Abstract

The combination of optical manipulation and three-dimensional imaging is a central technique in fields ranging from medicine to physics. Using the objective lens simultaneously for optical trapping and imaging, however, inherently confines the trapping and imaging planes to the same focal plane. Here, we combine remote refocusing microscopy and optical trapping to optically decouple the imaging and trapping planes, achieving aberration-free three-dimensional imaging and simultaneous, decoupled optical trapping without the need for feedback or aberration corrections. We demonstrate our approach by directly imaging the flow field around optically trapped spheres in three dimensions. Due to its compatibility with other imaging and optical manipulation techniques, our approach is relevant to the wide range of fields that combine imaging and optical manipulation, such as physical chemistry, cell biology, and soft matter.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

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B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Scholz, F. Wirner, Y. Li, C. Bechinger, Exp. Fluids 53, 1327 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. T. M. Irvine, M. J. Bowick, P. M. Chaikin, Nat. Mater. 11, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2009 (4)

M. Polin, I. Tuval, K. Drescher, J. P. Gollub, R. E. Goldstein, Science 325, 487 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. R. Guydosh, S. M. Block, Nature 461, 125 (2009).
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H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Chaudhuri, S. H. Parekh, W. A. Lam, D. A. Fletcher, Nat. Methods 6, 383 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, Opt. Express 15, 1505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Wu, J. H. J. Brand, J. L. A. van Gemert, J. Verkerk, H. Wisman, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103902 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 32, 2007 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, J. Katz, Appl. Opt. 45, 3893 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. Khan, N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 265, 461 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

D. L. J. Vossen, A. van der Horst, M. Dogterom, A. van Blaaderen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2960 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, D. Hanstorp, Lab On Chip 4, 196 (2004).

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, T. Wiesendanger, A. Ruprecht, H. Tiziani, Opt. Express 11, 54 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Hoffmann, G. Meyer zu Hörste, G. Pilarczyk, S. Monajembashi, V. Uhl, K. O. Greulich, Appl. Phys. B 71, 747 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. C. Crocker, D. G. Grier, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298 (1996).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

S. Taneda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 46, 1935 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[Crossref]

Barroso, A.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
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C. Scholz, F. Wirner, Y. Li, C. Bechinger, Exp. Fluids 53, 1327 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. W. Berns, K. O. Greulich, Laser Manipulation of Cells and Tissues (Academic, 2007).

Block, S. M.

N. R. Guydosh, S. M. Block, Nature 461, 125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

Botcherby, E. J.

Bowick, M. J.

W. T. M. Irvine, M. J. Bowick, P. M. Chaikin, Nat. Mater. 11, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bowman, R.

Brand, J. H. J.

Y. L. Wu, J. H. J. Brand, J. L. A. van Gemert, J. Verkerk, H. Wisman, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brenner, H.

J. Happel, H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics (Kluwer Academic, 1983).

Chaikin, P. M.

W. T. M. Irvine, M. J. Bowick, P. M. Chaikin, Nat. Mater. 11, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaudhuri, O.

O. Chaudhuri, S. H. Parekh, W. A. Lam, D. A. Fletcher, Nat. Methods 6, 383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[Crossref]

Crocker, J. C.

J. C. Crocker, D. G. Grier, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Denz, C.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dewenter, L.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dienerowitz, M.

Dogterom, M.

D. L. J. Vossen, A. van der Horst, M. Dogterom, A. van Blaaderen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2960 (2004).
[Crossref]

Drescher, K.

M. Polin, I. Tuval, K. Drescher, J. P. Gollub, R. E. Goldstein, Science 325, 487 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dufresne, E. R.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ebenstein, Y.

Enger, J.

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, D. Hanstorp, Lab On Chip 4, 196 (2004).

Fahmy, T. M.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, D. A.

O. Chaudhuri, S. H. Parekh, W. A. Lam, D. A. Fletcher, Nat. Methods 6, 383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Forster, J. D.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Gluckman, Y.

Goksör, M.

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, D. Hanstorp, Lab On Chip 4, 196 (2004).

Goldstein, R. E.

M. Polin, I. Tuval, K. Drescher, J. P. Gollub, R. E. Goldstein, Science 325, 487 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gollub, J. P.

M. Polin, I. Tuval, K. Drescher, J. P. Gollub, R. E. Goldstein, Science 325, 487 (2009).
[Crossref]

Greulich, K. O.

A. Hoffmann, G. Meyer zu Hörste, G. Pilarczyk, S. Monajembashi, V. Uhl, K. O. Greulich, Appl. Phys. B 71, 747 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. W. Berns, K. O. Greulich, Laser Manipulation of Cells and Tissues (Academic, 2007).

Grier, D. G.

S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, Opt. Express 15, 1505 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. C. Crocker, D. G. Grier, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Guydosh, N. R.

N. R. Guydosh, S. M. Block, Nature 461, 125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hagberg, P.

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, D. Hanstorp, Lab On Chip 4, 196 (2004).

Hanstorp, D.

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, D. Hanstorp, Lab On Chip 4, 196 (2004).

Happel, J.

J. Happel, H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics (Kluwer Academic, 1983).

Hoffmann, A.

A. Hoffmann, G. Meyer zu Hörste, G. Pilarczyk, S. Monajembashi, V. Uhl, K. O. Greulich, Appl. Phys. B 71, 747 (2000).
[Crossref]

Imhof, A.

Y. L. Wu, J. H. J. Brand, J. L. A. van Gemert, J. Verkerk, H. Wisman, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Irvine, W. T. M.

W. T. M. Irvine, M. J. Bowick, P. M. Chaikin, Nat. Mater. 11, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jordan, P.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[Crossref]

Juskaitis, R.

Kasimov, D.

Katz, J.

Kemper, B.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khan, S. A.

S. A. Khan, N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 265, 461 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kress, H.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lam, W. A.

O. Chaudhuri, S. H. Parekh, W. A. Lam, D. A. Fletcher, Nat. Methods 6, 383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leach, J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-H.

Li, Y.

C. Scholz, F. Wirner, Y. Li, C. Bechinger, Exp. Fluids 53, 1327 (2012).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[Crossref]

Makita, S.

Malkiel, E.

Mejean, C. O.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mellmann, A.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meyer zu Hörste, G.

A. Hoffmann, G. Meyer zu Hörste, G. Pilarczyk, S. Monajembashi, V. Uhl, K. O. Greulich, Appl. Phys. B 71, 747 (2000).
[Crossref]

Monajembashi, S.

A. Hoffmann, G. Meyer zu Hörste, G. Pilarczyk, S. Monajembashi, V. Uhl, K. O. Greulich, Appl. Phys. B 71, 747 (2000).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[Crossref]

Parekh, S. H.

O. Chaudhuri, S. H. Parekh, W. A. Lam, D. A. Fletcher, Nat. Methods 6, 383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-G.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pilarczyk, G.

A. Hoffmann, G. Meyer zu Hörste, G. Pilarczyk, S. Monajembashi, V. Uhl, K. O. Greulich, Appl. Phys. B 71, 747 (2000).
[Crossref]

Polin, M.

M. Polin, I. Tuval, K. Drescher, J. P. Gollub, R. E. Goldstein, Science 325, 487 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ramser, K.

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, D. Hanstorp, Lab On Chip 4, 196 (2004).

Riza, N. A.

S. A. Khan, N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 265, 461 (2006).
[Crossref]

Roichman, Y.

Ruprecht, A.

Scholz, C.

C. Scholz, F. Wirner, Y. Li, C. Bechinger, Exp. Fluids 53, 1327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schubert, R.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sheng, J.

Sinclair, G.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 409 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spalding, G. C.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taneda, S.

S. Taneda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 46, 1935 (1979).
[Crossref]

Tiziani, H.

Tuval, I.

M. Polin, I. Tuval, K. Drescher, J. P. Gollub, R. E. Goldstein, Science 325, 487 (2009).
[Crossref]

Uhl, V.

A. Hoffmann, G. Meyer zu Hörste, G. Pilarczyk, S. Monajembashi, V. Uhl, K. O. Greulich, Appl. Phys. B 71, 747 (2000).
[Crossref]

van Blaaderen, A.

Y. L. Wu, J. H. J. Brand, J. L. A. van Gemert, J. Verkerk, H. Wisman, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103902 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. L. J. Vossen, A. van der Horst, M. Dogterom, A. van Blaaderen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2960 (2004).
[Crossref]

van der Horst, A.

D. L. J. Vossen, A. van der Horst, M. Dogterom, A. van Blaaderen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2960 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Gemert, J. L. A.

Y. L. Wu, J. H. J. Brand, J. L. A. van Gemert, J. Verkerk, H. Wisman, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Verkerk, J.

Y. L. Wu, J. H. J. Brand, J. L. A. van Gemert, J. Verkerk, H. Wisman, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, A.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

von Bally, A. G.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vossen, D. L. J.

D. L. J. Vossen, A. van der Horst, M. Dogterom, A. van Blaaderen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2960 (2004).
[Crossref]

Walse, S. S.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weiner, O. D.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wiesendanger, T.

Wilson, T.

Wirner, F.

C. Scholz, F. Wirner, Y. Li, C. Bechinger, Exp. Fluids 53, 1327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wisman, H.

Y. L. Wu, J. H. J. Brand, J. L. A. van Gemert, J. Verkerk, H. Wisman, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Woerdemann, M.

B. Kemper, A. Barroso, M. Woerdemann, L. Dewenter, A. Vollmer, R. Schubert, A. Mellmann, A. G. von Bally, C. Denz, J. Biophotonics 6, 260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. L.

Y. L. Wu, J. H. J. Brand, J. L. A. van Gemert, J. Verkerk, H. Wisman, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature 330, 769 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yevnin, M.

Zhang, Y.

H. Kress, J.-G. Park, C. O. Mejean, J. D. Forster, J. Park, S. S. Walse, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, O. D. Weiner, T. M. Fahmy, E. R. Dufresne, Nat. Methods 6, 905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Hoffmann, G. Meyer zu Hörste, G. Pilarczyk, S. Monajembashi, V. Uhl, K. O. Greulich, Appl. Phys. B 71, 747 (2000).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Exp. Fluids (1)

C. Scholz, F. Wirner, Y. Li, C. Bechinger, Exp. Fluids 53, 1327 (2012).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup combining 3D remote refocusing microscopy and optical manipulation. (a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup, which consists of four main units: a single objective inverted microscope, remote refocusing, holographic optical trapping, and a CMOS camera or a confocal scan head containing the resonant scanner, the excitation laser, and the photo-multiplier tube (PMT). The flip mirror in front of the CMOS camera and the confocal scan head determines which imaging mode is used. (b) Simplified schematic of the optical remote refocusing technique in brightfield and confocal modes. In brightfield, a low magnification 3D image of the sample is created by O2, which is subsequently reimaged by O3 onto the CMOS camera. In confocal mode, the translation of O3 changes the axial position of the illumination and imaging focal planes, resulting in optical sectioning of the sample. (c) xz profiles of the intensity distribution of a focused laser beam formed by O1 at the sample plane. The three panels correspond to O3 being positioned at z=50 (top), 0 (middle), and +50μm (bottom), respectively. Each intensity profile is normalized to the maximum pixel value.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Remote refocusing microscopy. (a) Brightfield images of a 10 μm grid positioned at axial depth of z=+33, 0, and 33μm relative to the nominal focal plane of O1. The images are then brought into focus by positioning O3 at z=50, 0, and +50μm, respectively. (b) Confocal images of a colloidal monolayer for the same axial positions as in (a).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Decoupled and simultaneous 3D imaging and optical manipulation. Colloids optically trapped at the vertices of the tetrahedron. (a) Brightfield images with axial increments of 5 μm and starting 5 μm below the base of the tetrahedron. (b) Corresponding confocal images at the same resolution, field of view, and axial position. (c) 3D image of the tetrahedron as observed by the confocal scan head. (d) Confocal image showing the flow profile of 500nm diameter particles around a single 10 μm diameter optically trapped sphere. The image is averaged over 5000 frames (the inset shows a region of 19μm×19μm of a single frame) with the measured velocity field overlaid. For clarity we normalize the velocity component in x by the bulk flow velocity. (e) and (f) Flow fields around three optically trapped spheres, which are trapped either (e) in the same plane (z=0μm) or (f) in three different planes (z=10, 0, and 10 μm), as detailed in the illustrations.

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