Abstract

In laser–matter interaction experiments, it is of paramount importance to characterize the laser pulse on target (in situ) and at full power. This allows pulse optimization and meaningful comparison with theory, and it can shed fundamental new light on pulse distortions occurring in or on the target. Here we introduce and demonstrate a new technique based on dispersion-scan using the concurrent third harmonic emission from the target that permits the full (amplitude and phase), in situ, in-parallel characterization of ultrashort laser pulses in a gas or solid target over a very wide intensity range encompassing the ${10^{13}}$${10^{15}} \;{\rm{W}}{{\rm{cm}}^{- 2}}$ regime of high harmonic generation and other important strong-field phenomena, with possible extension to relativistic intensities presently inaccessible to other diagnostics.

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2019 (9)

S. Ghimire and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from solids,” Nat. Phys. 15, 10–16 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. E. Leshchenko, A. Kessel, O. Jahn, M. Krüger, A. Münzer, S. A. Trushin, L. Veisz, Z. Major, and S. Karsch, “On-target temporal characterization of optical pulses at relativistic intensity,” Light Sci. Appl. 8, 96 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Semmlinger, M. Zhang, M. L. Tseng, T.-T. Huang, J. Yang, D. P. Tsai, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Generating third harmonic vacuum ultraviolet light with a TiO2 metasurface,” Nano Lett. 19, 8972–8978 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Raffestin, G. Boutoux, N. Blanchot, D. Batani, E. D’Humières, Q. Moreno, T. Longhi, H. Covïc, F. Granet, J. Rault, C. Liberatore, K. Jakubowska, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Application of harmonics imaging to focal spot measurements of the “petal” laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 126, 245902 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. C. Travers, T. F. Grigorova, C. Brahms, and F. Belli, “High-energy pulse self-compression and ultraviolet generation through soliton dynamics in hollow capillary fibres,” Nat. Photonics 13, 547–554 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Miranda, F. Silva, L. Neoričić, C. Guo, V. Pervak, M. Canhota, A. S. Silva, I. J. Sola, R. Romero, P. T. Guerreiro, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, and H. Crespo, “All-optical measurement of the complete waveform of octave-spanning ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 44, 191–194 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Tajalli, M. Ouillé, A. Vernier, F. Böhle, E. Escoto, S. Kleinert, R. Romero, J. Csontos, U. Morgner, G. Steinmeyer, H. M. Crespo, R. L. Martens, and T. Nagy, “Propagation effects in the characterization of 1.5-cycle pulses by XPW dispersion scan,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ó. Pérez-Benito and R. Weigand, “Nano-dispersion-scan: measurement of sub-7-fs laser pulses using second-harmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 44, 4921–4924 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. N. Danson, C. Haefner, J. Bromage, T. Butcher, J.-C. F. Chanteloup, E. A. Chowdhury, A. Galvanauskas, L. A. Gizzi, J. Hein, D. I. Hillier, N. W. Hopps, Y. Kato, E. A. Khazanov, R. Kodama, G. Korn, R. Li, Y. Li, J. Limpert, J. Ma, C. H. Nam, D. Neely, D. Papadopoulos, R. R. Penman, L. Qian, J. J. Rocca, A. A. Shaykin, C. Siders, C. Spindloe, S. Szatmári, R. M. G. M. Trines, J. Zhu, P. Zhu, and J. Zuegel, “Petawatt and exawatt class lasers worldwide,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 7, e54 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

B. Alonso, Í. J. Sola, and H. Crespo, “Self-calibrating d-scan: measuring ultrashort laser pulses on-target using an arbitrary pulse compressor,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3264 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, C. S. Strüber, P. Ye, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4, eear3761 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Jin, M.-C. Chen, H.-W. Sun, and C. D. Lin, “Extension of water-window harmonic cutoff by laser defocusing-assisted phase matching,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4433–4436 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Cardin, B. E. Schimdt, N. Thiré, S. Beaulieu, V. Wanie, M. Negro, C. Vozzi, V. Tosa, and F. Légaré, “Self-channeled high harmonic generation of water window soft x-rays,” J. Phys. B 51, 174004 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, C. Guo, G. Vampa, J. L. Zhang, T. Sarmiento, M. Xiao, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Vučković, S. Fan, and D. A. Reis, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation from an all-dielectric metasurface,” Nat. Phys. 14, 1006–1010 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Borot and F. Quéré, “Spatio-spectral metrology at focus of ultrashort lasers: a phase-retrieval approach,” Opt. Express 26, 26444–26461 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. B. Park, K. Kim, W. Cho, S. I. Hwang, I. Ivanov, C. H. Nam, and K. T. Kim, “Direct sampling of a light wave in air,” Optica 5, 402–408 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Faure, D. Gustas, D. Guénot, A. Vernier, F. Böhle, M. Ouillé, S. Haessler, R. Lopez-Martens, and A. Lifschitz, “A review of recent progress on laser-plasma acceleration at kHz repetition rate,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 61, 014012 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, B. Alonso, W. Holgado, R. Romero, J. S. Román, E. C. Jarque, H. Koop, V. Pervak, H. Crespo, and I. J. Sola, “Strategies for achieving intense single-cycle pulses with in-line post-compression setups,” Opt. Lett. 43, 337–340 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, J. Delagnes, E. Cormier, and J. Limpert, “High average power near-infrared few-cycle lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700043 (2017).
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D. S. Brambila, A. Husakou, M. Ivanov, and N. Zhavoronkov, “On-target diagnosing of few-cycle pulses by high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063825 (2017).
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M. Miranda, J. Penedones, C. Guo, A. Harth, M. Louisy, L. Neoričić, A. L’Huillier, and C. L. Arnold, “Fast iterative retrieval algorithm for ultrashort pulse characterization using dispersion scans,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, 190–197 (2017).
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M. Canhota, F. Silva, R. Weigand, and H. M. Crespo, “Inline self-diffraction dispersion-scan of over octave-spanning pulses in the single-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3048–3051 (2017).
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2016 (4)

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 50, 013001 (2016).
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W. Holgado, C. Hernández-García, B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, L. Plaja, H. Crespo, and I. J. Sola, “Continuous spectra in high-harmonic generation driven by multicycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013816 (2016).
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G. Pariente, V. Gallet, A. Borot, O. Gobert, and F. Quéré, “Space–time characterization of ultra-intense femtosecond laser beams,” Nat. Photonics 10, 547–553 (2016).
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A. S. Wyatt, T. Witting, A. Schiavi, D. Fabris, P. Matia-Hernando, I. A. Walmsley, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Attosecond sampling of arbitrary optical waveforms,” Optica 3, 303–310 (2016).
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2015 (2)

A. Blättermann, C. Ott, A. Kaldun, T. Ding, V. Stooß, M. Laux, M. Rebholz, and T. Pfeifer, “In situ characterization of few-cycle laser pulses in transient absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3464–3467 (2015).
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D. Fabris, T. Witting, W. A. Okell, D. J. Walke, P. Matia-Hernando, J. Henkel, T. R. Barillot, M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Synchronized pulses generated at 20 eV and 90 eV for attosecond pump–probe experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 383–387 (2015).
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2014 (5)

2013 (4)

W. A. Okell, T. Witting, D. Fabris, D. Austin, M. Bocoum, F. Frank, A. Ricci, A. Jullien, D. Walke, J. P. Marangos, R. Lopez-Martens, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Carrier-envelope phase stability of hollow fibers used for high-energy few-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3918–3921 (2013).
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V. Loriot, G. Gitzinger, and N. Forget, “Self-referenced characterization of femtosecond laser pulses by chirp scan,” Opt. Express 21, 24879–24893 (2013).
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B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, and H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 105–114 (2013).
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K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7, 958–962 (2013).
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2012 (4)

T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B 45, 074014 (2012).
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M. Miranda, T. Fordell, C. Arnold, A. L’Huillier, and H. Crespo, “Simultaneous compression and characterization of ultrashort laser pulses using chirped mirrors and glass wedges,” Opt. Express 20, 688–697 (2012).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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F. Frank, C. Arrell, T. Witting, W. A. Okell, J. McKenna, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, D. Austin, H. Teng, I. A. Walmsley, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Invited review article: technology for attosecond science,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 071101 (2012).
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2011 (2)

T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1680–1682 (2011).
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J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063846 (2011).
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2010 (1)

2009 (4)

A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Plasma-blueshift spectral shear interferometry for characterization of ultimately short optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34, 82–84 (2009).
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B. Dromey, C. Bellei, D. Carroll, R. Clarke, J. Green, S. Kar, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. Nagel, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Third harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions,” Laser Part. Beams 27, 243–248 (2009).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
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K. Schmid, L. Veisz, F. Tavella, S. Benavides, R. Tautz, D. Herrmann, A. Buck, B. Hidding, A. Marcinkevicius, U. Schramm, M. Geissler, J. M. Vehn, D. Habs, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle laser-driven electron acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 124801 (2009).
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2008 (2)

F. Quéré, C. Thaury, J.-P. Geindre, G. Bonnaud, P. Monot, and P. Martin, “Phase properties of laser high-order harmonics generated on plasma mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095004 (2008).
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U. Graf, M. Fieß, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 16, 18956–18963 (2008).
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2007 (1)

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
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2006 (2)

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and I. A. Kulagin, “Third-harmonic generation in air by use of femtosecond radiation in tight-focusing conditions,” Appl. Opt. 45, 748–755 (2006).
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T. Baeva, S. Gordienko, and A. Pukhov, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation in relativistic laser interaction with overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046404 (2006).
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2004 (2)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
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V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 775–777 (2004).
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2000 (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
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1998 (1)

1997 (3)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
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P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
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1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
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1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
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1988 (1)

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell,” Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–605 (1988).
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1987 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1987).

1985 (1)

H. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and n2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Alonso, B.

B. Alonso, Í. J. Sola, and H. Crespo, “Self-calibrating d-scan: measuring ultrashort laser pulses on-target using an arbitrary pulse compressor,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3264 (2018).
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F. Silva, B. Alonso, W. Holgado, R. Romero, J. S. Román, E. C. Jarque, H. Koop, V. Pervak, H. Crespo, and I. J. Sola, “Strategies for achieving intense single-cycle pulses with in-line post-compression setups,” Opt. Lett. 43, 337–340 (2018).
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W. Holgado, C. Hernández-García, B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, L. Plaja, H. Crespo, and I. J. Sola, “Continuous spectra in high-harmonic generation driven by multicycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013816 (2016).
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W. Holgado, B. Alonso, J. S. Román, and I. J. Sola, “Temporal and spectral structure of the infrared pulse during the high order harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 22, 10191–10201 (2014).
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F. Silva, M. Miranda, B. Alonso, J. Rauschenberger, V. Pervak, and H. Crespo, “Simultaneous compression, characterization and phase stabilization of GW-level 1.4 cycle VIS-NIR femtosecond pulses using a single dispersion-scan setup,” Opt. Express 22, 10181–10191 (2014).
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B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, and H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 105–114 (2013).
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B. Alonso, I. J. Sola, Ó. Varela, J. Hernández-Toro, C. Méndez, J. S. Román, A. Zaïr, and L. Roso, “Spatiotemporal amplitude-and-phase reconstruction by Fourier-transform of interference spectra of high-complex-beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 933–940 (2010).
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Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1987).

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Arnold, C. L.

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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F. Frank, C. Arrell, T. Witting, W. A. Okell, J. McKenna, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, D. Austin, H. Teng, I. A. Walmsley, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Invited review article: technology for attosecond science,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 071101 (2012).
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Arrell, C. A.

T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B 45, 074014 (2012).
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T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1680–1682 (2011).
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Austin, D.

W. A. Okell, T. Witting, D. Fabris, D. Austin, M. Bocoum, F. Frank, A. Ricci, A. Jullien, D. Walke, J. P. Marangos, R. Lopez-Martens, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Carrier-envelope phase stability of hollow fibers used for high-energy few-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3918–3921 (2013).
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F. Frank, C. Arrell, T. Witting, W. A. Okell, J. McKenna, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, D. Austin, H. Teng, I. A. Walmsley, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Invited review article: technology for attosecond science,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 071101 (2012).
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A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, C. S. Strüber, P. Ye, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4, eear3761 (2018).
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Baba, M.

Baeva, T.

T. Baeva, S. Gordienko, and A. Pukhov, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation in relativistic laser interaction with overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 046404 (2006).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Plasma-blueshift spectral shear interferometry for characterization of ultimately short optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34, 82–84 (2009).
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Barillot, T. R.

D. Fabris, T. Witting, W. A. Okell, D. J. Walke, P. Matia-Hernando, J. Henkel, T. R. Barillot, M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Synchronized pulses generated at 20 eV and 90 eV for attosecond pump–probe experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 383–387 (2015).
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Batani, D.

D. Raffestin, G. Boutoux, N. Blanchot, D. Batani, E. D’Humières, Q. Moreno, T. Longhi, H. Covïc, F. Granet, J. Rault, C. Liberatore, K. Jakubowska, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Application of harmonics imaging to focal spot measurements of the “petal” laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 126, 245902 (2019).
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Baudish, M.

F. Silva, M. Miranda, S. Teichmann, M. Baudish, M. Massicotte, F. Koppens, J. Biegert, and H. Crespo, “Near to mid-IR ultra-broadband third harmonic generation in multilayer graphene: few-cycle pulse measurement using THG dispersion-scan,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CW1H.5.

Beaulieu, S.

V. Cardin, B. E. Schimdt, N. Thiré, S. Beaulieu, V. Wanie, M. Negro, C. Vozzi, V. Tosa, and F. Légaré, “Self-channeled high harmonic generation of water window soft x-rays,” J. Phys. B 51, 174004 (2018).
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D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
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Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Bellei, C.

B. Dromey, C. Bellei, D. Carroll, R. Clarke, J. Green, S. Kar, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. Nagel, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Third harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions,” Laser Part. Beams 27, 243–248 (2009).
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J. C. Travers, T. F. Grigorova, C. Brahms, and F. Belli, “High-energy pulse self-compression and ultraviolet generation through soliton dynamics in hollow capillary fibres,” Nat. Photonics 13, 547–554 (2019).
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K. Schmid, L. Veisz, F. Tavella, S. Benavides, R. Tautz, D. Herrmann, A. Buck, B. Hidding, A. Marcinkevicius, U. Schramm, M. Geissler, J. M. Vehn, D. Habs, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle laser-driven electron acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 124801 (2009).
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Biegert, J.

F. Silva, M. Miranda, S. Teichmann, M. Baudish, M. Massicotte, F. Koppens, J. Biegert, and H. Crespo, “Near to mid-IR ultra-broadband third harmonic generation in multilayer graphene: few-cycle pulse measurement using THG dispersion-scan,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CW1H.5.

Blanchot, N.

D. Raffestin, G. Boutoux, N. Blanchot, D. Batani, E. D’Humières, Q. Moreno, T. Longhi, H. Covïc, F. Granet, J. Rault, C. Liberatore, K. Jakubowska, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Application of harmonics imaging to focal spot measurements of the “petal” laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 126, 245902 (2019).
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Bocoum, M.

D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
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W. A. Okell, T. Witting, D. Fabris, D. Austin, M. Bocoum, F. Frank, A. Ricci, A. Jullien, D. Walke, J. P. Marangos, R. Lopez-Martens, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Carrier-envelope phase stability of hollow fibers used for high-energy few-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3918–3921 (2013).
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A. Tajalli, M. Ouillé, A. Vernier, F. Böhle, E. Escoto, S. Kleinert, R. Romero, J. Csontos, U. Morgner, G. Steinmeyer, H. M. Crespo, R. L. Martens, and T. Nagy, “Propagation effects in the characterization of 1.5-cycle pulses by XPW dispersion scan,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 1–7 (2019).
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Bonnaud, G.

F. Quéré, C. Thaury, J.-P. Geindre, G. Bonnaud, P. Monot, and P. Martin, “Phase properties of laser high-order harmonics generated on plasma mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095004 (2008).
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Borot, A.

A. Borot and F. Quéré, “Spatio-spectral metrology at focus of ultrashort lasers: a phase-retrieval approach,” Opt. Express 26, 26444–26461 (2018).
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G. Pariente, V. Gallet, A. Borot, O. Gobert, and F. Quéré, “Space–time characterization of ultra-intense femtosecond laser beams,” Nat. Photonics 10, 547–553 (2016).
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N. C. Geib, R. Hollinger, E. Haddad, P. Herrmann, F. Légaré, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, M. Zürch, and F. Eilenberger, “Discrete dispersion scan setup for measuring few-cycle laser pulses in the mid-infrared,” arXiv:2004.12145 (2020).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of our experimental implementation of THIS:d-scan. 4 fs pulses centered at 800 nm from a hollow-fiber plus chirped-mirror compressor system were (entering at lower left of figure) passed through a motorized wedge pair for dispersion control and then into a vacuum beamline via a thin fused-silica window. The pulses were focused to around ${10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}{{\rm{cm}}^{- 2}}$ into a gas tube target to generate high harmonics (HHs) and also the third harmonic (TH). Focusing was achieved with a spherical mirror (not shown in the figure for clarity) inside the chamber used at a low angle of incidence. The HHs propagated to an XUV spectrometer, where their spatially dependent spectra were recorded with a microchannel plate detector. An aluminum-coated pickoff mirror on a motorized translation stage was used to intercept the beam after the gas target to steer the TH out of the chamber where its spectrum was measured using a compact fiber-coupled spectrometer. The HHs are blocked by the exit vacuum window. The TH was separated from the 800 nm fundamental beam using a prism pair (for clarity, only one prism is shown). The TH spectrum was recorded as a function of wedge insertion to obtain the d-scan trace, which provides an in situ characterization of the 4 fs pulse in the gas target. The inset in the top left of the figure shows an alternate geometry where a holed (stationary) mirror is used to sample the TH for an online measurement, taking advantage of the lower divergence of the HHs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Data obtained with Ar as the HHG nonlinear medium. (a) HHG spectrum, (b) measured TH d-scan trace, (c) retrieved d-scan trace, (d) reconstructed spectrum and spectral phase with comparison to the SEA-F-SPIDER measurement, (e) reconstructed pulse profile and temporal phase with comparison to the SEA-F-SPIDER measurement.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Data obtained with Ne as the HHG nonlinear medium. (a) HHG spectrum, (b) measured TH d-scan trace, (c) retrieved d-scan trace, (d) reconstructed spectrum and spectral phase with comparison to the SEA-F-SPIDER measurement, (e) reconstructed pulse profile and temporal phase with comparison to the SEA-F-SPIDER measurement.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Illustration of THIS:d-scan measurement in the relativistic regime (linear scaling of the TH signal with laser intensity, as expected for pulse peak intensities from ${10^{18}}$ to ${10^{21}} \;{\rm{W}}{{\rm{cm}}^{- 2}}$). (a) Simulated TH d-scan trace, (b) retrieved d-scan trace, (c) reconstructed spectrum and spectral phase with comparison to the reference pulse, (e) reconstructed pulse profile and temporal phase with comparison to the reference pulse.

Equations (2)

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S m e a s = R ( ω ) S i d e a l R ( ω ) | + E N L e i ω t d t | 2 ,
E N L = A E 3 ( t , ζ ) A ( + E ~ ( Ω ) e i β ( Ω ) ζ e i Ω t d Ω ) 3 ,

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