Abstract

A light source that emits single photons at well-defined times and into a well-defined mode would be a decisive asset for quantum information processing, quantum metrology, and sub-shot-noise detection of absorption. One of the central challenges in the realization of such a deterministic device based on a single quantum emitter concerns the collection of the photons, which are radiated into a 4π solid angle. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of an optical antenna designed to convert the dipolar radiation of an arbitrarily oriented quantum emitter to a directional beam with more than 99% efficiency. Our approach is extremely versatile and can be used for more efficient detection of nanoscopic emitters ranging from semiconductor quantum dots to dye molecules, color centers, or rare-earth ions in various environments. Having addressed the issue of collection efficiency, we also discuss the photophysical limitations of the existing quantum emitters for the realization of a deterministic single-photon source.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

C.-L. Hsieh, S. Spindler, J. Ehrig, V. Sandoghdar, “Tracking single particles on supported lipid membranes: multimobility diffusion and nanoscopic confinement,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 1545–1554 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Utikal, E. Eichhammer, L. Petersen, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Spectroscopic detection and state preparation of a single praseodymium ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. D. Mangum, S. Sampat, Y. Ghosh, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, A. V. Malko, “Influence of core size on biexciton quantum yield in giant CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” Nanoscale 6, 3712–3720 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. D. Mangum, F. Wang, A. Dennis, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, “Competition between Auger recombination and hot electron trapping in blinking of type II InP/CdS nanocrystals,” Small 10, 2892–2901 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Beak, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Gazzano, S. M. de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Munsch, N. S. Malik, E. Duput, A. Delga, J. Bleuse, J.-M. Gerard, J. Claudon, “Dielectric GaAs antenna ensuring an efficient broadband coupling between an InAs quantum dot and a Gaussian optical beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177402 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

S. Buckley, K. Rivoire, J. Vuckovic, “Engineered quantum dot single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 126503 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Golla, B. Chalopin, M. Bader, I. Harder, K. Mantel, R. Maiwald, N. Lindlein, M. Sondermann, G. Leuchs, “Generation of a wave packet tailored to efficient free space excitation of a single atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 190–199 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ghosh, B. Mangum, J. L. Casson, D. J. Williams, H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, “New insights into the complexities of shell growth and the strong influence of particle volume in non-blinking ‘giant’ core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 9634–9643 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature 479, 203–207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Park, A. Malko, J. Vela, Y. Chen, Y. Ghosh, F. Garcia-Santamaria, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Near-unity quantum yields of biexciton emission from CdSe/CdS nanocrystals measured using single-particle spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 1874018 (2011).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Chen, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “99% efficiency in collecting photons from a single emitter,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3545–3547 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Toninelli, K. Early, J. Bremi, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Near-infrared single-photons from aligned molecules in ultrathin crystalline films at room temperature,” Opt. Express 18, 6577–6582 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Htoon, A. V. Malko, D. Bussian, J. Vela, Y. Chen, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, “Highly emissive multiexcitons in steady-state photoluminescence of individual “giant” CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 2401–2407 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Scheel, “Single-photon sources—an introduction,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 141–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106, 893–908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318, 1567–1570 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Cheung, C. J. Chunnilall, E. R. Woolliams, N. P. Fox, J. R. Mountford, J. Wang, P. J. Thomas, “The quantum candela: a re-definition of the standard units for optical radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 373–396 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: a review,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203, 3207–3225 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

B. Lounis, M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 11291179 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. Chung, K. T. Shimizu, M. G. Bawendi, “Room temperature measurements of the 3D orientation of single CdSe quantum dots using polarization microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 405–408 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Barnes, G. Björk, J. Gérard, P. Jonsson, J. Wasey, P. Worthing, V. Zwiller, “Solid-state single photon sources: light collection strategies,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 197–210 (2002).

Agio, M.

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106, 893–908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C.

O. Gazzano, S. M. de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bader, M.

A. Golla, B. Chalopin, M. Bader, I. Harder, K. Mantel, R. Maiwald, N. Lindlein, M. Sondermann, G. Leuchs, “Generation of a wave packet tailored to efficient free space excitation of a single atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 190–199 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W.

W. Barnes, G. Björk, J. Gérard, P. Jonsson, J. Wasey, P. Worthing, V. Zwiller, “Solid-state single photon sources: light collection strategies,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 197–210 (2002).

Bawendi, M. G.

I. Chung, K. T. Shimizu, M. G. Bawendi, “Room temperature measurements of the 3D orientation of single CdSe quantum dots using polarization microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 405–408 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bazin, M.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beak, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Beak, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Björk, G.

W. Barnes, G. Björk, J. Gérard, P. Jonsson, J. Wasey, P. Worthing, V. Zwiller, “Solid-state single photon sources: light collection strategies,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 197–210 (2002).

Bleuse, J.

M. Munsch, N. S. Malik, E. Duput, A. Delga, J. Bleuse, J.-M. Gerard, J. Claudon, “Dielectric GaAs antenna ensuring an efficient broadband coupling between an InAs quantum dot and a Gaussian optical beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177402 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bremi, J.

Buckley, S.

S. Buckley, K. Rivoire, J. Vuckovic, “Engineered quantum dot single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 126503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bussian, D.

H. Htoon, A. V. Malko, D. Bussian, J. Vela, Y. Chen, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, “Highly emissive multiexcitons in steady-state photoluminescence of individual “giant” CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 2401–2407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bussian, D. A.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref]

Casson, J. L.

Y. Ghosh, B. Mangum, J. L. Casson, D. J. Williams, H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, “New insights into the complexities of shell growth and the strong influence of particle volume in non-blinking ‘giant’ core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 9634–9643 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chalopin, B.

A. Golla, B. Chalopin, M. Bader, I. Harder, K. Mantel, R. Maiwald, N. Lindlein, M. Sondermann, G. Leuchs, “Generation of a wave packet tailored to efficient free space excitation of a single atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 190–199 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. W.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.-W.

Chen, Y.

Y.-S. Park, A. Malko, J. Vela, Y. Chen, Y. Ghosh, F. Garcia-Santamaria, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Near-unity quantum yields of biexciton emission from CdSe/CdS nanocrystals measured using single-particle spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 1874018 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Htoon, A. V. Malko, D. Bussian, J. Vela, Y. Chen, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, “Highly emissive multiexcitons in steady-state photoluminescence of individual “giant” CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 2401–2407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheung, J. Y.

J. Y. Cheung, C. J. Chunnilall, E. R. Woolliams, N. P. Fox, J. R. Mountford, J. Wang, P. J. Thomas, “The quantum candela: a re-definition of the standard units for optical radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 373–396 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chung, I.

I. Chung, K. T. Shimizu, M. G. Bawendi, “Room temperature measurements of the 3D orientation of single CdSe quantum dots using polarization microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 405–408 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chunnilall, C. J.

J. Y. Cheung, C. J. Chunnilall, E. R. Woolliams, N. P. Fox, J. R. Mountford, J. Wang, P. J. Thomas, “The quantum candela: a re-definition of the standard units for optical radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 373–396 (2007).
[Crossref]

Claudon, J.

M. Munsch, N. S. Malik, E. Duput, A. Delga, J. Bleuse, J.-M. Gerard, J. Claudon, “Dielectric GaAs antenna ensuring an efficient broadband coupling between an InAs quantum dot and a Gaussian optical beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177402 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L.

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007).
[Crossref]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref]

de Vasconcellos, S. M.

O. Gazzano, S. M. de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Delga, A.

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Nowak, A.

O. Gazzano, S. M. de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318, 1567–1570 (2007).
[Crossref]

Orrit, M.

B. Lounis, M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 11291179 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Park, A. Malko, J. Vela, Y. Chen, Y. Ghosh, F. Garcia-Santamaria, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Near-unity quantum yields of biexciton emission from CdSe/CdS nanocrystals measured using single-particle spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 1874018 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petersen, L.

T. Utikal, E. Eichhammer, L. Petersen, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Spectroscopic detection and state preparation of a single praseodymium ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Petroff, P. M.

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfab, R. J.

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[Crossref]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rakher, M. T.

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007).
[Crossref]

Renn, A.

T. Utikal, E. Eichhammer, L. Petersen, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Spectroscopic detection and state preparation of a single praseodymium ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Toninelli, K. Early, J. Bremi, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Near-infrared single-photons from aligned molecules in ultrathin crystalline films at room temperature,” Opt. Express 18, 6577–6582 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[Crossref]

Reuter, R.

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rivoire, K.

S. Buckley, K. Rivoire, J. Vuckovic, “Engineered quantum dot single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 126503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

O. Gazzano, S. M. de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sampat, S.

B. D. Mangum, S. Sampat, Y. Ghosh, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, A. V. Malko, “Influence of core size on biexciton quantum yield in giant CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” Nanoscale 6, 3712–3720 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sandoghdar, V.

C.-L. Hsieh, S. Spindler, J. Ehrig, V. Sandoghdar, “Tracking single particles on supported lipid membranes: multimobility diffusion and nanoscopic confinement,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 1545–1554 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Utikal, E. Eichhammer, L. Petersen, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Spectroscopic detection and state preparation of a single praseodymium ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Chen, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “99% efficiency in collecting photons from a single emitter,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3545–3547 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Toninelli, K. Early, J. Bremi, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Near-infrared single-photons from aligned molecules in ultrathin crystalline films at room temperature,” Opt. Express 18, 6577–6582 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106, 893–908 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sauvan, C.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

Scheel, S.

S. Scheel, “Single-photon sources—an introduction,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 141–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

Senellart, P.

O. Gazzano, S. M. de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M. D.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Beak, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, K. T.

I. Chung, K. T. Shimizu, M. G. Bawendi, “Room temperature measurements of the 3D orientation of single CdSe quantum dots using polarization microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 405–408 (2003).
[Crossref]

Simic, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

Slutsky, B.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sondermann, M.

A. Golla, B. Chalopin, M. Bader, I. Harder, K. Mantel, R. Maiwald, N. Lindlein, M. Sondermann, G. Leuchs, “Generation of a wave packet tailored to efficient free space excitation of a single atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 190–199 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spindler, S.

C.-L. Hsieh, S. Spindler, J. Ehrig, V. Sandoghdar, “Tracking single particles on supported lipid membranes: multimobility diffusion and nanoscopic confinement,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 1545–1554 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steinbrück, A.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature 479, 203–207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Beak, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stöhr, R.

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stoltz, N. G.

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007).
[Crossref]

Strauf, S.

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sykora, M.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature 479, 203–207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thomas, P. J.

J. Y. Cheung, C. J. Chunnilall, E. R. Woolliams, N. P. Fox, J. R. Mountford, J. Wang, P. J. Thomas, “The quantum candela: a re-definition of the standard units for optical radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 373–396 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Toninelli, C.

Utikal, T.

T. Utikal, E. Eichhammer, L. Petersen, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Spectroscopic detection and state preparation of a single praseodymium ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Beak, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vela, J.

Y.-S. Park, A. Malko, J. Vela, Y. Chen, Y. Ghosh, F. Garcia-Santamaria, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Near-unity quantum yields of biexciton emission from CdSe/CdS nanocrystals measured using single-particle spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 1874018 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Htoon, A. V. Malko, D. Bussian, J. Vela, Y. Chen, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, “Highly emissive multiexcitons in steady-state photoluminescence of individual “giant” CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 2401–2407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref]

Verma, V. B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Beak, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

S. Buckley, K. Rivoire, J. Vuckovic, “Engineered quantum dot single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 126503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

B. D. Mangum, F. Wang, A. Dennis, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, “Competition between Auger recombination and hot electron trapping in blinking of type II InP/CdS nanocrystals,” Small 10, 2892–2901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Y. Cheung, C. J. Chunnilall, E. R. Woolliams, N. P. Fox, J. R. Mountford, J. Wang, P. J. Thomas, “The quantum candela: a re-definition of the standard units for optical radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 373–396 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wasey, J.

W. Barnes, G. Björk, J. Gérard, P. Jonsson, J. Wasey, P. Worthing, V. Zwiller, “Solid-state single photon sources: light collection strategies,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 197–210 (2002).

Werder, D. J.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. J.

Y. Ghosh, B. Mangum, J. L. Casson, D. J. Williams, H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, “New insights into the complexities of shell growth and the strong influence of particle volume in non-blinking ‘giant’ core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 9634–9643 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woolliams, E. R.

J. Y. Cheung, C. J. Chunnilall, E. R. Woolliams, N. P. Fox, J. R. Mountford, J. Wang, P. J. Thomas, “The quantum candela: a re-definition of the standard units for optical radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 373–396 (2007).
[Crossref]

Worthing, P.

W. Barnes, G. Björk, J. Gérard, P. Jonsson, J. Wasey, P. Worthing, V. Zwiller, “Solid-state single photon sources: light collection strategies,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 197–210 (2002).

Wrachtrup, J.

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: a review,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203, 3207–3225 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xia, K.

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zappe, A.

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, J.

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zwiller, V.

W. Barnes, G. Björk, J. Gérard, P. Jonsson, J. Wasey, P. Worthing, V. Zwiller, “Solid-state single photon sources: light collection strategies,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 197–210 (2002).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. D (2)

A. Golla, B. Chalopin, M. Bader, I. Harder, K. Mantel, R. Maiwald, N. Lindlein, M. Sondermann, G. Leuchs, “Generation of a wave packet tailored to efficient free space excitation of a single atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 190–199 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Barnes, G. Björk, J. Gérard, P. Jonsson, J. Wasey, P. Worthing, V. Zwiller, “Solid-state single photon sources: light collection strategies,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 197–210 (2002).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Ghosh, B. Mangum, J. L. Casson, D. J. Williams, H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, “New insights into the complexities of shell growth and the strong influence of particle volume in non-blinking ‘giant’ core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 9634–9643 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

S. Scheel, “Single-photon sources—an introduction,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 141–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Cheung, C. J. Chunnilall, E. R. Woolliams, N. P. Fox, J. R. Mountford, J. Wang, P. J. Thomas, “The quantum candela: a re-definition of the standard units for optical radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 373–396 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C.-L. Hsieh, S. Spindler, J. Ehrig, V. Sandoghdar, “Tracking single particles on supported lipid membranes: multimobility diffusion and nanoscopic confinement,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 1545–1554 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mol. Phys. (1)

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106, 893–908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Htoon, A. V. Malko, D. Bussian, J. Vela, Y. Chen, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, “Highly emissive multiexcitons in steady-state photoluminescence of individual “giant” CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 2401–2407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

B. D. Mangum, S. Sampat, Y. Ghosh, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, A. V. Malko, “Influence of core size on biexciton quantum yield in giant CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” Nanoscale 6, 3712–3720 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Gazzano, S. M. de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Utikal, E. Eichhammer, L. Petersen, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “Spectroscopic detection and state preparation of a single praseodymium ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Beak, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots,” Nature 479, 203–207 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y.-S. Park, A. Malko, J. Vela, Y. Chen, Y. Ghosh, F. Garcia-Santamaria, J. A. Hollingsworth, V. I. Klimov, H. Htoon, “Near-unity quantum yields of biexciton emission from CdSe/CdS nanocrystals measured using single-particle spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 1874018 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Munsch, N. S. Malik, E. Duput, A. Delga, J. Bleuse, J.-M. Gerard, J. Claudon, “Dielectric GaAs antenna ensuring an efficient broadband coupling between an InAs quantum dot and a Gaussian optical beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: a review,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203, 3207–3225 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

I. Chung, K. T. Shimizu, M. G. Bawendi, “Room temperature measurements of the 3D orientation of single CdSe quantum dots using polarization microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 405–408 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

B. Lounis, M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 11291179 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Buckley, K. Rivoire, J. Vuckovic, “Engineered quantum dot single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 126503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318, 1567–1570 (2007).
[Crossref]

Small (1)

B. D. Mangum, F. Wang, A. Dennis, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, “Competition between Auger recombination and hot electron trapping in blinking of type II InP/CdS nanocrystals,” Small 10, 2892–2901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

P. Michler, ed., Single Quantum Dots: Fundamentals, Applications and New Concepts (Springer, 2003).

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2004).

V. Vogel, ed., Nanotechnology, Volume 5: Nanomedicine (Wiley-VCH, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Layer arrangement of the metallo-dielectric antenna. (b) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. CdSe/CdS giant quantum dots are embedded in between two polymer layers (PMMA and PVA) of the same index of refraction, and a gold-coated end of a fiber is placed at variable separations from the top. A laser beam (wavelength 532 nm) illuminates the sample through a 100x microscope objective. The emitted fluorescence is collected by the same objective and guided to two avalanche photodiodes (APDs) to measure the second-order correlation function g2(τ) or to a CCD camera for back-focal-plane imaging. BS, beam splitter; DC, dichromatic mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Characterization of the angular emission from a single quantum dot in a dielectric antenna before the gold mirror was added. (a) Power distribution of the emission in the back focal plane of the microscope objective. (b) Theoretical fit to the image in (a), yielding information about the emission dipole moments (see text for more information). (c) Signal in (a) integrated over the angle ϕ plotted as a function of the polar angle θ as indicated in (a). (d), (f), (h), (j), (l), (n) Experimental measurements as in (a) but for six different settings of a polarizer angle in the detection path at 30° increments. (e), (g), (i), (k), (m), (o) Corresponding theoretical predictions (not fits). The white arrows indicate the orientation of the polarizer in each case.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Theoretical and measured angular fluorescence signal of a single quantum dot in the antenna structure. Insets: measured (top) back-focal-plane image and theoretical (bottom) simulations. (a) No metallic mirror. (b)–(e) In the presence of a gold mirror placed at distances of d=225, 284, 355, and 680 nm, respectively, from the top surface of the dielectric antenna.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a), (c) Time traces of a single quantum dot with 1 ms resolution and 10 s acquisition time under an excitation power of (a) 40 nW and (c) 1 μW. (b), (d) Distribution of the fluorescence signal corresponding to (a) and (c), respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Antibunching curves recorded from a quantum dot coupled to the antenna at excitation (pulsed) powers of (a) 40 nW and (b) 1.19 μW. The bin size was 3.2 ns.

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