Abstract

Monolithic lasers on Si have long been anticipated as an enabler of full photonic integration, and significant progress in GeSn material development shows promise for such laser devices. While there are many reports focused on optically pumped lasers, in this work, we demonstrate electrically injected GeSn lasers on Si. We grew a GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure diode on a Si substrate in a ridge waveguide laser device and tested it under pulsed conditions, giving consideration to the structure design to enhance the carrier and optical confinement. The peak linewidth of 0.13 nm (0.06 meV) and injection current curves indicated lasing, which was observed up to 100 K with emission peaks at 2300 nm. We recorded a threshold of $598 \; {\rm A/cm}^2$ at 10 K. The peak power and external quantum efficiency were 2.7 mW/facet and 0.3%, respectively. The results indicate advances for group-IV-based lasers, which could serve as a promising route for laser integration on Si.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  15. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double-heterostructure mid-infrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033107 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18, 19957–19965 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251105 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Pankove, “Temperature dependence of emission efficiency and lasing threshold in laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 119–122 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  23. I. Hayashi and M. B. Panish, “GaAs–GaxAl1−xAs heterostructure injection lasers which exhibit low thresholds at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 150 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, and F. K. Reinhart, “GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs double heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1929 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. J. Nuese, M. Ettenberg, and G. Olsen, “Room-temperature heterojunction laser diodes from vapor-grown In1−xGaxP/GaAs structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 612 (1974).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (3)

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, Z. Liu, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Recent progress in GeSn growth and GeSn-based photonic devices,” J. Semicond. 39, 061006 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and J. Liu, “Emerging technologies in Si active photonics,” J. Semicond. 39, 061001 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

S. Wirths, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Si–Ge–Sn alloys: from growth to applications,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 62, 1–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, D. Buca, and S. Yu, “Group IV photonics: driving integrated optoelectronics,” Opt. Photon. News 27(1), 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double-heterostructure mid-infrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18, 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

C. J. Nuese, M. Ettenberg, and G. Olsen, “Room-temperature heterojunction laser diodes from vapor-grown In1−xGaxP/GaAs structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 612 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, and F. K. Reinhart, “GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs double heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1929 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

I. Hayashi and M. B. Panish, “GaAs–GaxAl1−xAs heterostructure injection lasers which exhibit low thresholds at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 150 (1970).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

J. Pankove, “Temperature dependence of emission efficiency and lasing threshold in laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 119–122 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, G.

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alharthi, B.

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alher, M.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Kabi, S.

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Armand Pilon, F.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Armand-Pilon, F.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aubin, J.

Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Benamara, M.

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bernier, N.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, M.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

Buca, D.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
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J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
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Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
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J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
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J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
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Dou, W.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
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H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
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W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
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J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
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J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
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Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
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Du, W.

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
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W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
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H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
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Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
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A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
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[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
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Foti, A.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
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Gassenq, A.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
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Geiger, R.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
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Gergaud, P.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ghetmiri, S.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grant, J.

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

Grant, P.

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grützmacher, D.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guilloy, K.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, I.

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, and F. K. Reinhart, “GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs double heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1929 (1971).
[Crossref]

I. Hayashi and M. B. Panish, “GaAs–GaxAl1−xAs heterostructure injection lasers which exhibit low thresholds at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 150 (1970).
[Crossref]

Herth, E.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khazaka, R.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

J. Zheng, Z. Liu, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Recent progress in GeSn growth and GeSn-based photonic devices,” J. Semicond. 39, 061006 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and J. Liu, “Emerging technologies in Si active photonics,” J. Semicond. 39, 061001 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

J. Zheng, Z. Liu, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Recent progress in GeSn growth and GeSn-based photonic devices,” J. Semicond. 39, 061006 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Si–Ge–Sn alloys: from growth to applications,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 62, 1–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Margetis, J.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marzban, B.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

Menéndez, J.

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Milord, L.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mortazavi, M.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mosleh, A.

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Naseem, H.

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nuese, C. J.

C. J. Nuese, M. Ettenberg, and G. Olsen, “Room-temperature heterojunction laser diodes from vapor-grown In1−xGaxP/GaAs structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 612 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ojo, S.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Olsen, G.

C. J. Nuese, M. Ettenberg, and G. Olsen, “Room-temperature heterojunction laser diodes from vapor-grown In1−xGaxP/GaAs structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 612 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ossikovski, R.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

Panish, M. B.

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, and F. K. Reinhart, “GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs double heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1929 (1971).
[Crossref]

I. Hayashi and M. B. Panish, “GaAs–GaxAl1−xAs heterostructure injection lasers which exhibit low thresholds at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 150 (1970).
[Crossref]

Pankove, J.

J. Pankove, “Temperature dependence of emission efficiency and lasing threshold in laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 119–122 (1968).
[Crossref]

Pantzas, K.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

Patriarche, G.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

Pauc, N.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pham, T.

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rainko, D.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

Reboud, V.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
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Reinhart, F. K.

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, and F. K. Reinhart, “GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs double heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1929 (1971).
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Rothman, J.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rouchon, D.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, D. Buca, and S. Yu, “Group IV photonics: driving integrated optoelectronics,” Opt. Photon. News 27(1), 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double-heterostructure mid-infrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18, 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stange, D.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stoica, T.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double-heterostructure mid-infrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18, 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thai, Q.

J. Chrétien, N. Pauc, F. Armand Pilon, M. Bertrand, Q. Thai, L. Casiez, N. Bernier, H. Dansas, P. Gergaud, E. Delamadeleine, R. Khazaka, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “GeSn lasers covering a wide wavelength range thanks to uniaxial tensile strain,” ACS Photon. 6, 2462–2469 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “GeSn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 K,” Opt. Express 26, 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Thai, Q. M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thompson, G.

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tolle, J.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tran, H.

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

von den Driesch, N.

A. Elbaz, D. Buca, N. von den Driesch, K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, N. Zerounian, E. Herth, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, A. Foti, R. Ossikovski, J. Hartmann, F. Boeuf, Z. Ikonic, P. Boucaud, D. Grützmacher, and M. El Kurdi, “Ultra-low threshold cw and pulsed lasing in tensile strained GeSn alloys,” Nat. Photonics 14, 375–382 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wadsworth, A.

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

J. Zheng, Z. Liu, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Recent progress in GeSn growth and GeSn-based photonic devices,” J. Semicond. 39, 061006 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang and J. Liu, “Emerging technologies in Si active photonics,” J. Semicond. 39, 061001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

S. Wirths, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Si–Ge–Sn alloys: from growth to applications,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 62, 1–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xue, C.

J. Zheng, Z. Liu, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Recent progress in GeSn growth and GeSn-based photonic devices,” J. Semicond. 39, 061006 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, S. Ojo, H. Tran, S. Ghetmiri, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, Z. Chen, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Optically pumped GeSn lasers operating at 270 K with broad waveguide structures on Si,” ACS Photon. 6, 1434–1441 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, T. Pham, J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, J. Grant, S. Al-Kabi, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, Y. Zhang, W. Du, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn photodetectors toward Mid-infrared imaging applications,” ACS Photon. 6, 2807–2815 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, M. Benamara, A. Mosleh, J. Margetis, P. Grant, Y. Zhou, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Investigation of GeSn strain relaxation and spontaneous composition gradient for low-defect and high-Sn alloy growth,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5640 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, P. Grant, B. Alharthi, W. Du, A. Wadsworth, Q. Guo, H. Tran, S. Ojo, G. Abernathy, A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, G. Thompson, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “All group-IV SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn QW laser on Si operating up to 90 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 221104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S. Yu, “Si-based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2–3 µm and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photon. 5, 827–833 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, D. Buca, and S. Yu, “Group IV photonics: driving integrated optoelectronics,” Opt. Photon. News 27(1), 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tran, W. Du, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, B. Li, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of Ge1−xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 103106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Dou, W. Du, T. Pham, S. Ghetmiri, S. Al-Kabi, A. Mosleh, M. Alher, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. Naseem, and S. Yu, “Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 120, 023102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zabel, T.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 µm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zaumseil, P.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, T. Zabel, F. Armand-Pilon, D. Rainko, B. Marzban, P. Zaumseil, J. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure and multi quantum well lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4628–4636 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Cross-sectional schematic of laser device; (b) Calculations of band structure and profile of fundamental TE mode. Band structure shows type II alignment between GeSn active and SiGeSn cap layers at LH band. Mode profile shows 75% of the optical field overlapped with the GeSn active region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) LI curves of the 0.8-mm cavity length device from 10 to 100 K; (b) LI curves at 77 K for four devices with different cavity lengths; (c) Threshold of each device at 77 K; (d) Temperature-dependent IV of the 0.8-mm cavity length device.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Emission spectra at various current injection levels. (a) 0.3-mm device at 10 K. Inset: extracted FWHM versus current density (spectral resolution of 10 nm); (b), (c), and (d) 1.7-mm device at 10 K, 77 K, and 100 K. Inset in (d): extracted FWHM vs current density; (e) log-scale plot of spectra in (d); (f) far field pattern from 1.7-mm device at 77 K.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. High-resolution spectra of 0.8-mm cavity length device at 77 K under various current injections.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Extracted ${T_0}$ for each device. For the 0.3-mm device, the data point of threshold at 90 K was excluded from data fitting.

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