Abstract

Tunable narrowband spectral filtering across arbitrary optical wavebands is highly desirable in a plethora of applications, from chemical sensing and hyperspectral imaging to infrared astronomy. Yet, the ability to reconfigure the optical properties, with full reversibility, of a solid-state large-area narrowband filter remains elusive. Existing solutions require either moving parts, have slow response times, or provide limited spectral coverage. Here, we demonstrate a 1-inch diameter continuously tunable, fully reversible, all-solid-state, narrowband phase-change metasurface filter based on a GeSbTe-225 (GST)-embedded plasmonic nanohole array. The passband of the presented device is ${\sim}74\;{\rm{nm}}$ with ${\sim}70\%$ transmittance and operates across the 3–5 µm thermal imaging waveband. Continuous, reconfigurable tuning is achieved by exploiting intermediate GST phases via optical switching with a single nanosecond laser pulse, and material stability is verified through multiple switching cycles. We further demonstrate multispectral thermal imaging in the mid-wave infrared using our active phase-change metasurfaces. Our results pave the way for highly functional, reduced power, compact hyperspectral imaging systems and customizable optical filters for real-world system integration.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2020 (3)

A. Leitis, A. Heßler, S. Wahl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, A. Tittl, and H. Altug, “All-dielectric programmable Huygens’ metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 30, 1910259 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Li, Q. Wang, Q. Wei, G. Geng, and L. Huang, “Switchable active phase modulation and holography encryption based on hybrid metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 9, 905–912 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Williams, N. Hong, M. Julian, S. Borg, and H. J. Kim, “Tunable mid-wave infrared Fabry-Perot bandpass filters using phase-change GeSbTe,” Opt. Express 28, 10583–10594 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

Y. Zhang, J. B. Chou, J. Li, H. Li, Q. Du, A. Yadav, S. Zhou, M. Y. Shalaginov, Z. Fang, H. Zhong, C. Roberts, P. Robinson, B. Bohlin, C. Ríos, H. Lin, M. Kang, T. Gu, J. Warner, V. Liberman, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Broadband transparent optical phase change materials for high-performance nonvolatile photonics,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4279 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. L. Holsteen, A. F. Cihan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Temporal color mixing and dynamic beam shaping with silicon metasurfaces,” Science 365, 257–260 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tunable/reconfigurable metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Research 2019, 1849272 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Bai, P. Yang, J. Huang, D. Chen, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Yang, and B. Xu, “Near-infrared tunable metalens based on phase change material Ge2Se2Te5,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, R. A. Pala, G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, W. H. Cheng, R. Sokhoyan, M. Grajower, M. Z. Alam, D. Lee, and H. A. Atwater, “Dynamic beam steering with all-dielectric electro-optic III–V multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 10, 3654 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

S.-H. Wu, M. Chen, M. T. Barako, V. Jankovic, P. W. C. Hon, L. A. Sweatlock, and M. L. Povinelli, “Thermal homeostasis using microstructured phase-change materials: erratum,” Optica 5, 1155 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. S. Mirshafieyan and D. A. Gregory, “Electrically tunable perfect light absorbers as color filters and modulators,” Sci. Rep. 8, 2635 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, X. Yang, F. Shen, Q. Zhou, J. Gao, and K. Guo, “Active-tuning and polarization-independent absorber and sensor in the infrared region based on the phase change material of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST),” Sci. Rep. 8, 12433 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Trimby, D. Wright, and A. Baldycheva, “Phase-change band-pass filters for multispectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10541, 105412B (2018).
[Crossref]

C. L. Gomez-Heredia, J. A. Ramirez-Rincon, J. Ordonez-Miranda, O. Ares, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, C. Champeaux, F. Dumas-Bouchiat, Y. Ezzahri, and K. Joulain, “Thermal hysteresis measurement of the VO2 emissivity and its application in thermal rectification,” Sci. Rep. 8, 8479 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. G. C. Carrillo, L. Trimby, Y. Y. Au, V. K. Nagareddy, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “A nonvolatile phase-change metamaterial color display,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801782 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

A. K. U. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Design parameters for phase-change materials for nanostructure resonance tuning,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700261 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Raeis-Hosseini and J. Rho, “Metasurfaces based on phase-change material as a reconfigurable platform for multifunctional devices,” Materials 10, 1046 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. P. Greene, D. M. Kelly, J. Stansberry, J. Leisenring, E. Egami, E. Schlawin, L. Chu, K. W. Hodapp, and M. Rieke, “λ-2.4 to 5  µm spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRCam instrument,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 3, 035001 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, T. Steinle, L. Huang, T. Taubner, M. Wuttig, T. Zentgraf, and H. Giessen, “Beam switching and bifocal zoom lensing using active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, M. K. Park, S. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Moon, J. Y. Hwang, J. C. Choi, H. Park, H. R. Kim, and J. E. Jang, “Electrical broad tuning of plasmonic color filter employing an asymmetric-lattice nanohole array of metasurface controlled by polarization rotator,” ACS Photon. 4, 1954–1966 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Kamin, and N. Liu, “Dynamic plasmonic colour display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Qu, Q. Li, K. Du, L. Cai, J. Lu, and M. Qiu, “Dynamic thermal emission control based on ultrathin plasmonic metamaterials including phase-changing material GST,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700091 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Williams, Y. Montelongo, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Plasmonic metalens for narrowband dual-focus imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17, 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Bartholomew, C. Williams, A. Khan, R. Bowman, and T. Wilkinson, “Plasmonic nanohole electrodes for active color tunable liquid crystal transmissive pixels,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2810–2813 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

M. Ebermann, N. Neumann, K. Hiller, M. Seifert, M. Meinig, and S. Kurth, “Tunable MEMS Fabry-Pérot filters for infrared microspectrometers: a review,” Proc. SPIE 9760, 97600H (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kyoung and S. W. Hwang, “Configurable plasmonic band-pass filters operating under the addition rule,” ACS Photon. 3, 819–827 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, Y. Tolstova, K. W. Mauser, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12323 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Eksioglu, A. E. Cetin, and J. Petráček, “Optical response of plasmonic nanohole arrays: comparison of square and hexagonal lattices,” Plasmonics 11, 851–856 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, M. Ehrhardt, A. Lotnyk, P. Lorenz, E. Thelander, J. W. Gerlach, T. Smausz, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films by nano- and femtosecond single laser pulse irradiation,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28246 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Mukhopadhyay, J. Sun, A. Subedi, T. Siegrist, and D. J. Singh, “Competing covalent and ionic bonding in Ge-Sb-Te phase change materials,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25981 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

M. Hase, P. Fons, K. Mitrofanov, A. V. Kolobov, and J. Tominaga, “Femtosecond structural transformation of phase-change materials far from equilibrium monitored by coherent phonons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8367 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Tittl, A. K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gomez-Diaz, M. Tymchenko, J. Lee, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear processes in multi-quantum-well plasmonic metasurfaces: electromagnetic response, saturation effects, limits, and potentials,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 125429 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Turpin, J. A. Bossard, K. L. Morgan, D. H. Werner, and P. L. Werner, “Reconfigurable and tunable metamaterials: a review of the theory and applications,” Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2014, 429837 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3955 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Carretero-Palacios, F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and S. G. Rodrigo, “Effect of film thickness and dielectric environment on optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035417 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. J. Liu, E. S. Leong, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Optical transmission enhancement and tuning by overylaying liquid crystals on a gold film with patterned nanoholes,” Plasmonics 6, 659–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Savage, “Acousto-optic devices,” Nat. Photonics 4, 728–729 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, J. Denatale, and W. Tennant, “MEMS-based tunable filters for compact IR spectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 72982I (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Piikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452, 728–731 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

E. A. Shaner, J. G. Cederberg, and D. Wasserman, “Electrically tunable extraordinary optical transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181110 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Wasserman, E. A. Shaner, and J. G. Cederberg, “Midinfrared doping-tunable extraordinary transmission from sub-wavelength gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191102 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. C. Gebhart, R. C. Thompson, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Liquid-crystal tunable filter spectral imaging for brain tumor demarcation,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1896–1910 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wuttig, D. Lüsebrink, D. Wamwangi, W. Wełnic, M. Gilleen, and R. Dronskowski, “The role of vacancies and local distortions in the design of new phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 6, 122–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Alù, M. G. Silveirinha, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: tailoring the radiation phase pattern,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 155410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

C. Gmachl, S. Member, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, N. Owschimikow, A. M. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Optimized second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1345–1355 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

N. Gat, “Imaging spectroscopy using tunable filters: a review,” Proc. SPIE 4056, 50–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alam, M. Z.

P. C. Wu, R. A. Pala, G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, W. H. Cheng, R. Sokhoyan, M. Grajower, M. Z. Alam, D. Lee, and H. A. Atwater, “Dynamic beam steering with all-dielectric electro-optic III–V multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 10, 3654 (2019).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

A. Leitis, A. Heßler, S. Wahl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, A. Tittl, and H. Altug, “All-dielectric programmable Huygens’ metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 30, 1910259 (2020).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

J. S. Gomez-Diaz, M. Tymchenko, J. Lee, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear processes in multi-quantum-well plasmonic metasurfaces: electromagnetic response, saturation effects, limits, and potentials,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 125429 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Alù, M. G. Silveirinha, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: tailoring the radiation phase pattern,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 155410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

C. L. Gomez-Heredia, J. A. Ramirez-Rincon, J. Ordonez-Miranda, O. Ares, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, C. Champeaux, F. Dumas-Bouchiat, Y. Ezzahri, and K. Joulain, “Thermal hysteresis measurement of the VO2 emissivity and its application in thermal rectification,” Sci. Rep. 8, 8479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amann, M. C.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ares, O.

C. L. Gomez-Heredia, J. A. Ramirez-Rincon, J. Ordonez-Miranda, O. Ares, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, C. Champeaux, F. Dumas-Bouchiat, Y. Ezzahri, and K. Joulain, “Thermal hysteresis measurement of the VO2 emissivity and its application in thermal rectification,” Sci. Rep. 8, 8479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Argyropoulos, C.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

P. C. Wu, R. A. Pala, G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, W. H. Cheng, R. Sokhoyan, M. Grajower, M. Z. Alam, D. Lee, and H. A. Atwater, “Dynamic beam steering with all-dielectric electro-optic III–V multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 10, 3654 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, Y. Tolstova, K. W. Mauser, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12323 (2016).
[Crossref]

Au, Y. Y.

S. G. C. Carrillo, L. Trimby, Y. Y. Au, V. K. Nagareddy, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “A nonvolatile phase-change metamaterial color display,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801782 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bai, W.

W. Bai, P. Yang, J. Huang, D. Chen, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Yang, and B. Xu, “Near-infrared tunable metalens based on phase change material Ge2Se2Te5,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Baldycheva, A.

L. Trimby, D. Wright, and A. Baldycheva, “Phase-change band-pass filters for multispectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10541, 105412B (2018).
[Crossref]

Barako, M. T.

Bartholomew, R.

Belkin, M. A.

J. S. Gomez-Diaz, M. Tymchenko, J. Lee, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear processes in multi-quantum-well plasmonic metasurfaces: electromagnetic response, saturation effects, limits, and potentials,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 125429 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Belyanin, A.

C. Gmachl, S. Member, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, N. Owschimikow, A. M. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Optimized second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1345–1355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beneš, L.

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Piikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

S. G. C. Carrillo, L. Trimby, Y. Y. Au, V. K. Nagareddy, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “A nonvolatile phase-change metamaterial color display,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801782 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boehm, G.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bohlin, B.

Y. Zhang, J. B. Chou, J. Li, H. Li, Q. Du, A. Yadav, S. Zhou, M. Y. Shalaginov, Z. Fang, H. Zhong, C. Roberts, P. Robinson, B. Bohlin, C. Ríos, H. Lin, M. Kang, T. Gu, J. Warner, V. Liberman, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Broadband transparent optical phase change materials for high-performance nonvolatile photonics,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4279 (2019).
[Crossref]

Borg, S.

Boroumand, J.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borwick, R.

W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, J. Denatale, and W. Tennant, “MEMS-based tunable filters for compact IR spectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 72982I (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, J. Denatale, and W. Tennant, “MEMS-based tunable filters for compact IR spectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 72982I (2009).
[Crossref]

Bossard, J. A.

J. P. Turpin, J. A. Bossard, K. L. Morgan, D. H. Werner, and P. L. Werner, “Reconfigurable and tunable metamaterials: a review of the theory and applications,” Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2014, 429837 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bourouina, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bowman, R.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Kristensen, J. K. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brar, V. W.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, Y. Tolstova, K. W. Mauser, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12323 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

A. L. Holsteen, A. F. Cihan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Temporal color mixing and dynamic beam shaping with silicon metasurfaces,” Science 365, 257–260 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cai, L.

Y. Qu, Q. Li, K. Du, L. Cai, J. Lu, and M. Qiu, “Dynamic thermal emission control based on ultrathin plasmonic metamaterials including phase-changing material GST,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, T.

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3955 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, and M. J. Cryan, “Mid-infrared tunable polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1580–1585 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, S. Member, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, N. Owschimikow, A. M. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Optimized second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1345–1355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carretero-Palacios, S.

S. Carretero-Palacios, F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and S. G. Rodrigo, “Effect of film thickness and dielectric environment on optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035417 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carrillo, S. G. C.

S. G. C. Carrillo, L. Trimby, Y. Y. Au, V. K. Nagareddy, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “A nonvolatile phase-change metamaterial color display,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801782 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cederberg, J. G.

E. A. Shaner, J. G. Cederberg, and D. Wasserman, “Electrically tunable extraordinary optical transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181110 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Wasserman, E. A. Shaner, and J. G. Cederberg, “Midinfrared doping-tunable extraordinary transmission from sub-wavelength gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cetin, A. E.

Y. Eksioglu, A. E. Cetin, and J. Petráček, “Optical response of plasmonic nanohole arrays: comparison of square and hexagonal lattices,” Plasmonics 11, 851–856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Champeaux, C.

C. L. Gomez-Heredia, J. A. Ramirez-Rincon, J. Ordonez-Miranda, O. Ares, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, C. Champeaux, F. Dumas-Bouchiat, Y. Ezzahri, and K. Joulain, “Thermal hysteresis measurement of the VO2 emissivity and its application in thermal rectification,” Sci. Rep. 8, 8479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chanda, D.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

W. Bai, P. Yang, J. Huang, D. Chen, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Yang, and B. Xu, “Near-infrared tunable metalens based on phase change material Ge2Se2Te5,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Chen, P. Y.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chenault, D. B.

Cheng, W. H.

P. C. Wu, R. A. Pala, G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, W. H. Cheng, R. Sokhoyan, M. Grajower, M. Z. Alam, D. Lee, and H. A. Atwater, “Dynamic beam steering with all-dielectric electro-optic III–V multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 10, 3654 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.-Y.

K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase changing material GST,” in Proceedings Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2017), Vol. 2017, pp. 1–2.

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, S. Member, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, N. Owschimikow, A. M. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Optimized second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1345–1355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. C.

Y. Lee, M. K. Park, S. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Moon, J. Y. Hwang, J. C. Choi, H. Park, H. R. Kim, and J. E. Jang, “Electrical broad tuning of plasmonic color filter employing an asymmetric-lattice nanohole array of metasurface controlled by polarization rotator,” ACS Photon. 4, 1954–1966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chou, J. B.

Y. Zhang, J. B. Chou, J. Li, H. Li, Q. Du, A. Yadav, S. Zhou, M. Y. Shalaginov, Z. Fang, H. Zhong, C. Roberts, P. Robinson, B. Bohlin, C. Ríos, H. Lin, M. Kang, T. Gu, J. Warner, V. Liberman, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Broadband transparent optical phase change materials for high-performance nonvolatile photonics,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4279 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chu, L.

T. P. Greene, D. M. Kelly, J. Stansberry, J. Leisenring, E. Egami, E. Schlawin, L. Chu, K. W. Hodapp, and M. Rieke, “λ-2.4 to 5  µm spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRCam instrument,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 3, 035001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cihan, A. F.

A. L. Holsteen, A. F. Cihan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Temporal color mixing and dynamic beam shaping with silicon metasurfaces,” Science 365, 257–260 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cooper, D.

W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, J. Denatale, and W. Tennant, “MEMS-based tunable filters for compact IR spectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 72982I (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, J. Denatale, and W. Tennant, “MEMS-based tunable filters for compact IR spectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 72982I (2009).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M. J.

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3955 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, and M. J. Cryan, “Mid-infrared tunable polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1580–1585 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, L.

A. Tittl, A. K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Decker, U.

X. Sun, M. Ehrhardt, A. Lotnyk, P. Lorenz, E. Thelander, J. W. Gerlach, T. Smausz, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films by nano- and femtosecond single laser pulse irradiation,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28246 (2016).
[Crossref]

Demmerle, F.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Denatale, J.

W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, J. Denatale, and W. Tennant, “MEMS-based tunable filters for compact IR spectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 72982I (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.-C.

K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase changing material GST,” in Proceedings Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2017), Vol. 2017, pp. 1–2.

Dronskowski, R.

M. Wuttig, D. Lüsebrink, D. Wamwangi, W. Wełnic, M. Gilleen, and R. Dronskowski, “The role of vacancies and local distortions in the design of new phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 6, 122–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Du, K.

Y. Qu, Q. Li, K. Du, L. Cai, J. Lu, and M. Qiu, “Dynamic thermal emission control based on ultrathin plasmonic metamaterials including phase-changing material GST,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Du, K.-K.

K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase changing material GST,” in Proceedings Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2017), Vol. 2017, pp. 1–2.

Du, Q.

Y. Zhang, J. B. Chou, J. Li, H. Li, Q. Du, A. Yadav, S. Zhou, M. Y. Shalaginov, Z. Fang, H. Zhong, C. Roberts, P. Robinson, B. Bohlin, C. Ríos, H. Lin, M. Kang, T. Gu, J. Warner, V. Liberman, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Broadband transparent optical phase change materials for high-performance nonvolatile photonics,” Nat. Commun. 10, 4279 (2019).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, S. Kamin, and N. Liu, “Dynamic plasmonic colour display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dumas-Bouchiat, F.

C. L. Gomez-Heredia, J. A. Ramirez-Rincon, J. Ordonez-Miranda, O. Ares, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, C. Champeaux, F. Dumas-Bouchiat, Y. Ezzahri, and K. Joulain, “Thermal hysteresis measurement of the VO2 emissivity and its application in thermal rectification,” Sci. Rep. 8, 8479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Durmas, H.

W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, J. Denatale, and W. Tennant, “MEMS-based tunable filters for compact IR spectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 72982I (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, W. Gunning, S. Lauxtermann, H. Durmas, M. Xu, P. Stupar, R. Borwick, D. Cooper, P. Kobrin, M. Kangas, J. Denatale, and W. Tennant, “MEMS-based tunable filters for compact IR spectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 72982I (2009).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental document
» Visualization 1       MWIR (thermal) imaging using commercial FLIR IR camera through GST-based PNA metasurface spectral filters, as the thermal source (hotplate) is increased in temperature.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Thin-film GST characterization. XRD (a)–(c) and ellipsometry (d), (e) data for a-GST (black curves), FCC c-GST (red curves), and HCP c-GST (blue curves). The average $\Delta n$ is ${\sim}2.0$ between a-GST and c-GST, with HCP c-GST exhibiting slightly higher refractive index and extinction coefficient compared to FCC c-GST. (f) SEM cross-section image of the GST film deposited on ${\rm{Ca}}{{\rm{F}}_2}$. The inset shows a top-view energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of the film edge, showing the clear presence of Ge, Sb, and Te species.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Device concept. Tunable GST-plasmonic nanohole array metasurface for the MWIR waveband. The MWIR optical input is imaged through GST-PNA filer in its initial, amorphous state (a), with initial center wavelength, ${\lambda _1}$. Through a laser pulse incident on the GST-PNA active area, the GST crystallinity is modified (phase change), and the resultant transmission response (center wavelength, with initial center wavelength, ${\lambda _N}$) is spectrally shifted (b). This behavior is summarized in (c), whereby the pump energy controls GST-state, which in turn changes its refractive index, hence spectrally shifts the center wavelength from the resonant PNA. A “reset pulse” returns the GST to its initial state, thus device to initial transmission center wavelength.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. FDTD simulations of the optical response of the GST-PNA concept (a). Simulated transmission response of the GST-PNA device as a function of GST refractive index (b), and as a function of hole period (c), for ${{{h}}_{\rm Ag}} = 60\;{\rm{nm}}$ metal film thickness and ${{d}} = 0.4 \times \Lambda$. E-field plot (d) showing SPR-generated field enhancement on-resonance at the boundary between Ag/GST inside the PNA cavity. (e), (f) E- and H-field enhancement plots, on-resonance in respective states, of the GST-PNA at $xz$ and $zy$ cross-section slices of a single hole in an array, in amorphous (i) and crystalline (ii) GST states, where $\Lambda = {\rm{period}}$, ${{d}} = {\rm{hole}}$ ${\rm{diameter}} = {{720}}\;{\rm{nm}}$, and the experimentally derived GST complex refractive index data in Figs. 1(d) and 1(e) utilized inside the hole array. Source injection from ${\rm{Ca}}{{\rm{F}}_2}$ side.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. GST-PNA device tuning. (a) SEM micrographs of the fabricated tunable GST-PNA metasurface device showing the full hexagonal array geometry and individual hole morphology (inset). The GST embedded within the Ag PNA can be seen. (b) FTIR (transmission) characterization of the fabricated PNA device showing ${\sim}70\%$ transmission at the resonance and perfect reflection outside the resonance bandwidth. Stability in the spectral response was maintained across many switching cycles; shown through center wavelength reproducibility (c) and spectral shape consistency (d).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Optically tuned GST-PNA metasurface devices. (a) Setup used for the laser switching demonstration. Complex refractive index measurements (b), (c) of the a-GST, p-GST, and c-GST films (tuned using the all-optical approach), along with the corresponding spectral response of the full GST-PNA metasurface device for each case as experimentally measured via FTIR (d). It can be seen in (e) that with increasing pulse energy, the crystallinity increases until c-GST is achieved. Further increasing the pulse energy allows for the return to a-GST. Upon returning to the amorphous state, the device exhibits nearly identical spectral response to the as-deposited amorphous phase device.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. MWIR imaging using tunable GST-PNA metasurface filters. (a) Blackbody thermal emission curves for varying temperature sources with overlaid spectral coverage of the tunable GST-PNA metasurface filters fabricated here. (b) Thermal imaging setup schematic for the results shown in (c), (e); image of setup shown in Supplement 1, Fig. S7. (c) MWIR imaging results at a fixed 486 K hotplate temperature, as a function of varying GST-PNA filter states with varying passband center wavelength, ${\lambda _0}$. (d) RGB image of the setup imaged in (e), which shows the IR image of the same scene, as the temperature of the hotplate is increased from 320 K to 486 K. The left and right filters are centered at 2.91 µm and 3.41 µm, respectively. Variable transmission response through the filters, and subsequent identification of the logo (spatially variant thermal profile), can be observed.

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