Abstract

Diffraction-limited imaging through complex scattering media is a long-sought-after goal with important applications in biomedical research. In recent years, high-resolution wavefront shaping has emerged as a powerful approach to generate a sharp focus through highly scattering, visually opaque samples. However, it requires a localized feedback signal from the target point of interest, which necessitates an invasive procedure in all-optical techniques. Here, we show that by exploiting optical nonlinearities, a diffraction-limited focus can be formed inside or through a complex sample, even when the feedback signal is not localized. We prove our approach theoretically and numerically, and experimentally demonstrate it with a two-photon fluorescence signal through highly scattering biological samples. We use the formed focus to perform two-photon microscopy through highly scattering, visually opaque layers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 7, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. Clark, F. Wise, C. Schaffer, C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 205 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (9)

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, M. Cui, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434 (2012).

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, Opt. Express 20, 29237 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, R. Piestun, Opt. Express 20, 4840 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Fiolka, M. Cui, Opt. Express 20, 16532 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, M. Cui, Nat. Photonics 6, 657 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, C. Yang, Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J. Booth, D. Débarre, A. Jesach, Opt. Photon. News 23(1), 22 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, J. Bertolotti, W. L. Vos, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Kong, R. H. Silverman, L. Liu, P. V. Chitnis, K. K. Lee, Y. C. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 2053 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Liu, L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 5, 154 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, C. M. Aegerter, Opt. Lett. 35, 1245 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, G. Laporte, D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 18, 20723 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1997 (1)

1988 (2)

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, D. A. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

Aegerter, C. M.

Akbulut, D.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, J. Bertolotti, W. L. Vos, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aulbach, J.

Bertolotti, J.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, J. Bertolotti, W. L. Vos, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boccara, A. C.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth, D. Débarre, A. Jesach, Opt. Photon. News 23(1), 22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bossy, E.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bromberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brown, A. N.

Burns, L. D.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chaigne, T.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. C.

Chitnis, P. V.

Clark, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. Clark, F. Wise, C. Schaffer, C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Conkey, D. B.

Cui, M.

R. Fiolka, M. Cui, Opt. Express 20, 16532 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, M. Cui, Nat. Photonics 6, 657 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, M. Cui, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434 (2012).

Débarre, D.

M. J. Booth, D. Débarre, A. Jesach, Opt. Photon. News 23(1), 22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Denk, W.

DiMarzio, C. A.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, C. Yang, Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, D. A. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fiolka, R.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, M. Cui, Nat. Photonics 6, 657 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Fiolka, M. Cui, Opt. Express 20, 16532 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fried, D. L.

Germain, R. N.

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, M. Cui, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434 (2012).

Ghosh, K. K.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gjonaj, B.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts and Company, 2007).

Grange, R.

Ho, E. T. W.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Horstmeyer, R.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 7, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Horton, N. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. Clark, F. Wise, C. Schaffer, C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.-L.

Jesach, A.

M. J. Booth, D. Débarre, A. Jesach, Opt. Photon. News 23(1), 22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P.

Judkewitz, B.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 7, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, C. Yang, Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kane, C.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, D. A. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref]

Katz, O.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

Kobat, D.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. Clark, F. Wise, C. Schaffer, C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kong, F.

Lagendijk, A.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, Opt. Express 20, 29237 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, J. Bertolotti, W. L. Vos, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, E. G. van Putten, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Opt. Express 16, 67 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lai, P.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, L. V. Wang, “Nonlinear photoacoustic wavefront shaping (PAWS) for single speckle-grain optical focusing in scattering media,” arXiv:1402.0816 (2014).

Laporte, G.

Lee, K. K.

Lee, P. A.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, D. A. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

X. Xu, H. Liu, L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 5, 154 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Mathy, A.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 7, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meshulach, D.

Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, J. Bertolotti, W. L. Vos, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, E. G. van Putten, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Opt. Express 16, 67 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 32, 2309 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mukamel, E. A.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Piestun, R.

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Rosenbluh, M.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. Clark, F. Wise, C. Schaffer, C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sebbah, P.

P. Sebbah, Waves and Imaging through Complex Media (Kluwer, 2001).

Si, K.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, M. Cui, Nat. Photonics 6, 657 (2012).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 1793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Silverman, R. H.

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stone, D. A.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, D. A. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, M. Cui, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8434 (2012).

Tay, J. W.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, L. V. Wang, “Nonlinear photoacoustic wavefront shaping (PAWS) for single speckle-grain optical focusing in scattering media,” arXiv:1402.0816 (2014).

Theer, P.

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1998).

van Putten, E. G.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, J. Bertolotti, W. L. Vos, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, E. G. van Putten, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Opt. Express 16, 67 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vellekoop, I. M.

Vos, W. L.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, J. Bertolotti, W. L. Vos, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. Clark, F. Wise, C. Schaffer, C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, L. V. Wang, “Nonlinear photoacoustic wavefront shaping (PAWS) for single speckle-grain optical focusing in scattering media,” arXiv:1402.0816 (2014).

Wang, L. V.

X. Xu, H. Liu, L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 5, 154 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, L. V. Wang, “Nonlinear photoacoustic wavefront shaping (PAWS) for single speckle-grain optical focusing in scattering media,” arXiv:1402.0816 (2014).

Wang, Y. M.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 7, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, C. Yang, Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Webb, W. W.

C. Xu, W. W. Webb, in Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2002), pp. 477–480.

Wilt, B. A.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wise, F.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. Clark, F. Wise, C. Schaffer, C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. Clark, F. Wise, C. Schaffer, C. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 205 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, W. W. Webb, in Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2002), pp. 477–480.

Xu, X.

X. Xu, H. Liu, L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 5, 154 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 7, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, C. Yang, Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yelin, D.

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, C. Yang, Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (9)

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
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Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Noninvasive focusing through scattering samples. (a) Experimental system. 100 fs pulses are sent via a spatial light modulator (SLM) and focused through a diffuser on a two-photon fluorescent screen. The fluorescence is collected via the same optics and used as a signal for an optimization algorithm. An auxiliary imaging system records the speckle image on the screen. (b) Speckle pattern recorded from the 2PF screen before optimization. (c) Optimized focus via maximization of total epi 2PF. (d) Progress of the optimization process. Scale bars, 100 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two-photon imaging through an optical diffuser using the memory effect. (a) Standard 2PF microscopy image of an object (cluster of Coumarin 307 crystallites) as observed through a diffuser. (b) After optimizing the total 2PF signal, a focus is formed. A bright and crisp image of the two-photon object is obtained by collecting the signal in epigeometry, while the focus is raster-scanned by adding linear phase ramps to the SLM phase pattern. (c) Transmission microscope image of the same object without the scattering medium is presented for comparison. Scale bar, 100 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Results of simulations of optimization of 2PF and 3PF signals. A speckle field is simulated, and the calculated total nonlinear signal is then used as feedback in a genetic algorithm for wavefront shaping. (a) shows the resulting peak enhancement of such a simulation with three different thicknesses of the nonlinear medium. In thin media, both nonlinearities led to convergence and significant enhancement of the peak intensity. In thick media, however, only 3PF led to focusing and peak enhancement (b). Two-photon effects did not converge and left the speckle field practically unchanged (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental focusing through a 1 mm thick brain tissue. An object (Coumarin 307 crystallites) is placed behind the fixed brain slice. (a) Image of the 2PF as measured by the inspection camera prior to the optimization. (b) After optimizing, the total 2PF measured through the scattering layer leads to a focal point which is actually localized on one of the strongest fluorescing crystallites. Scale bars, 100 μm.

Equations (2)

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PtotNspeckles·(PlaserNspeckles)N=PlaserN(1Nspeckles)N1,
PtotV·IlaserN(b·πw02)·(Plaserw02)Nw04·(Plaserw02)NPlaserNw02(N2).

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