Abstract

Optical frequency combs serve as the clockwork of optical clocks, which are now the best time-keeping systems in existence. The use of precise optical time and frequency technology in various applications beyond the research lab remains a significant challenge, but one that integrated microresonator technology is poised to address. Here, we report a silicon-chip-based microresonator comb optical clock that converts an optical frequency reference to a microwave signal. A comb spectrum with a 25 THz span is generated with a 2 mm diameter silica disk and broadening in nonlinear fiber. This spectrum is stabilized to rubidium frequency references separated by 3.5 THz by controlling two teeth 108 modes apart. The optical clock’s output is the electronically countable 33 GHz microcomb line spacing, which features stability better than the rubidium transitions by the expected factor of 108. Our work demonstrates the comprehensive set of tools needed for interfacing microcombs to state-of-the-art optical clocks.

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    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-Injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 043905 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, W. C. Y. E. Gavartin, R. L. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Low-pump-power, low-phase-noise, and microwave to millimeter-wave repetition rate operation in microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, and N. R. Newbury, “Microwave generation with low residual phase noise from a femtosecond fiber laser with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19, 24387–24395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. Maric, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Frequency-comb spectroscopy of the D1 line in laser-cooled rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 32502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, E. Rubiola, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of whispering gallery photonic hyper-parametric microwave oscillators,” Opt. Express 16, 4130–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1, 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to silica-microsphere whispering gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Araujo-Hauck, L. P. C.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, E.

Beha, K.

P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-Injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 043905 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Beloy, K.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brasch, V.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Byrd, J.

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to silica-microsphere whispering gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Low-pump-power, low-phase-noise, and microwave to millimeter-wave repetition rate operation in microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Conkey, D. B.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1, 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, S.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Miranda, M. H. G.

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, H.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-Injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 043905 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Parametric seeding of a microresonator optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 21, 17615–17624 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Mechanical control of a microrod-resonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 031003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-Injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 043905 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Parametric seeding of a microresonator optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 21, 17615–17624 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Mechanical control of a microrod-resonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 031003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eliyahu, D.

Felinto, D.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gavartin, W. C. Y. E.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, W. C. Y. E. Gavartin, R. L. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V.

Giorgetta, F. R.

Gorodetsky, M.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, W. C. Y. E. Gavartin, R. L. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hansch, T. W.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartinger, K.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, W. C. Y. E. Gavartin, R. L. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1, 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herr, T.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, W. C. Y. E. Gavartin, R. L. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, N.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. Knappe, V. Gerginov, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, “Atomic vapor cells for chip-scale atomic clocks with improved long-term frequency stability,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2351–2353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R. L.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, W. C. Y. E. Gavartin, R. L. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, D. S.

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, A. R.

Jones, R. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jost, J. D.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Julienne, P. S.

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P.

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, W. C. Y. E. Gavartin, R. L. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

Knappe, S.

Kondratiev, N. M.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kotochigova, S.

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lawall, J. R.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Low-pump-power, low-phase-noise, and microwave to millimeter-wave repetition rate operation in microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N. D.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. S.

Li, J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Low-pump-power, low-phase-noise, and microwave to millimeter-wave repetition rate operation in microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

Lipson, M.

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

M. Maric, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Frequency-comb spectroscopy of the D1 line in laser-cooled rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 32502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Manescau, A.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marian, A.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maric, M.

M. Maric, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Frequency-comb spectroscopy of the D1 line in laser-cooled rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 32502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

McFerran, J. J.

M. Maric, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Frequency-comb spectroscopy of the D1 line in laser-cooled rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 32502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M. T.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

Neyenhuis, B.

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ni, K.-K.

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Ospelkaus, S.

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to silica-microsphere whispering gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Papp, S. B.

P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-Injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 043905 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Parametric seeding of a microresonator optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 21, 17615–17624 (2013).
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S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Mechanical control of a microrod-resonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 031003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pe’er, A.

K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, M. H. G. de Miranda, A. Pe’er, B. Neyenhuis, J. J. Zirbel, S. Kotochigova, P. S. Julienne, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “A high phase-space-density gas of polar molecules,” Science 322, 231–235 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, N. B.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pizzocaro, M.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riemensberger, J.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, W. C. Y. E. Gavartin, R. L. Holzwarth, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6, 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rubiola, E.

Safdi, B.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saha, K.

Salem, R.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schioppo, M.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1, 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwindt, P. D. D.

Seidel, D.

Shah, V.

Sherman, J. A.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shim, B.

Sizmann, A.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, M. C.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

Swartz, S.

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. A.

Thorpe, M. J.

Udem, T.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. P. C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Low-pump-power, low-phase-noise, and microwave to millimeter-wave repetition rate operation in microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to silica-microsphere whispering gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
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Varghese, L. T.

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M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
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