Abstract

Plasmonic memristors are electrically activated optical switches with a memory effect. This effect is important for a new generation of latching optical switches that maintain their state without power consumption. It is also of interest for new optical memories that can be activated by a single electrical write/erase impulse. The operation principle is based on the reversible formation of a conductive path in the dielectric layer of a plasmonic metal–insulator–metal waveguide. Extinction ratios of 12 dB (6 dB) are demonstrated in 10 μm (5 μm) long devices for operating voltages of ±2V. With this, the devices feature the characteristics of electronic resistive random access memory, but for the field of plasmonics. Such plasmonic memristors are interesting in view of new applications in information storage and for low power circuit switching.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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[Crossref]

A. Mehonic, A. Vrajitoarea, S. Cueff, S. Hudziak, H. Howe, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, M. Pepper, A. J. Kenyon, Sci. Rep. 3, 2708 (2013).
[Crossref]

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A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, J. K. S. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 061101 (2013).
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A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, A. J. Kenyon, Nanotechnology 23, 455201 (2012).
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E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 10, 2111 (2010).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
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E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 10, 2111 (2010).
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R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 10, 4851 (2010).
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Freude, W.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
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A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Opt. Express 19, 8855 (2011).
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Gaba, S.

Y. Yang, P. Gao, S. Gaba, T. Chang, X. Pan, W. Lu, Nat. Commun. 3, 732 (2012).

Gagnon, G.

Gao, P.

Y. Yang, P. Gao, S. Gaba, T. Chang, X. Pan, W. Lu, Nat. Commun. 3, 732 (2012).

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M. Cavallini, Z. Hemmatian, A. Riminucci, M. Prezioso, V. Morandi, M. Murgia, Adv. Mater. 24, 1197 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Howe, H.

A. Mehonic, A. Vrajitoarea, S. Cueff, S. Hudziak, H. Howe, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, M. Pepper, A. J. Kenyon, Sci. Rep. 3, 2708 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hudziak, S.

A. Mehonic, A. Vrajitoarea, S. Cueff, S. Hudziak, H. Howe, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, M. Pepper, A. J. Kenyon, Sci. Rep. 3, 2708 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, A. J. Kenyon, Nanotechnology 23, 455201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ji, C. H.

C. H. Ji, Y. Yee, J. Choi, S. H. Kim, J. U. Bu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 545 (2004).
[Crossref]

Joushaghani, A.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, J. K. S. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kenyon, A. J.

A. Mehonic, A. Vrajitoarea, S. Cueff, S. Hudziak, H. Howe, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, M. Pepper, A. J. Kenyon, Sci. Rep. 3, 2708 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, A. J. Kenyon, Nanotechnology 23, 455201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

C. H. Ji, Y. Yee, J. Choi, S. H. Kim, J. U. Bu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 545 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kohl, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Opt. Express 19, 8855 (2011).
[Crossref]

Korn, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kruger, B. A.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, J. K. S. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Labbe, C.

A. Mehonic, A. Vrajitoarea, S. Cueff, S. Hudziak, H. Howe, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, M. Pepper, A. J. Kenyon, Sci. Rep. 3, 2708 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, A. J. Kenyon, Nanotechnology 23, 455201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lahoud, N.

Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leufke, P. M.

Leuthold, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Opt. Express 19, 8855 (2011).
[Crossref]

Levy, U.

A. Emboras, I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, N. Mazurski, L. Stern, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 13, 6151 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lindenmann, N.

Lipson, M.

Lu, W.

Y. Yang, P. Gao, S. Gaba, T. Chang, X. Pan, W. Lu, Nat. Commun. 3, 732 (2012).

Ma, R.-M.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).

Mattiussi, G. A.

Mazurski, N.

A. Emboras, I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, N. Mazurski, L. Stern, J. Shappir, U. Levy, Nano Lett. 13, 6151 (2013).
[Crossref]

Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.

A. C. Torrezan, J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, R. S. Williams, Nanotechnology 22, 485203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mehonic, A.

A. Mehonic, A. Vrajitoarea, S. Cueff, S. Hudziak, H. Howe, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, M. Pepper, A. J. Kenyon, Sci. Rep. 3, 2708 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, A. J. Kenyon, Nanotechnology 23, 455201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Melikyan, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Opt. Express 19, 8855 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morandi, V.

M. Cavallini, Z. Hemmatian, A. Riminucci, M. Prezioso, V. Morandi, M. Murgia, Adv. Mater. 24, 1197 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murgia, M.

M. Cavallini, Z. Hemmatian, A. Riminucci, M. Prezioso, V. Morandi, M. Murgia, Adv. Mater. 24, 1197 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Natelson, D.

J. Yao, L. Zhong, D. Natelson, J. M. Tour, Sci. Rep. 2, 242 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, Nat. Photonics 8, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, X.

Y. Yang, P. Gao, S. Gaba, T. Chang, X. Pan, W. Lu, Nat. Commun. 3, 732 (2012).

Paradis, S.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, J. K. S. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pepper, M.

A. Mehonic, A. Vrajitoarea, S. Cueff, S. Hudziak, H. Howe, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, M. Pepper, A. J. Kenyon, Sci. Rep. 3, 2708 (2013).
[Crossref]

Poon, J. K. S.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, J. K. S. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prezioso, M.

M. Cavallini, Z. Hemmatian, A. Riminucci, M. Prezioso, V. Morandi, M. Murgia, Adv. Mater. 24, 1197 (2012).
[Crossref]

Riminucci, A.

M. Cavallini, Z. Hemmatian, A. Riminucci, M. Prezioso, V. Morandi, M. Murgia, Adv. Mater. 24, 1197 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rizk, R.

A. Mehonic, A. Vrajitoarea, S. Cueff, S. Hudziak, H. Howe, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, M. Pepper, A. J. Kenyon, Sci. Rep. 3, 2708 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, C. Labbe, R. Rizk, A. J. Kenyon, Nanotechnology 23, 455201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sawa, A.

A. Sawa, Mater. Today 11(6), 28 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Schindler, P. C.

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Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross-sectional view of the plasmonic memristor. The device comprises the typical memristor MIM layers that further serve as a plasmonic waveguide (gold/silicon dioxide/ITO) on top of a silicon photonic waveguide. (b) Electric field distribution of the quasi-TM fundamental mode in the hybrid plasmonic and SOI waveguide. The mode is highly confined in the 30 nm thin SiO2 layer. When applying a voltage, a conductive path is formed in the insulating layer that strongly perturbs the plasmonic mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscope image of the 5 μm long plasmonic switch. Light is coupled by means of a silicon waveguide (Si-WG) to the plasmonic memristor. The golden squares are the electrical contact pads.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electrical current–voltage characteristic of the plasmonic memristor. The response indicates a hysteresis as it is typical for resistive switching memory cells. An abrupt increase of the current is found with a threshold around 2.9 V. Note that the set voltage differs from the actual (measured) voltage in the compliance limit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Quasi-static performance of the plasmonic memristor. (a) Latching optical switch behavior for a 5 μm long device: 50 measurement cycles of the normalized optical transmission as a function of the set voltage showing hysteresis and an extinction ratio of 6 dB. (b) Latching optical switch behavior of a 10 μm long device showing an extinction ratio of 12 dB. During these measurements below threshold, no hysteresis was observed in the I–V curve.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dynamic behavior for a 5 min switching process. A voltage of 2 V was applied for 5 min, before switching the voltage off again (green). A latching extinction ratio of 3 dB was observed. By applying a voltage of 2V. The device was reset to its initial state.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dynamic behavior for a 5 ms switching process. (a) Measurement setup: an electrical impulse was sent to the device under test (DUT) while measuring the optical response with a photodiode on a real-time oscilloscope. (b) Screenshot of the real-time oscilloscope showing the switching process (yellow) for a 5 ms long electrical impulse of 2 V (green). The blue line is the measured signal after a low-pass filter. A latching extinction ratio of 0.6dB was observed.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Megahertz frequency response of the plasmonic memristor. A sinusoidal signal was applied to a 5 μm long device using an arbitrary waveform generator. The optical signal was detected with a photodiode and a lock-in amplifier.

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