for single-spatial-mode operation of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 30–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Mielke, M.

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E. Coscelli, C. Molardi, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, “Symmetry-free Tm-doped photonic crystal fiber with enhanced mode area,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400207 (2014).
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T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, J. Weirich, M. M. Johansen, C. B. Olausson, O. Lumholt, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, C. Jakobsen, “Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 2, 369–381 (2013).

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Olausson, C. B.

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, J. Weirich, M. M. Johansen, C. B. Olausson, O. Lumholt, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, C. Jakobsen, “Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 2, 369–381 (2013).

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Pantell, R. H.

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Petersson, A.

Ramachandran, S.

Reich, M.

Robin, C.

Röser, F.

J. Limpert, F. Röser, D. Schimpf, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 159–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2715–2720 (2006).
[Crossref]

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M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

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Salganskii, M. Y.

Salin, F.

Schermer, R. T.

Schimpf, D.

J. Limpert, F. Röser, D. Schimpf, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 159–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Schuster, K.

Selleri, S.

E. Coscelli, C. Molardi, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, “Symmetry-free Tm-doped photonic crystal fiber with enhanced mode area,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400207 (2014).
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Shaw, H. J.

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 44–64 (1997).
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F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “26  mJ, 130  W Q-switched fiber-laser system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1073–1075 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High-power very large mode-area thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4546–4548 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–5 (2012).

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 13578–13589 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8  GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19, 255–260 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 689–691 (2011).
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F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Non-hexagonal large-pitch fibers for enhanced mode discrimination,” Opt. Express 19, 12081–12086 (2011).
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F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 26834–26842 (2010).
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J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–5 (2012).

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High-power very large mode-area thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4546–4548 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “26  mJ, 130  W Q-switched fiber-laser system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1073–1075 (2012).
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F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 689–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8  GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19, 255–260 (2011).
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T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011).
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J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, “Suppression of higher order modes in a multimode fiber amplifier using efficient gain-loss-management (GLM),” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. Fermann, L. Marshall, eds., Vol. 68 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper MB20.

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J. von Neumann, E. P. Wigner, “Über das Verhalten von Eigenwerten bei adiabatischen Prozessen,” Phys. Z. 30, 467–470 (1929).

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J. Limpert, A. Liem, M. Reich, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, “Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 12, 1313–1319 (2004).
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J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, “Suppression of higher order modes in a multimode fiber amplifier using efficient gain-loss-management (GLM),” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. Fermann, L. Marshall, eds., Vol. 68 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper MB20.

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J. Limpert, F. Röser, D. Schimpf, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 159–169 (2009).
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E. Coscelli, C. Molardi, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, “Symmetry-free Tm-doped photonic crystal fiber with enhanced mode area,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400207 (2014).
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Nanophotonics (1)

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Opt. Express (19)

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F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 26834–26842 (2010).
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T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, T. Booth, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, A. DeSantolo, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, E. M. Monberg, F. V. DiMarcello, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, “Higher-order mode fiber enables high energy chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 21, 32411–32416 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. Smith, J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 10180–10192 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Ward, C. Robin, I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20, 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, “Non-hexagonal large-pitch fibers for enhanced mode discrimination,” Opt. Express 19, 12081–12086 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 44–64 (1997).
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Phys. Z. (1)

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Science (1)

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, “Suppression of higher order modes in a multimode fiber amplifier using efficient gain-loss-management (GLM),” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. Fermann, L. Marshall, eds., Vol. 68 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper MB20.

A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).

J. Limpert, “Large-pitch fibers: pushing very large mode areas to highest powers,” in International Conference on Fibre Optics and Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper T2A.1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Modes of a SIF with V=7 and core diameters of 67 and 134 μm, respectively, under the influence of thermal load and bending.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Excitation of the modes of a SIF with V=7 and 50 μm MFD as a function of the tilt of the incident mode-matched Gaussian beam. The solid line represents the power fraction in the FM, whereas the dashed lines represent the power fraction in each HOM. The shaded area illustrates the total power fraction contained in all the HOMs.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Excitation of the modes of a LPF with 50 μm MFD as a function of an increasing tilt of the incident Gaussian beam. The solid line represents the power fraction in the FM, whereas the dashed lines represent the power fraction in each HOM. The shaded area illustrates the total power fraction contained in all the HOMs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Relative output power in the FM (solid lines) and the HOMs (dotted lines) for a SIF (red) and a LPF (blue). The combined power of all HOMs is shown as a shaded region.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Structure and modes of a LPF with 50 μm MFD at 1030 nm wavelength for increasing thermal load. The FM and two LP1m-like HOMs with the largest overlap with the doped region are illustrated.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Structure and modes of a low-symmetry LPF with 50 μm MFD (1030 nm wavelength) for increasing thermal load. The FM and the LP1m-like HOMs with the highest overlap with the doped region are illustrated.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Evolution of the modal overlap with the doped region for the FM (solid lines) and for the most relevant HOM (usually a LP1m-like HOM and represented by dotted lines) with increasing thermal load for the LPF (blue) and for the low-symmetry LPF (green).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Evolution of the modal overlap with the doped region for the FM (solid lines) and for the most relevant HOM (usually a LP1m-like HOMs and represented by dotted lines) assuming a core index mismatch of 2e5 as a function of the thermal load for the LPF (blue) and for the low-symmetry LPF (green).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Scaling Factors of Relevant Fiber Parameters in Order to Maintain the Normalized Mode Shapes of a SIF with Constant V Parameter

Equations (3)

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V=2πaλ·NA2πaλ·2ncore·Δn.
γ=IdAdopedIdA.
G=exp(γg0l).

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