Abstract

Strain engineering is a natural route to control the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Recently, 2D semiconductors have also been demonstrated as an intriguing host of strain-induced quantum-confined emitters with unique valley properties inherited from the host semiconductor. Here, we study the continuous and reversible tuning of the light emitted by such localized emitters in a monolayer tungsten diselenide embedded in a van der Waals heterostructure. Biaxial strain is applied on the emitters via strain transfer from a lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric substrate. Efficient modulation of the emission energy of several localized emitters up to 10 meV has been demonstrated on application of a voltage on the piezoelectric substrate. Further, we also find that the emission axis rotates by $ \sim {40^ \circ } $ as the magnitude of the biaxial strain is varied on these emitters. These results elevate the prospect of using all electrically controlled devices where the property of the localized emitters in a 2D host can be engineered with elastic fields for an integrated opto-electronics and nano-photonics platform.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (6)

X. Lu, X. Chen, S. Dubey, Q. Yao, W. Li, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, and A. Srivastava, “Optical initialization of a single spin-valley in charged WSe2 quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 426–431 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, N. R. Jungwirth, G. D. Fuchs, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Electrical manipulation of the fine-structure splitting of WSe2 quantum emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 99, 045308 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, A. Mukherjee, L. Qiu, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Electrically tunable valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2 embedded in a van der Waals heterostructure [invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 9, 1479–1487 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. White, A. Branny, R. J. Chapman, R. Picard, M. Brotons-Gisbert, A. Boes, A. Peruzzo, C. Bonato, and B. D. Gerardot, “Atomically-thin quantum dots integrated with lithium niobate photonic chips [invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 9, 441–448 (2019).
[Crossref]

O. Iff, D. Tedeschi, J. Martin-Sanchez, M. Moczała-Dusanowska, S. Tongay, K. Yumigeta, J. Taboada-Gutierrez, M. Savaresi, A. Rastelli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Hofling, R. Trotta, and C. Schneider, “Strain-tunable single photon sources in WSe2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 19, 6931–6936 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. S. Moon, G. Noh, J. Lee, and J. H. Kim, “Position and frequency control of strain-induced quantum emitters in WSe2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 19, 7534–7539 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

J. Martín-Sánchez, R. Trotta, A. Mariscal, R. Serna, G. Piredda, S. Stroj, J. Edlinger, C. Schimpf, J. Aberl, T. Lettner, J. Wildmann, H. Huang, X. Yuan, D. Ziss, J. Stangl, and A. Rastelli, “Strain-tuning of theoptical properties of semiconductor nanomaterials by integration onto piezoelectric actuators,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33, 013001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, G. D. Shepard, J. V. Ardelean, D. A. Rhodes, B. Kim, K. Barmak, J. C. Hone, and S. Strauf, “Deterministic coupling of site-controlled quantum emitters in monolayer WSe2 to plasmonic nanocavities,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 1137–1142 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, L. Qiu, K. Konthasinghe, A. Mukherjee, S. Dhara, and N. Vamivakas, “3D localized trions in monolayer WSe2 in a charge tunable van der Waals heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 18, 2859–2863 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Dhara, C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, L. Qiu, T. A. O’Loughlin, G. W. Wicks, S. Bhattacharjee, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Anomalous dispersion of microcavity trion-polaritons,” Nat. Phys. 14, 130–133 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

C. Palacios-Berraquero, D. M. Kara, A. R.-P. Montblanch, M. Barbone, P. Latawiec, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, M. Loncar, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atatüre, “Large-scale quantum-emitter arrays in atomically thin semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15093 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Branny, S. Kumar, R. Proux, and B. D. Gerardot, “Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15053 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. D. Shepard, O. A. Ajayi, X. Li, X.-Y. Zhu, J. Hone, and S. Strauf, “Nanobubble induced formation of quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” 2D Mater. 4, 021019 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. Dutta, S. Aghaeimeibodi, Z. Yang, S. Nah, J. T. Fourkas, and E. Waks, “Coupling emission from single localized defects in two-dimensional semiconductor to surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 17, 6564–6568 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, S. Dhara, A. Yoshimura, V. Meunier, and N. Vamivakas, “Quantum-confined Stark effect of individual defects in a van der Waals heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 17, 2253–2258 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Grosso, H. Moon, B. Lienhard, S. Ali, D. K. Efetov, M. M. Furchi, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. J. Ford, I. Aharonovich, and D. Englund, “Tunable and high-purity room temperature single-photon emission from atomic defects in hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 8, 705 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Cadiz, E. Courtade, C. Robert, G. Wang, Y. Shen, H. Cai, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, H. Carrere, D. Lagarde, M. Manca, T. Amand, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, X. Marie, and B. Urbaszek, “Excitonic linewidth approaching the homogeneous limit in MoS2 based van der Waals heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 021026 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Frisenda, M. Drüppel, R. Schmidt, S. M. de Vasconcellos, D. Perez de Lara, R. Bratschitsch, M. Rohlfing, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Biaxial strain tuning of the optical properties of single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides,” npj 2D Mater. Appl. 1, 10 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

J. Martín-Sánchez, R. Trotta, G. Piredda, C. Schimpf, G. Trevisi, L. Seravalli, P. Frigeri, S. Stroj, T. Lettner, M. Reindl, J. S. Wildmann, J. Edlinger, and A. Rastelli, “Reversible control of in-plane elastic stress tensor in nanomembranes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 682–687 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. M. Goodfellow, C. Chakraborty, K. Sowers, P. Waduge, M. Wanunu, T. Krauss, K. Driscoll, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Distance-dependent energy transfer between CdSe/CdS quantum dots and a two-dimensional semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 021101 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kern, I. Niehues, P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, D. Wigger, R. Schneider, T. Stiehm, S. M. de Vasconcellos, D. E. Reiter, T. Kuhn, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanoscale positioning of single-photon emitters in atomically thin WSe2,” Adv. Mater. 28, 7101–7105 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Localized emission from defects in MoSe2 layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2081–2087 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tran, K. Bray, M. J. Ford, M. Toth, and I. Aharonovich, “Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 37–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10, 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. R. Schaibley, H. Yu, G. Clark, P. Rivera, J. S. Ross, K. L. Seyler, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valleytronics in 2D materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16055 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

K. M. Goodfellow, C. Chakraborty, R. Beams, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Direct on-chip optical plasmon detection with an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nano Lett. 15, 5477–5481 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, A. Kaczmarczyk, and B. D. Gerardot, “Strain-induced spatial and spectral isolation of quantum emitters in mono- and bi-layer WSe2,” Nano Lett. 15, 7567–7573 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Roldán, A. Castellanos-Gomez, E. Cappelluti, and F. Guinea, “Strain engineering in semiconducting two-dimensional crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 27, 313201 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Manzeli, A. Allain, A. Ghadimi, and A. Kis, “Piezoresistivity and strain-induced band gap tuning in atomically thin MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 5330–5335 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotech. 10, 507–511 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotech. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Koperski, K. Nogajewski, A. Arora, V. Cherkez, P. Mallet, J.-Y. Veuillen, J. Marcus, P. Kossacki, and M. Potemski, “Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 503–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, J. Kern, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, A. Castellanos-Gomez, H. S. J. van der Zant, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Single-photon emission from localized excitons in an atomically thin semiconductor,” Optica 2, 347–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Plechinger, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, H. S. J. van der Zant, G. A. Steele, A. Kuc, T. Heine, C. Schüller, and T. Korn, “Control of biaxial strain in single-layer molybdenite using local thermal expansion of the substrate,” 2D Mater. 2, 015006 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, S. Buckley, J. R. Schaibley, L. Feng, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, F. Hatami, W. Yao, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Monolayer semiconductor nanocavity lasers with ultralow thresholds,” Nature 520, 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

C. Chakraborty, R. Beams, K. M. Goodfellow, G. W. Wicks, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Optical antenna enhanced graphene photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 241114 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Akinwande, N. Petrone, and J. Hone, “Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5678 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, C. Chakraborty, and L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Integrated nanophotonics based on nanowire plasmons and atomically thin material,” Optica 1, 149–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, C. Chakraborty, and L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Integrated nanophotonics based on nanowire plasmons and atomically thin material,” Optica 1, 149–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, H. S. J. van der Zant, and G. A. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 011002 (2014).
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S. Kumar, E. Zallo, Y. H. Liao, P. Y. Lin, R. Trotta, P. Atkinson, J. D. Plumhof, F. Ding, B. D. Gerardot, S. J. Cheng, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Anomalous anticrossing of neutral exciton states in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 115309 (2014).
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2013 (1)

Y. Y. Hui, X. Liu, W. Jie, N. Y. Chan, J. Hao, Y.-T. Hsu, L.-J. Li, W. Guo, and S. P. Lau, “Exceptional tunability of band energy in a compressively strained trilayer MoS2 sheet,” ACS Nano 7, 7126–7131 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

R. Trotta, E. Zallo, C. Ortix, P. Atkinson, J. D. Plumhof, J. van den Brink, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Universal recovery of the energy-level degeneracy of bright excitons in InGaAs quantum dots without a structure symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 147401 (2012).
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Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
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2011 (2)

A. N. Vamivakas, Y. Zhao, S. Fält, A. Badolato, J. M. Taylor, and M. Atatüre, “Nanoscale optical electrometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 166802 (2011).
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J. D. Plumhof, V. Křápek, F. Ding, K. D. Jöns, R. Hafenbrak, P. Klenovský, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, P. Michler, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Strain-induced anticrossing of bright exciton levels in single self-assembled GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs and InGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 121302 (2011).
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2010 (2)

A. N. Vamivakas and M. Atatüre, “Photons and (artificial) atoms: an overview of optical spectroscopy techniques on quantum dots,” Contemp. Phys. 51, 17–36 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
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1999 (1)

A. İmamoğlu, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4204–4207 (1999).
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Aghaeimeibodi, S.

T. Cai, S. Dutta, S. Aghaeimeibodi, Z. Yang, S. Nah, J. T. Fourkas, and E. Waks, “Coupling emission from single localized defects in two-dimensional semiconductor to surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 17, 6564–6568 (2017).
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Aharonovich, I.

G. Grosso, H. Moon, B. Lienhard, S. Ali, D. K. Efetov, M. M. Furchi, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. J. Ford, I. Aharonovich, and D. Englund, “Tunable and high-purity room temperature single-photon emission from atomic defects in hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 8, 705 (2017).
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T. T. Tran, K. Bray, M. J. Ford, M. Toth, and I. Aharonovich, “Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 37–41 (2016).
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G. D. Shepard, O. A. Ajayi, X. Li, X.-Y. Zhu, J. Hone, and S. Strauf, “Nanobubble induced formation of quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” 2D Mater. 4, 021019 (2017).
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D. Akinwande, N. Petrone, and J. Hone, “Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5678 (2014).
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G. Grosso, H. Moon, B. Lienhard, S. Ali, D. K. Efetov, M. M. Furchi, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. J. Ford, I. Aharonovich, and D. Englund, “Tunable and high-purity room temperature single-photon emission from atomic defects in hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 8, 705 (2017).
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S. Manzeli, A. Allain, A. Ghadimi, and A. Kis, “Piezoresistivity and strain-induced band gap tuning in atomically thin MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 5330–5335 (2015).
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A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
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A. N. Vamivakas, Y. Zhao, S. Fält, A. Badolato, J. M. Taylor, and M. Atatüre, “Nanoscale optical electrometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 166802 (2011).
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A. N. Vamivakas and M. Atatüre, “Photons and (artificial) atoms: an overview of optical spectroscopy techniques on quantum dots,” Contemp. Phys. 51, 17–36 (2010).
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R. Trotta, E. Zallo, C. Ortix, P. Atkinson, J. D. Plumhof, J. van den Brink, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Universal recovery of the energy-level degeneracy of bright excitons in InGaAs quantum dots without a structure symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 147401 (2012).
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A. İmamoğlu, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4204–4207 (1999).
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C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotech. 10, 507–511 (2015).
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K. M. Goodfellow, C. Chakraborty, R. Beams, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Direct on-chip optical plasmon detection with an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nano Lett. 15, 5477–5481 (2015).
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K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, C. Chakraborty, and L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Integrated nanophotonics based on nanowire plasmons and atomically thin material,” Optica 1, 149–152 (2014).
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C. Chakraborty, R. Beams, K. M. Goodfellow, G. W. Wicks, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Optical antenna enhanced graphene photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 241114 (2014).
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S. Dhara, C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, L. Qiu, T. A. O’Loughlin, G. W. Wicks, S. Bhattacharjee, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Anomalous dispersion of microcavity trion-polaritons,” Nat. Phys. 14, 130–133 (2018).
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R. Frisenda, M. Drüppel, R. Schmidt, S. M. de Vasconcellos, D. Perez de Lara, R. Bratschitsch, M. Rohlfing, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Biaxial strain tuning of the optical properties of single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides,” npj 2D Mater. Appl. 1, 10 (2017).
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T. T. Tran, K. Bray, M. J. Ford, M. Toth, and I. Aharonovich, “Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 37–41 (2016).
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A. İmamoğlu, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4204–4207 (1999).
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P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, J. Kern, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, A. Castellanos-Gomez, H. S. J. van der Zant, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Single-photon emission from localized excitons in an atomically thin semiconductor,” Optica 2, 347–352 (2015).
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G. Plechinger, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, H. S. J. van der Zant, G. A. Steele, A. Kuc, T. Heine, C. Schüller, and T. Korn, “Control of biaxial strain in single-layer molybdenite using local thermal expansion of the substrate,” 2D Mater. 2, 015006 (2015).
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A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, H. S. J. van der Zant, and G. A. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 011002 (2014).
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F. Cadiz, E. Courtade, C. Robert, G. Wang, Y. Shen, H. Cai, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, H. Carrere, D. Lagarde, M. Manca, T. Amand, P. Renucci, S. Tongay, X. Marie, and B. Urbaszek, “Excitonic linewidth approaching the homogeneous limit in MoS2 based van der Waals heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 021026 (2017).
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T. Cai, S. Dutta, S. Aghaeimeibodi, Z. Yang, S. Nah, J. T. Fourkas, and E. Waks, “Coupling emission from single localized defects in two-dimensional semiconductor to surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 17, 6564–6568 (2017).
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C. Chakraborty, N. R. Jungwirth, G. D. Fuchs, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Electrical manipulation of the fine-structure splitting of WSe2 quantum emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 99, 045308 (2019).
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C. Chakraborty, A. Mukherjee, L. Qiu, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Electrically tunable valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2 embedded in a van der Waals heterostructure [invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 9, 1479–1487 (2019).
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C. Chakraborty, L. Qiu, K. Konthasinghe, A. Mukherjee, S. Dhara, and N. Vamivakas, “3D localized trions in monolayer WSe2 in a charge tunable van der Waals heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 18, 2859–2863 (2018).
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C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, S. Dhara, A. Yoshimura, V. Meunier, and N. Vamivakas, “Quantum-confined Stark effect of individual defects in a van der Waals heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 17, 2253–2258 (2017).
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K. M. Goodfellow, C. Chakraborty, K. Sowers, P. Waduge, M. Wanunu, T. Krauss, K. Driscoll, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Distance-dependent energy transfer between CdSe/CdS quantum dots and a two-dimensional semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 021101 (2016).
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C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Localized emission from defects in MoSe2 layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2081–2087 (2016).
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K. M. Goodfellow, C. Chakraborty, R. Beams, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Direct on-chip optical plasmon detection with an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nano Lett. 15, 5477–5481 (2015).
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C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotech. 10, 507–511 (2015).
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K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, C. Chakraborty, and L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Integrated nanophotonics based on nanowire plasmons and atomically thin material,” Optica 1, 149–152 (2014).
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C. Chakraborty, R. Beams, K. M. Goodfellow, G. W. Wicks, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Optical antenna enhanced graphene photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 241114 (2014).
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C. Chakraborty, L. Qiu, K. Konthasinghe, A. Mukherjee, S. Dhara, and N. Vamivakas, “3D localized trions in monolayer WSe2 in a charge tunable van der Waals heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 18, 2859–2863 (2018).
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C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, S. Dhara, A. Yoshimura, V. Meunier, and N. Vamivakas, “Quantum-confined Stark effect of individual defects in a van der Waals heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 17, 2253–2258 (2017).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the van der Waals heterostructure consisting of few layer graphene (FLG), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and a monolayer $ {{\rm WSe}_2} $ flake on the piezoelectric substrate. The graphene layer is connected to metal electrodes. (b) Biaxial strain profile obtained from finite element simulation using COMSOL. $ { \epsilon _x} $ and $ { \epsilon _y} $ are the values of the strain induced in the $ x $ and $ y $ direction, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) PL spectra from a region of the sample showing emission lines from two localized emitters labelled E1 and E2; (b) PL time trace of the emitters in (a).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) PL spectra of a quantum emitter (E3) taken at two different voltages (${\rm V}1 = 0\,\,{\rm V},{\rm V}2 = 20\,\,{\rm V}$); (b) second-order intensity autocorrelation function at voltages demonstrating antibunching behavior; (c) PL spectra of the localized emitter (E1 and E2) as a function of applied piezoelectric voltage ($ {{\rm V}_P} $) in a triangular waveform; (d) linear modulation of the emission energy of the two doublets from 0 to 210 V (bottom panel). The voltage is fixed at 210 V, and a time trace is recorded for the upper panel in (b); (e) spectral line-cuts taken from the image plot in (a) at different $ {{\rm V}_P} $; (f) PL spectra from 0 to maximum applied voltage on the device prior to slippage of the flake.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Polar plot of the PL intensity of the (a) higher and (b) the lower energy peak of a doublet presented at three different applied voltages on the piezoelectric substrate (red markers represent the data and solid black lines are sinusoidal fits). (c) Arrows illustrating the relative direction of the emission polarization of the two peaks of the doublet as a function of voltage. Dotted (solid) line represents the lower (higher) energy peak of the doublet.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Relative emission angle of the lower energy peak of the doublet and (b) the FSS as a function of applied voltage. Unfilled markers are data points, and the solid line is calculated from a model quantum emitter using Eqs. (1) and (2).

Equations (2)

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tan θ ± = k + γ ϵ η + α ϵ ± F S S .
F S S = [ ( η + α ϵ ) 2 + ( k + γ ϵ ) 2 ] 1 2 .